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PRELIMINARY PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

STAUFFER CHEMICAL COMPANY/TARPON SPRINGS
TARPON SPRINGS, PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORDIA


CONCLUSIONS

Based on the information currently available, this site is classified as a public health hazard. Specific reasons for this classification are as follows:

1. Arsenic is present in surface soil, sediment and both shallow and deep groundwater on the site. On-site workers were exposed to arsenic in soil and dust when the plant was operational. Those currently working at the site are exposed to contaminants in soil, sediments and dust.

2. Arsenic, beryllium, cadmium and chromium have been detected in on-site soil and sediment, on- and off-site groundwater and off-site surface water at levels above ATSDR comparison values. Each of these contaminants is a known or suspected lung carcinogen.

3. Radium has been detected above background levels in on-site soil, sediment, and groundwater, and in off-site soil. No off- site groundwater or sediment samples have been analyzed for radium.

4. Only two deep groundwater wells have been monitored on the site and there is insufficient information about off-site surface and subsurface soils to allow us to determine the potential for exposure from these sources.

5. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, fluoride, lead, thallium, and vanadium in shallow and/or deep groundwater on the site also appear in shallow and/or deep groundwater off the site. These contaminants may appear in private wells south and west of the site in the future.

6. Arsenic is present in one off-site drinking water well and one private well currently used for irrigation. it is also present in off-site shallow and deep groundwater and in the nearby river. Arsenic concentrations have been detected above the corresponding EPA reference dose (RfD).

Surface soil, groundwater, surface water, and sediment are considered to be completed exposure pathways for this site in the past, currently, and in the future. Ambient air is considered to be a completed exposure pathway in the past and could be in the future.


RECOMMENDATIONS

Cease/Reduce Exposure Recommendations

1. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) should consider conducting medical monitoring on the workers at the site. Workers currently on the site should be provided with appropriate protective equipment while working around contaminated soil/sediment.

2. Future remediation workers should be provided with appropriate protective equipment while on site. During remediation work, adequate dust suppression measures should be employed to prevent contaminated dust from reaching the community around the site. Air monitoring should be conducted during remediation to ensure that air-borne contamination is not transported off the site.

Site Characterization Recommendations

1. Characterize off-site shallow and deep groundwater for radium. Areas to sample should include private and monitoring wells.

2. Characterize on-site deep groundwater, and off-site surface and subsurface soil for all contaminants of concern. Areas to sample should include the plant processing and slag storage areas nearby residential property, and the elementary school.

3. Monitor private wells within one-half mile south and west of the site to ensure that any future contamination is detected as soon as possible.

Public Education Recommendations

1. Area residents who obtain their drinking water from private wells should be informed of the possibility of current and future contamination. A health education program should be conducted to help community members and on-site workers in understanding their potential for exposure and possible health risks.

Health Activities Recommendation Panel (HARP) Recommendations

The Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended, requires ATSDR to perform public actions needed at hazardous waste sites. To determine if public health actions are needed, ATSDR's Health Activities Recommendation Panel (HARP) has evaluated the data and information developed in the Stauffer Chemical Co. (Tarpon Springs Plant) Public Health Assessment.

The Panel has determined that the following actions are needed at this site:

    1. Local residents and workers on the site are being exposed to contaminants in private well drinking water and surface soil. Health education is needed to assist these groups in understanding their potential for exposure and possible health risks, and to inform them of measures they may take to reduce their exposure.

    2. Physicians and other health professionals treating members of the community near the site may not be aware of the potential exposures to their patients. Health professions education is needed to inform the local medical community about the health effects that may occur in individuals exposed to contaminants from the site.

    3. Available data about rates of cancers in the area need to be reviewed (health statistics review). This review was completed by Florida HRS in this public health assessment.

If information becomes available indicating additional exposures at levels of concern, ATSDR will evaluate that information to determine what additional actions, if any, are necessary.


PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIONS

This section describes what ATSDR and/or Florida HRS will do at the Stauffer Chemical Co. (Tarpon Springs Plant) site after the completion of this public health assessment report. The purpose of a Public Health Action Plan is to ensure that any existing health-hazards are reduced and any future health hazards are prevented. ATSDR and/or Florida HRS will do the following:

1. The Pinellas County Public Health Unit (CPHU) will periodically monitor private wells-near the site to detect increases in current contaminants or the appearance of new ones.

2. Florida HRS will develop educational materials to in form residents who may be consuming contaminated water from private wells of their potential for exposure and possible health risks. In particular, the material will discourage the use of this water for drinking, cooking or other domestic purposes.

3. The Pinellas CPHU will assist Florida HRS in distributing these educational materials to the affected residents and provide consultation to those individuals who require additional information or assistance.

4. Florida HRS will develop physician education materials to inform local doctors of the possibility that their patients may exhibit adverse health effects resulting from exposure to contaminants from the Stauffer site.

5. ATSDR will assist Florida HRS in the development of these educational materials to ensure that the information is accurate and reflects the most recent scientific findings and agency guidelines.

6. ATSDR in cooperation with Florida HRS will notify NIOSH about the need for medical monitoring of the workers at this site.

ATSDR and/or Florida HRS will reevaluate the Public Health Action Plan when new environmental, toxicological, or health outcome data are available.


PREPARERS OF REPORT

Bruce J. Tuovila, M.S.
Environmental Specialist
Office of Toxicology and Hazard Assessment
Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services

E. Randall Merchant, M.S.
Biological Administrator
Office of Toxicology and Hazard Assessment
Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services

H. Joseph Sekerke, Jr., PhD.
Biological Scientist
Office of Toxicology and Hazard Assessment
Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services

ATSDR Technical Project Officer:

Richard Kauffman
Remedial Programs Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation

ATSDR Regional Representative:

Bob Safay
Regional Services
Office of the Assistant Administrator


CERTIFICATION

This Stauffer Chemical Co. (Tarpon Springs Plant) Public Health Assessment was prepared by the Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology and procedures existing at the time the public health assessment was begun.

Richard R. Kauffman, M.S.
Technical Project Officer
Remedial Programs Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation (DHAC)
ATSDR

The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, ATSDR, has reviewed this public health assessment, and concurs with its findings.

Robert C. Williams, P.E., DEE
Director, DHAC, ATSDR


REFERENCES

ATSDR. 1988. Toxicological Profile for Beryllium. Syracuse Research Corporation: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, ATSDR/TP-88/07.

ATSDR. 1990a. Toxicological Profile for Lead. Syracuse Research Corporation: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, ATSDR/TP-88/17.

ATSDR. 1990b. Draft Toxicological Profile for Antimony. Syracuse Research Corporation under subcontract to Clement Associates, Inc.: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.

ATSDR. 1990c. Toxicological Profile for Radium. Life Systems, Inc. under subcontract to Clement Associates, Inc.: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, ATSDR/TP-90-22.

ATSDR. 1990d. Toxicological Profile for Radon. Clement International Corporation: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, ATSDR/TP-90-23.

ATSDR. 1991a. Draft Toxicological Profile for Fluorides, Hydrogen Fluoride, and Fluorine (F). Clement Associates, Inc.: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.

ATSDR. 1991b. Draft Toxicological Profile for Arsenic. Life Systems, Inc. under subcontract to Clement International Corporation: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.

ATSDR. 1991c. Draft Toxicological Profile for Cadmium. Life Systems, Inc. under subcontract to Clement International Corporation: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.

ATSDR. 1991d. Draft Toxicological Profile for Chromium. Syracuse Research Corporation under subcontract to Clement International Corporation: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.

ATSDR. 1992a. Toxicological Profile for Boron and Compounds. Life Systems, Inc. under subcontract to Clement International Corporation: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, ATSDR/TP-91/05.

ATSDR. 1992b. Toxicological Profile for Thallium. Life Systems, Inc. under subcontract to Clement international Corporation: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease registry, ATSDR/TP-91/26.

ATSDR. 1992c. Toxicological Profile for Vanadium and Compounds. Clement International Corporation: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, ATSDR/TP-91/29.

Beliles RP. 1981. Phosphorus, Selenium, and Tellurium. In: Clayton GD and Clayton FE. Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, 3rd ed. rev., Vol 2A. John Wiley & Sons, 2124-2125.

BOC. 1992. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, DC, 1990 Census Data Files.

Boison PJ. 1987. Letter (October 22) to Jerry Harris, Stauffer Chemical Company, regarding groundwater monitoring plan, Stauffer Chemical Co., Stauffer Chemical Company, Westport, CT.

Donaghue B. 1988. Letter (May 2) to Eric Nuzie, Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, regarding groundwater radon data at Stauffer Chemical Co., NUS Corporation.

Gibbs J. 1980. Memorandum (March 4) to Jacob Stowers, Pinellas County Department of Environmental Management, regarding complaints filed against Stauffer Chemical Co., EPA Air & Water Quality Division, Atlanta, GA.

Harrington JM, Middaugh JP, Morse DL, et al. 1978. A survey of a population exposed to high arsenic in well water in Fairbanks, Alaska. Am J Epidemiol 108:377-385.

Harris JF. 1988a. Letter (February 24) to Kirk Johnson, Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, regarding groundwater monitoring, Stauffer Chemical Co., Stauffer Chemical Company, Tarpon Springs, FL.

Harris JF. 1988b. Letter (May 25) to Kirk Johnson, Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, regarding groundwater monitoring, Stauffer Chemical Co., Stauffer Chemical Company, Tarpon Springs, FL.

Harris JF. 1988c. Letter (August 3) to Kirk Johnson, Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, regarding groundwater monitoring, Stauffer Chemical Co., Stauffer Chemical Company, Tarpon Springs, FL.

Harris JF. 1988d. Letter (October 26) to Kirk Johnson, Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, regarding groundwater monitoring, Stauffer Chemical Co., Stauffer Chemical Company, Tarpon Springs, FL.

Harris JF. 1989a. Letter (March 16) to Kirk Johnson, Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, regarding groundwater monitoring, Stauffer Chemical Co., Stauffer Management Co., Tarpon Springs, FL.

Harris JF. 1989b. Letter (May 17) to Kirk Johnson, Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, regarding groundwater monitoring, Stauffer Chemical Co., Stauffer Management Co., Tarpon Springs, FL.

Harris JF. 1989c. Letter (September 27) to Kirk Johnson, Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, regarding groundwater monitoring, Stauffer Chemical Co., Stauffer Management Co., Tarpon Springs, FL.

Harris JF. 1989d. Letter (November 13) to Kirk Johnson, Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, regarding groundwater monitoring, Stauffer Chemical Co., Stauffer Management Co., Tarpon Springs, FL.

Harris JF. 1990a. Letter (March 22) to Diane Trommer, Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, regarding groundwater monitoring, Stauffer Chemical Co., Stauffer Management Co., Tarpon Springs, FL.

Harris JF. 1990b. Letter (July 11) to William Kelsey, Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, regarding groundwater monitoring, Stauffer Chemical Co., Stauffer Management Co., Tarpon Springs, FL.

Harris JF. 1990c. Letter (October 3) to William Kelsey, Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, regarding groundwater monitoring, Stauffer Chemical Co., Stauffer Management Co., Tarpon Springs, FL,.

Harris JF. 1991a. Letter (March 6) to Division of Waste Management, Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, regarding groundwater monitoring, Stauffer Chemical Co., Stauffer Management Co., Tarpon Springs, FL.

Harris JF. 1991b. Letter (April 19) to Tarpon Springs City Commissioners regarding future activities at Stauffer Chemical Co., Stauffer Management Co., Tarpon Springs, FL.

Hurt K. 1993a. Memorandum (February 1) to Randy Merchant, HRS Toxicology regarding birth defects in Pinellas and Pasco counties.

Hurt K. 1993b. Memorandum (February 9) to Randy Merchant, HRS Toxicology regarding cancer incidence in Pinellas and Pasco counties.

McClellan BS. 1986. Letter (April 21) to Jerry Harris, Stauffer Chemical Company, regarding groundwater monitoring plan, Stauffer Chemical Co., Stauffer Chemical Company, Westport, CT.

McClellan BS. 1987a. Letter (March 23) to Jerry Harris, Stauffer Chemical Company, regarding groundwater monitoring plan, Stauffer Chemical Co., Stauffer Chemical Company, Westport, CT.

McClellan BS.. 1987b. Letter (September 16) to Jerry Harris, Stauffer Chemical Company, regarding groundwater monitoring plan, Stauffer Chemical Co., Stauffer Chemical Company, Westport, CT.

McNeice F. 1993. Fact sheet (March 12) Zeneca, Inc. describing site history, investigations, and current status of Stauffer Chemical Co., Zeneca, Inc., Wilmington, DE.

NUS Corporation. 1987. Final Study Plan, Expanded Site Investigation, Stauffer Chemical Company, Tarpon Springs, Florida.

NUS Corporation. 1989. Final Expanded Site Investigation Report, Stauffer Chemical Company, Tarpon Springs, Pinellas County, Florida.

NUS Corporation. 1991. Interim Final Listing Site Inspection Report, Stauffer Chemical Company Site, Tarpon Springs, Pinellas County, Florida.

Robbins G. 1983. Letter (January 27) to Doug Bromlett, Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, regarding sulfur dioxide levels at Stauffer Chemical Co., Pinellas Board of County Commissioners, Pinellas County, FL.

Roy F. Weston, Inc. 1990. Stauffer Management Company, Tarpon Springs, Florida Plant, Data Evaluation Report.

Seaburn and Robertson. 1987. Hydrogeologic Assessment, Stauffer Chemical Company, Tarpon Springs Plant, Tarpon Springs, Florida.

Sittig M. 1985. Sulfur Dioxide. in: Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, 2nd ed. Noyes Publications, 812-814.

Southwick JW, Western AE, Beck MM, et al. 1981. Community health associated with arsenic in drinking water in Millard County, Utah. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Health Effects Research Laboratory, EPA-600/1-81-064. NTIS no. PB82-108374.

USGS. Undated. The Surficial Aquifer in Pinellas County, Florida, Water-Resources Investigations Report 84-4289, by Causseaux KW.

Wyatt DW. 1990. Memorandum (July 18) to Tanoy Stouter, Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services Control Laboratory, regarding analysis of private well samples at Stauffer Chemical Co., Pinellas County Public Health Unit, Pinellas County, FL.

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