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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

QUEEN'S 41st AUTO SALVAGE
(a/k/a QUEENS 41 AUTO)
LAND O'LAKES, PASCO COUNTY, FLORIDA


APPENDIX A. FIGURES

Site Location in Florida
Figure 1. Site Location in Florida

Site Layout
Figure 2. Site Layout

FDEP Sample Locations
Figure 3. FDEP Sample Locations (FDEP, 1998)

FDEP Direct Push Sample Locations
Figure 4. FDEP Direct Push Sample Locations (FDEP, 1998)

EPA Sample Locations
Figure 5. EPA Sample Locations (EPA, 2000a)


APPENDIX B. TABLES

Table 1.

Total Exposed Population Estimation Table
Pathway Types Estimated Total Population in Potential Exposure Pathways Minimum Population Maximum Population
Potential Pathways On-site

0

0

0

Potential Pathways Off-site

400

0

51-500

Total Potential On- and Off-site

400

0

51-500

Completed Pathways On-site

2

0

1-50

Completed Pathways Off-site

0

0

0

Total Completed On- and Off-site

2

2

1-50

Potential and Completed Pathways On-site

2

0

1-50

Potential and Completed Pathways Off-site

400

0

51-500

Total Potential and Completed On- and Off-site

402

2

51-500


Table 2.

Maximum Concentrations of Contaminants in On-site Soil
Contaminants of Concern (COC) Maximum Concentration (mg/kg) Sample ID containing maximum # Greater Than Comparison Value/ Total # of Samples Comparison Value*
(mg/kg) Source
Arsenic

2.2

QN-04-SB

2/14

0.5 (CREG) ATSDR 2000
Benzene

N.D.

---

0/19

20 (CREG) ATSDR 2000
Chromium

4.1

41ASS02

0/14

200 (Ch. RMEG) ATSDR 2000
Lead

100

QN-06-SB

0/14

400 (SCTL) FDEP 2000
Tetrachlorotheylene

190

QN-06-SBB

0/19

500 (Ch. RMEG) ATSDR 2000
Trichloroethylene

0.013

QN-06-SBB

0/19

6 (SCTL) FDEP 2000

* Comparison values used to select chemicals for further scrutiny, not for determining the possibility of illness.
mg/kg = milligrams per kilogram of soil.
SS = soil sample taken from top 12 inches of soil.
SB = soil sample taken 2 to 4 feet below the surface.
SBB = soil sample taken 4 to 8 feet below the surface.
N.D. = Not detected.


Table 3.

Maximum Concentrations of Contaminants in On-site Ground water
Contaminants of Concern (COC) Maximum Concentration (mg/L) Sample I.D. containing maximum # Greater Than Comparison Value/ Total # of Samples Comparison Value*
(mg/L) Source
Arsenic

17

QN-11-GW

3/11

0.02 (CREG) ATSDR 2000
Benzene

79

DP-5

3/25

1 (CREG) ATSDR 2000
Chromium

53

QN-10-GW

4/11

30 (Ch. RMEG) ATSDR 2000
Lead

N.D.

---

0/11

15 (GWCTL) FDEP 2000
Tetrachlorotheylene

1600

QN-04-GW

7/25

0.7 (CREG) ATSDR 2000
Trichloroethylene

170

Potable

6/25

3 (GWCTL) FDEP 2000

* Comparison values used to select chemicals for further scrutiny, not for determining the possibility of illness.
mg/L = micrograms per liter of ground water.
DP = Sample collected by direct-push technology.
N.D. = Not detected.


Table 4.

Maximum Concentrations of Contaminants in Off-site Soil
Contaminants of Concern (COC) Maximum Concentration (mg/kg) Sample I.D. containing maximum # Greater Than Comparison Value/ Total # of Samples Comparison Value*
(mg/kg) Source
Arsenic

1.9

QN-11-SD

3/20

0.5 (CREG) ATSDR 2000
Benzene

N.D.

---

0/23

20 (CREG) ATSDR 2000
Chromium

25

41ASD02

0/20

200 (Ch. RMEG) ATSDR 2000
Lead

99

QN-11-SD

0/20

400 (SCTL) FDEP 2000
Tetrachlorotheylene

0.087

41ASD03

0/23

500 (Ch. RMEG) ATSDR 2000
Trichloroethylene

N.D.

---

0/23

6 (SCTL) FDEP 2000

* Comparison values used to select chemicals for further scrutiny, not for determining the possibility of illness.
mg/kg = milligrams per kilogram of soil.
SD = sample colleted from drainage ditch on southeast side of property (Figure 2, Appendix A).
N.D. = Not detected.


Table 5.

Maximum Concentrations of Contaminants in Off-site Ground water
Contaminants of Concern (COC) Maximum Concentration (mg/L) Sample I.D. containing maximum # Greater Than Comparison Value/ Total # of Samples Comparison Value*
(mg/L) Source
Arsenic 4.4 QN-14-GWC 1/11 0.02 (CREG) ATSDR 2000
Benzene N.D. --- 0/13 1 (CREG) ATSDR 2000
Chromium 81 QN-14-GWC 6/11 30 (Ch. RMEG) ATSDR 2000
Lead 20 QN-14-GWC 1/11 15 (GWCTL) FDEP 2000
Tetrachlorotheylene 1.7 41APWO2 1/13 0.7 (CREG) ATSDR 2000
Trichloroethylene 1.3 41APW01 0/13 3 (GWCTL) FDEP 2000

* Comparison values used to select chemicals for further scrutiny, not for determining the possibility of illness.
mg/L = micrograms per liter of ground water.
41APW01 is the potable well at a nearby residence.
41APW02 is the irrigation well at a nearby residence.
N.D. = Not detected.


Table 6.

Completed Exposure Pathways
Pathway Name Exposure Pathway Elements Time
Source Environmental/ Exposure Media Point of Exposure Route of Exposure Exposed Population
On-site Ground water Contaminated On-Site Soil Ground water On-site well/ Tap water Ingestion/
Inhalation
Caretaker of on-site businesses 1985-1988
On-site Soil Contaminated On-Site Soil Surface Soil On-site property Ingestion/
Inhalation
Caretaker of on-site businesses 1985-Current
Off-site Sediment Contaminated On-Site Surface Water Sediment in the Drainage Ditch Sediments in the Ditch Ingestion Residents of the surrounding area Past, present, future
Off-site Ground water Contaminated On-Site Soil Ground water On-site well/ Tap water Ingestion/
Inhalation
Nearby residents 1997-1998


Table 7.

Potential Exposure Pathways
Pathway Name Exposure Pathway Elements Time
Source Environmental/ Exposure Media Point of Exposure Route of Exposure Exposed Population and land use
On-site Ground water Contaminated On-Site Soil Ground water On-site wells/ Tap water Ingestion, skin absorption and inhalation On-site residents Future
Off-site Ground water Contaminated On-Site Soil Ground water Off-site wells/
Tap water
Ingestion, skin absorption and inhalation Off-site residents Future


Table 8.

Estimated Dose from Exposure to On-site Soil
Contaminant of Concern
(maximum concentration)
Oral MRL
(mg/kg/day)
Soil/dust-Ingestion
(mg/kg/day)
Soil/dust-Dermal
(mg/kg/day)
Inhalation MRL (mg/m3) Soil/dust- Inhalation (mg/m3)
Child Adult Child Adult Child Adult
Arsenic (2.2 mg/kg) 0.0003 0.00003 0.000003 N.S. N.S. N.A. N.S. N.S.
Benzene (N.D.) N.A. --- --- --- --- 0.013 --- ---
Chromium (N.S.) N.A. N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S. 0.0005 N.S. N.S.
Lead (N.D.)

N.A.

---

---

---

---

N.A.

---

---

Tetrachlorotheylene (N.S.)

0.05

N.S.

N.S.

N.S.

N.S.

0.27

N.S.

N.S.

Trichloroethylene (N.S.) 0.2 N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S. 0.55 N.S. N.S.

These doses were calculated using Risk Assistant software and standard values for ground water consumption, shower inhalation exposureand dermal exposure parameters (EPA, 1991).

N.A. = Not available.
N.D. = Not detected.
N.S. = Not significant.

The above doses were calculated using the following values and an average shower time of 0.2 hours:
Adult body weight- 70 kg Child body weight- 15 kg
Adult soil ingestion- 100 mg/day Child soil ingestion- 200 mg/day
Adult skin surface area- 23,000cm2 Child skin surface area- 7,200cm2

mg/kg/day = milligram of contaminant per kilogram body weight per day.
mg/m3 = milligram of contaminant per cubic meter air.


Table 9.

Estimated Dose from Use of On-site Ground water
Contaminant of Concern
(maximum concentration)
Oral MRL
(mg/kg/day)
Ground water- Ingestion
(mg/kg/day)
Ground water- Dermal
(mg/kg/day)
Inhalation MRL
(mg/m3)
Ground water- Inhalation
(mg/m3)
Child Adult Child Adult Child Adult
Arsenic (0.017 mg/L) 0.0003 0.001 0.0005 0.000002 0.000001 N.A. N.S. N.S.
Benzene (0.079 mg/L) N.A. 0.005 0.002 0.0005 0.0003 0.013 0.79 0.79
Chromium (0.053 mg/L) N.A. 0.004 0.002 0.000005 0.000003 0.0005 N.S. N.S.
Lead (N.D.) N.A. --- --- --- --- N.A. --- ---
Tetrachlorotheylene (1.6 mg/L)

0.05

0.1

0.05

0.04

0.03

0.27

16

16

Trichloroethylene (0.17 mg/L)

0.2

0.01

0.005

0.001

0.0008

0.55

1.7

1.7

These doses were calculated using Risk Assistant software and standard values for ground water consumption, shower inhalation exposureand dermal exposure parameters (EPA, 1991). Bold text indicates an estimated dose exceeds the appropriate MRL.

N.A. =Not available.
N.D. =Not detected.
N.S. = Not significant.

The above doses were calculated using the following values and an average shower time of 0.2 hours:
Adult body weight- 70 kg Child body weight- 15 kg
Adult water consumption- 2 liters/day Child water consumption- 1 liter/day
Adult skin surface area- 23,000cm2 Child skin surface area- 7,200cm2

mg/kg/day = milligram of contaminant per kilogram body weight per day.
mg/m3 = milligram of contaminant per cubic meter air.


Table 10.

Estimated Dose from Exposure to Off-site Soil or Sediment
Contaminant of Concern
(maximum concentration)
Oral MRL
(mg/kg/day)
Soil/dust-Ingestion
(mg/kg/day)
Soil/dust-Dermal
(mg/kg/day)
Inhalation MRL
(mg/m3)
Soil/dust- Inhalation (mg/m3)
Child Adult Child Adult Child Adult
Arsenic (1.9 mg/kg) 0.0003 0.00003 0.000003 N.S. N.S. N.A. 0.0001 0.0001
Benzene (N.D.) N.A. --- --- --- --- 0.013 --- ---
Chromium (N.S.) N.A. N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S. 0.0005 N.S. N.S.
Lead (N.S.)

N.A.

N.S.

N.S.

N.S.

N.S.

N.A.

N.S.

N.S.

Tetrachlorotheylene (N.S.)

0.05

N.S.

N.S.

N.S.

N.S.

0.27

N.S.

N.S.

Trichloroethylene (N.D.) 0.2 --- --- --- --- 0.55 --- ---

These doses were calculated using Risk Assistant software and standard values for ground water consumption, shower inhalation exposureand dermal exposure parameters (EPA, 1991).

N.A. = Not available.
N.D. = Not detected.
N.S. = Not significant.

The above doses were calculated using the following values and an average shower time of 0.2 hours:
Adult body weight- 70 kg Child body weight- 15 kg
Adult soil ingestion- 100 mg/day Child soil ingestion- 200 mg/day
Adult skin surface area- 23,000cm2 Child skin surface area- 7,200cm2

mg/kg/day = milligram of contaminant per kilogram body weight per day.
mg/m3 = milligram of contaminant per cubic meter air.


Table 11.

Estimated Dose from Use of Off-Site Ground Water
Contaminant of Concern
(maximum concentration)
Oral MRL
(mg/kg/day)
Ground water- Ingestion
(mg/kg/day)
Ground water- Dermal
(mg/kg/day)
Inhalation MRL
(mg/m3)
Ground water- Inhalation
(mg/m3)
Child Adult Child Adult Child Adult
Arsenic (0.0044 mg/L) 0.0003 0.0003 0.0001 N.S. N.S. N.A. N.S. N.S.
Benzene (N.D.) N.A. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. 0.013 N.D. N.D.
Chromium (0.081 mg/L) N.A. 0.005 0.002 0.0000088 0.000005 0.0005 N.S. N.S.
Lead (0.02 mg/L)

N.A.

0.001

0.0006

0.000002

0.000001

N.A.

N.S.

N.S.

Tetrachlorotheylene (0.0017 mg/L)

0.05

0.0001

0.00005

0.00005

0.00003

0.27

0.017

0.017

Trichloroethylene (N.S.)

0.2

N.S.

N.S.

N.S.

N.S.

0.55

N.S.

N.S.

These doses were calculated using Risk Assistant software and standard values for ground water consumption, shower inhalation exposureand dermal exposure parameters (EPA, 1991).

N.A. = Not available.
N.D. = Not detected.
N.S. = Not significant.

The above doses were calculated using the following values and an average shower time of 0.2 hours:
Adult body weight- 70 kg Child body weight- 15 kg
Adult water consumption- 2 liters/day Child water consumption- 1 liter/day
Adult skin surface area- 23,000cm2 Child skin surface area- 7,200cm2

mg/kg/day = milligram of contaminant per kilogram body weight per day.
mg/m3 = milligram of contaminant per cubic meter air.


APPENDIX C. RISK OF ILLNESS, DOSE RESPONSE/THRESHOLD, AND UNCERTAINTY IN PHAs

Uncertainties are inherent in the public health assessment process. These uncertainties fall into fourcategories: 1) science is never 100% certain, 2) the inexactness of the risk assessment process, 3) theincompleteness of the information collected thus far, and 4) differences in opinion as to theimplications of the information (NJDEP, 1990). These uncertainties are addressed in PHAs by usingworst-case assumptions when estimating or interpreting health risks.

Risk of Illness

In this PHA, the risk of illness is the chance that exposure to a hazardous contaminant is associatedwith a harmful health effect or illness. The risk of illness is not a measure of cause and effect; onlyan in-depth health study can identify a cause and effect relationship. Instead, we use the risk ofillness to decide if a follow-up health study is needed and to identify possible associations.

The greater the exposure to a hazardous contaminant (dose), the greater the risk of illness. Theamount of a substance required to harm a person's health (toxicity) also determines the risk ofillness. Exposure to a hazardous contaminant above a minimum level increases everyone's risk ofillness. Only in unusual circumstances, however, do many people become ill.

Information from human studies provides the strongest evidence that exposure to a hazardouscontaminant is related to a particular illness. Some of this evidence comes from doctors reportingan unusual incidence of a specific illness in exposed individuals. More formal studies compareillnesses in people with different levels of exposure. However, human information is very limited formost hazardous contaminants, and scientists must frequently depend upon data from animal studies. Hazardous contaminants associated with harmful health effects in humans are often associated withharmful health effects in other animal species. There are limits, however, in only relying on animalstudies. For example, scientists have found some hazardous contaminants are associated with cancerin animals, but lack evidence of a similar association in humans. In addition, humans and animalshave differing abilities to protect themselves against low levels of contaminants, and most animalstudies test only the possible health effects of high exposure levels. Consequently, the possibleeffects on humans of low-level exposure to hazardous contaminants are uncertain when informationis derived solely from animal experiments.

Dose Response/Thresholds

The focus of toxicological studies in humans or animals is identification of the relationship betweenexposure to different doses of a specific contaminant and the chance of having a health effect fromeach exposure level. This dose-response relationship provides a mathematical formula or graph thatwe use to estimate a person's risk of illness. There is one important difference between the dose-response curves used to estimate the risk of noncancerous illnesses and those used to estimate therisk of cancer: the existence of a threshold dose. A threshold dose is the highest exposure dose atwhich there is no risk of a noncancerous illness. The dose-response curves for noncancerousillnesses include a threshold dose that is greater than zero. Scientists include a threshold dose inthese models because the human body can adjust to varying amounts of cell damage without illness. The threshold dose differs for different contaminants and different exposure routes, and we estimateit from information gathered in human and animal studies. In contrast, the dose-response curvesused to estimate the risk of cancer assume there is no threshold dose (or, the cancer threshold doseis zero). This assumes a single contaminant molecule may be sufficient to cause a clinical case ofcancer. This assumption is very conservative, and many scientists believe a threshold dose greaterthan zero exists for the development of cancer.

Uncertainty

All risk assessments, to varying degrees, require the use of assumptions, judgements, and incomplete data. These contribute to the uncertainty of the final risk estimates. Some more important sources of uncertainty in this PHA include environmental sampling and analysis, exposure parameter estimates, use of modeled data, and present toxicological knowledge. These uncertainties may cause risk to be overestimated or underestimated to a different extent. Because of the uncertainties described below, this PHA does not represent an absolute estimate of risk to persons exposed to chemicals at or near Queen's 41st Auto Salvage.

Environmental chemistry analysis errors can arise from random errors in the sampling and analyticalprocesses, resulting in either an over- or under-estimation of risk. We can control these errors tosome extent by increasing the number of samples collected and analyzed and by sampling the samelocations over several different periods. The above actions tend to minimize uncertainty contributedfrom random sampling errors.

There are two areas of uncertainty related to exposure parameter estimates: (1) the exposure-pointconcentration estimate and (2) the estimate of the total chemical exposures. In this assessment weused maximum detected concentrations as the exposure point concentration. We believe using themaximum measured value to be appropriate because we cannot be certain of the peak contaminantconcentrations, and we cannot statistically predict peak values. Nevertheless, this assumptionintroduces uncertainty into the risk assessment that may over- or under-estimate the actual risk ofillness. When selecting parameter values to estimate exposure dose, we used default assumptionsand values within the ranges recommended by the ATSDR or the EPA. These default assumptionsand values are conservative (health protective) and may contribute to the over-estimation of riskof illness. Similarly, we assumed the maximum exposure period occurred regularly for each selectedpathway. Both assumptions are likely to contribute to the over-estimation of risk of illness.

There are also data gaps and uncertainties in the design, extrapolation, and interpretation oftoxicological experimental studies. Data gaps contribute uncertainty because information is eithernot available or is addressed qualitatively. Moreover, the available information on the interactionamong chemicals found at the site, when present, is qualitative (that is, a description instead of anumber) and we cannot apply a mathematical formula to estimate the dose. These data gaps maytend to underestimate the actual risk of illness. In addition, there are great uncertainties inextrapolating from high-to-low doses, and from animal-to-human populations. Extrapolating fromanimals to humans is uncertain because of the differences in the uptake, metabolism, distribution,and body organ susceptibility between different species. Human populations are also variablebecause of differences in genetic constitution, diet, home and occupational environment, activitypatterns, and other factors. These uncertainties can result in an over- or under-estimation of riskof illness. Finally, there are great uncertainties in extrapolating from high to low doses, andcontroversy in interpreting these results. Because the models used to estimate dose-responserelationships in experimental studies are conservative, they tend to overestimate the risk. Techniques used to derive acceptable exposure levels account for such variables by using safetyfactors. Currently, there is much debate in the scientific community about how much weoverestimate the actual risks and what the risk estimates really mean.


APPENDIX D. ATSDR PLAIN LANGUAGE GLOSSARY OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH TERMS REVISED -15 DEC 99

Absorption:
How a chemical enters a person's blood after the chemical has been swallowed, has come into contact with the skin, or has been breathed in.


Acute Exposure:
Contact with a chemical that happens once or only for a limited period of time. ATSDR defines acute exposures as those that might last up to 14 days.


Additive Effect:
A response to a chemical mixture, or combination of substances, that might be expected if the known effects of individual chemicals, seen at specific doses, were added together.


Adverse Health Effect:
A change in body function or the structures of cells that can lead to disease or health problems.


Antagonistic Effect:
A response to a mixture of chemicals or combination of substances that is less than might be expected if the known effects of individual chemicals, seen at specific doses, were added together.


ATSDR:
The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR is a federal health agency in Atlanta, Georgia that deals with hazardous substance and waste site issues. ATSDR gives people information about harmful chemicals in their environment and tells people how to protect themselves from coming into contact with chemicals.


Background Level:
An average or expected amount of a chemical in a specific environment. Or, amounts of chemicals that occur naturally in a specific environment.


Biota:
Used in public health, things that humans would eat - including animals, fish and plants.


CAP:
See Community Assistance Panel.


Cancer:
A group of diseases which occur when cells in the body become abnormal and grow, or multiply, out of control


Carcinogen:
Any substance shown to cause tumors or cancer in experimental studies.


CERCLA:
See Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act.


Chronic Exposure:
A contact with a substance or chemical that happens over a long period of time. ATSDR considers exposures of more than one year to be chronic.


Completed Exposure Pathway:
See Exposure Pathway.


Community Assistance Panel (CAP):
A group of people from the community and health and environmental agencies who work together on issues and problems at hazardous waste sites.


Comparison Value (CVs):
Concentrations or the amount of substances in air, water, food, and soil that are unlikely, upon exposure, to cause adverse health effects. Comparison values are used by health assessors to select which substances and environmental media (air, water, food and soil) need additional evaluation while health concerns or effects are investigated.


Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA):
CERCLA was put into place in 1980. It is also known as Superfund. This act concerns releases of hazardous substances into the environment, and the cleanup of these substances and hazardous waste sites. ATSDR was created by this act and is responsible for looking into the health issues related to hazardous waste sites.


Concern:
A belief or worry that chemicals in the environment might cause harm to people.


Concentration:
How much or the amount of a substance present in a certain amount of soil, water, air, or food.


Contaminant:
See Environmental Contaminant.


Delayed Health Effect:
A disease or injury that happens as a result of exposures that may have occurred far in the past.


Dermal Contact:
A chemical getting onto your skin. (see Route of Exposure).


Dose:
The amount of a substance to which a person may be exposed, usually on a daily basis. Dose is often explained as "amount of substance(s) per body weight per day".


Dose / Response:
The relationship between the amount of exposure (dose) and the change in body function or health that result.


Duration:
The amount of time (days, months, years) that a person is exposed to a chemical.


Environmental Contaminant:
A substance (chemical) that gets into a system (person, animal, or the environment) in amounts higher than that found in Background Level, or what would be expected.


Environmental Media:
Usually refers to the air, water, and soil in which chemical of interest are found. Sometimes refers to the plants and animals that are eaten by humans. Environmental Media is the second part of an Exposure Pathway.


Environmental Protection Agency (EPA):
The federal agency that develops and enforces environmental laws to protect the environment and the public's health.


Epidemiology:
The study of the different factors that determine how often, in how many people, and in which people will disease occur.


Exposure:
Coming into contact with a chemical substance.(For the three ways people can come in contact with substances, see Route of Exposure.)


Exposure Assessment:
The process of finding the ways people come in contact with chemicals, how often and how long they come in contact with chemicals, and the amounts of chemicals with which they come in contact.


Exposure Pathway:
A description of the way that a chemical moves from its source (where it began) to where and how people can come into contact with (or get exposed to) the chemical.

ATSDR defines an exposure pathway as having 5 parts:
  1. Source of Contamination,

  2. Environmental Media and Transport Mechanism,

  3. Point of Exposure,

  4. Route of Exposure; and,

  5. Receptor Population.

When all 5 parts of an exposure pathway are present, it is called a Completed Exposure Pathway. Each of these 5 terms is defined in this Glossary.


Frequency:
How often a person is exposed to a chemical over time; for example, every day, once a week, twice a month.


Hazardous Waste:
Substances that have been released or thrown away into the environment and, under certain conditions, could be harmful to people who come into contact with them.


Health Effect:
ATSDR deals only with Adverse Health Effects (see definition in this Glossary).


Indeterminate Public Health Hazard:
The category is used in Public Health Assessment documents for sites where important information is lacking (missing or has not yet been gathered) about site-related chemical exposures.


Ingestion:
Swallowing something, as in eating or drinking. It is a way a chemical can enter your body (See Route of Exposure).


Inhalation:
Breathing. It is a way a chemical can enter your body (See Route of Exposure).


LOAEL:
Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level. The lowest dose of a chemical in a study, or group of studies, that has caused harmful health effects in people or animals.


Malignancy:
See Cancer.


MRL:
Minimal Risk Level. An estimate of daily human exposure - by a specified route and length of time -- to a dose of chemical that is likely to be without a measurable risk of adverse, noncancerous effects. An MRL should not be used as a predictor of adverse health effects.


NPL:
The National Priorities List. (Which is part of Superfund.) A list kept by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the most serious, uncontrolled or abandoned hazardous waste sites in the country. An NPL site needs to be cleaned up or is being looked at to see if people can be exposed to chemicals from the site.


NOAEL:
No Observed Adverse Effect Level. The highest dose of a chemical in a study, or group of studies, that did not cause harmful health effects in people or animals.


No Apparent Public Health Hazard:
The category is used in ATSDR's Public Health Assessment documents for sites where exposure to site-related chemicals may have occurred in the past or is still occurring but the exposures are not at levels expected to cause adverse health effects.


No Public Health Hazard:
The category is used in ATSDR's Public Health Assessment documents for sites where there is evidence of an absence of exposure to site-related chemicals.


PHA:
Public Health Assessment. A report or document that looks at chemicals at a hazardous waste site and tells if people could be harmed from coming into contact with those chemicals. The PHA also tells if possible further public health actions are needed.


Plume:
A line or column of air or water containing chemicals moving from the source to areas further away. A plume can be a column or clouds of smoke from a chimney or contaminated underground water sources or contaminated surface water (such as lakes, ponds and streams).


Point of Exposure:
The place where someone can come into contact with a contaminated environmental medium (air, water, food or soil). For examples: the area of a playground that has contaminated dirt, a contaminated spring used for drinking water, the location where fruits or vegetables are grown in contaminated soil, or the backyard area where someone might breathe contaminated air.


Population:
A group of people living in a certain area; or the number of people in a certain area.


PRP:
Potentially Responsible Party. A company, government or person that is responsible for causing the pollution at a hazardous waste site. PRP's are expected to help pay for the clean up of a site.


Public Health Assessment(s):
See PHA.


Public Health Hazard:
The category is used in PHAs for sites that have certain physical features or evidence of chronic, site-related chemical exposure that could result in adverse health effects.


Public Health Hazard Criteria:
PHA categories given to a site which tell whether people could be harmed by conditions present at the site. Each are defined in the Glossary. The categories are:
  1. Urgent Public Health Hazard

  2. Public Health Hazard

  3. Indeterminate Public Health Hazard

  4. No Apparent Public Health Hazard

  5. No Public Health Hazard

Receptor Population:
People who live or work in the path of one or more chemicals, and who could come into contact with them (See Exposure Pathway).


Reference Dose (RfD):
An estimate, with safety factors (see safety factor) built in, of the daily, life-time exposure of human populations to a possible hazard that is not likely to cause harm to the person.


Route of Exposure:
The way a chemical can get into a person's body. There are three exposure routes:
- breathing (also called inhalation),
- eating or drinking (also called ingestion), and
- or getting something on the skin (also called dermal contact).


Safety Factor:
Also called Uncertainty Factor. When scientists don't have enough information to decide if an exposure will cause harm to people, they use "safety factors" and formulas in place of the information that is not known. These factors and formulas can help determine the amount of a chemical that is not likely to cause harm to people.


SARA:
The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act in 1986 amended CERCLA and expanded the health-related responsibilities of ATSDR. CERCLA and SARA direct ATSDR to look into the health effects from chemical exposures at hazardous waste sites.


Sample Size:
The number of people that are needed for a health study.


Sample:
A small number of people chosen from a larger population (See Population).


Source (of Contamination):
The place where a chemical comes from, such as a landfill, pond, creek, incinerator, tank, or drum. Contaminant source is the first part of an Exposure Pathway.


Special Populations:
People who may be more sensitive to chemical exposures because of certain factors such as age, a disease they already have, occupation, sex, or certain behaviors (like cigarette smoking). Children, pregnant women, and older people are often considered special populations.


Statistics:
A branch of the math process of collecting, looking at, and summarizing data or information.


Superfund Site:
See NPL.


Survey:
A way to collect information or data from a group of people (population). Surveys can be done by phone, mail, or in person. ATSDR cannot do surveys of more than nine people without approval from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.


Synergistic effect:
A health effect from an exposure to more than one chemical, where one of the chemicals worsens the effect of another chemical. The combined effect of the chemicals acting together are greater than the effects of the chemicals acting by themselves.


Toxic:
Harmful. Any substance or chemical can be toxic at a certain dose (amount). The dose is what determines the potential harm of a chemical and whether it would cause someone to get sick.


Toxicology:
The study of the harmful effects of chemicals on humans or animals.


Tumor:
Abnormal growth of tissue or cells that have formed a lump or mass.


Uncertainty Factor:
See Safety Factor.


Urgent Public Health Hazard:
This category is used in ATSDR's Public Health Assessment documents for sites that have certain physical features or evidence of short-term (less than 1 year), site-related chemical exposure that could result in adverse health effects and require quick intervention to stop people from being exposed.

CERTIFICATION

This Queen's 41st Auto Salvage site PHA was prepared by the Florida Department of Health under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology and procedures existing at the time the health assessment was begun.

Debra Gable
Technical Project Officer
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation (DHAC)
ATSDR


The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, ATSDR, has reviewed this health consultation, and concurs with its findings.

Roberta Erlwein
Section Chief
SPS, SSAB, DHAC,
ATSDR

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