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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

TYNDALL AIR FORCE BASE
PANAMA CITY, BAY COUNTY, FLORIDA
EPA FACILITY ID: FL157002124

July 24, 2000

Prepared By:

Federal Facilities Assessment Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry


TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACRONYMS, ABBREVIATIONS, AND GLOSSARY

SUMMARY

I. BACKGROUND

II. EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION, EXPOSURE PATHWAYS, AND THE PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

    A. EXPOSURE TO DDT IN FRED BAYOU (NO APPARENT PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARD)
    1. Site Description and Background

    2. Site Investigations

    3. Public Health Implications and Conclusions

    4. Public Health Action Plan
    B. EXPOSURE TO LEAD IN SOILS AT THE TYNDALL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL (NO APPARENT PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARD)
    1. Site Description and Background

    2. Site Investigations

    3. Public Health Implications and Conclusions

    4. Public Health Action Plan
    C. EXPOSURE TO LEAD IN TAP WATER AT 2451 LINCOLN DRIVE IN THE BAY VIEW HOUSING AREA (NO APPARENT PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARD)
    1. Site Description and Background

    2. Site Investigations and Conclusions

    3. Public Health Action Plan
    D. WHERRY LANDFILL (INDETERMINATE PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARD)
    1. Site Description and Background

    2. Site Investigations and Conclusions

    3. Public Health Action Plan

III. COMMUNITY HEALTH CONCERNS

IV. ATSDR CHILD HEALTH INITIATIVE

V. HEALTH OUTCOME DATA

VI. REFERENCES

VII. PREPARERS OF THIS REPORT

APPENDICES


LIST OF TABLES

1. Summary of ATSDR's Public Health Conclusions for Tyndall Air Force Base

2. Exposure Pathways

3. Description of Sampling and Summary of Results at Wherry Landfill


LIST OF FIGURES

1. Site Map of Tyndall Air Force Base

2. Bay View Housing (Formerly known as Wherry II Housing) After Removal of 25 Homes with the Boundary of the Wherry Landfill

3. Bay View Housing (Formerly known as Wherry II Housing) Before Removal of 25 Homes


LIST OF APPENDICES

LIST OF APPENDICES
APPENDIX A LIST OF INSTALLATION RESTORATION PROGRAM SITES AND SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT UNITS
APPENDIX B PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT CONCLUSION CATEGORIES
APPENDIX C FRED BAYOU-DDT, DDD, DDE AND WATER AND SEDIMENT
SAMPLING DATA SUMMARY
APPENDIX D SUMMARY OF FISH ANALYSIS
APPENDIX E DESCRIPTION OF CHEMICALS FOUND IN FISH AND SEDIMENTS
APPENDIX F ATSDR COMMENTS ON HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT FOR FRED BAYOU
APPENDIX G SUMMARY OF ASSUMPTIONS USED IN THE HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT
APPENDIX H ATSDR COMMENTS ON WHERRY LANDFILL SAMPLING


ACRONYMS, ABBREVIATIONS, AND GLOSSARY
AFBAir Force Base
AFBCAAir Force Base Conversion Agency
AAFESArmy Airforce Exchange Service; a military service providingmerchandise and services to active duty military
AOCArea of Concern. A natural or man-made area or unit that maycontain hazardous chemicals or waste.
ATSDRAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
adverse health effectsNegative or unwanted effects on the health of an individual; forexample, effects may include a specific illness or a generaldecrease in the overall health of a person.
aerobicOccurring in the presence of oxygen.
anaerobicOccurring in the absence of oxygen.
aquiferA geologic (rock) formation through which groundwater movesand that is capable of producing water in sufficient quantities fora well.
AVGASAviation fuel
BHCBenzene hexachloride or hexachlorocyclohexane. Aninsecticide that has been used on fruit, vegetable, and forestcrops.
BPWBase production well
BRABaseline risk assessment; an analysis of the potential adversehealth effects (current or future) caused by hazardous substancereleases.
biodegradation Decomposition of a substance through the action ofmicroorganisms or other natural environmental factors.
blank sampleA sample collected and analyzed to determine the level ofcontamination introduced into the environmental samples fromthe sampling technique and analysis.
CDCCenters for Disease Control and Prevention
CERCLAComprehensive Environmental Response Compensation andLiability Act also known as Superfund
CREG Cancer risk evaluation guide is a concentration in air, soil, or water at which a person's risk of cancer after exposure for 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, and for 70 years is 1 in 1,000,000. Exposure assumptions for adults are used, since the majority of a person's exposure occurs as an adult.
CSFCancer slope factor. The CSF is the slope of the oraldose-response curve for cancer. This value is derived by EPAand maintained on its IRIS database and used to estimate the riskfrom carcinogens.
Comparison Values orCVsA concentration of a given contaminant in soil, water, or airbelow which no adverse human health effects are expected tooccur. Comparison values are used by ATSDR health assessorsto select environmental contaminants for further evaluation andcan be based on either carcinogenic effects or noncarcinogeniceffects.
conduitA natural or artificial channel through which materials such asfluids are transported; for example, a water well
Detection limit or methoddetection limitA minimum concentration of chemical that is detectable at aknown confidence limit.
DDD1,1-dichloro-2,2- bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane; a chemicalcontaminant and degradation product of DDT.
DDE1,1-dichloro-2,2- bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene; a chemicalcontaminant and degradation product in DDT.
DDT1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane; a chemicalintroduced in the United States and widely used to controlinsects on agricultural crops and insects that carry diseases likemalaria and typhus.
DODUnited States Department of Defense
EMEGEnvironmental media evaluation guide; a concentration in air,soil, or water below which no adverse noncancer health effectsare expected to occur. EMEGs are derived from ATSDR'sminimum risk levels (MRLs), and are expressed for acute,intermediate, and chronic exposures. They are used in selectingenvironmental contaminants for further evaluation.
EODExplosive ordnance disposal
EPAUnited States Environmental Protection Agency
EBSEnvironmental Baseline Survey is a report documenting thebases environmental status.
Feasibility studyA study conducted to determine the best alternative forremediating environmental contamination based on a number offactors including health risk and costs.
gpmGallons per minute
groundwaterWater beneath the earth's surface
HQ/HI
hazard quotient/hazard index
Hazard quotient (HQ); a comparison of the daily humanexposure to a substance to the minimum risk level (MRL). TheHQ is used as an assessment of noncancer associated toxiceffects of chemicals, e.g., kidney or liver dysfunction. It isindependent of a cancer risk, which is calculated only for thosechemicals identified as carcinogens. A hazard index or quotientof one or less is generally considered safe. A ratio greater thanone suggests further evaluation.

Hazard index (HI); a summation of the HQ for all chemicalsbeing evaluated. A hazard index value of one or less means thatno adverse human health effects (noncancer) are expected tooccur. A ratio greater than one suggests further evaluation.

HUDHousing and Urban Development
HVACHeating, ventilating, and air conditioning system
ingestionEating and drinking
IRPInstallation Restoration Program; a program of the Departmentof Defense to clean up environmental contamination.
isomersAny of two or more substances that are composed of the sameelements in the same proportions, but differ in propertiesbecause of differences in the arrangement of atoms (HoughtonMifflin 1996). The prefix of 2,4' for an isomer represents thepositions of atoms on a molecule.
LLiter
LRALocal redevelopment authority; a group formed by the affectedcommunity and recognized by the Department of Defense. TheLRA is the single entity responsible for base reuse planningactivities at the local level.
MCLMaximum contaminant level; a concentration of a chemical thatcannot be legally exceeded in a public drinking water supplysystem. The MCL is devised and enforced by U.S. EPA. Statesmay also enforce the MCL and they may develop more stringentvalues.
medical monitoringA set of medical tests and physical exams specifically designedto evaluate whether an individual is being exposed to aparticular chemical at concentrations that could negatively affectthat person's health.
migrationMoving from one location to another
mg/kgMilligram per kilogram
mg/cm2Milligram per square centimeter
mg/m3 Milligrams per cubic meter; a measure of the concentration of achemical in a known amount (a cubic meter) of air.
MOGASAutomobile gasoline
MRLMinimum risk level; an ATSDR estimate of the daily humanexposure to a substance below which no adverse noncancerhealth effects are expected to occur. MRLs are available foracute, intermediate, and chronic exposures.
munitionsExplosive devices; for example, grenades and bombs.
NDNot detected; used to indicate that a substance was not detectedat the analytical limits of the equipment and procedures.
NPLNational Priorities List for Uncontrolled Hazardous Waste Sites. This is the list of EPA's most hazardous waste sites in theUnited States.
NOAELNo observed adverse effect level; the dose of chemical at whichthere were no statistically or biologically significant increases infrequency or severity of adverse effects seen between theexposed population and its appropriate control. Effects may beproduced at this dose, but they are not considered to be adverse.
ng/m3Nanograms per cubic meter
ordnanceMilitary materiel, such as weapons, ammunition, explosives,combat vehicles, and equipment.
PAHsPolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; a group of chemicals that areformed during the incomplete burning of coal, oil, gas, wood,garbage, or other organic substances, such as tobacco andcharbroiled meat. There are more than 100 different PAHs.
PbLead
PbBLead in blood
PCBsPolychlorinated biphenyls; a group of synthetic organicchemicals that contain 209 individual but similar compounds(known as congeners).
PCEPerchloroethene, also known as tetrachloroethene
PHAPublic health assessment
POLPetroleum, oils, and lubricates
ppbParts per billion
ppmParts per million
RCRAResource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976, 1984); an actthat regulates management and disposal of hazardous wastes currently generated, treated, stored, disposed of, or distributed.
RFARCRA facility assessment; an assessment required by RCRA toidentify potential and actual releases of hazardous chemicals.
RfD or Reference DoseAn estimate of the daily exposure to the people that is likely tohave no measurable risk of harmful health effects during alifetime exposure or exposure during a limited time interval.
RI/FSRemedial investigation/feasibility study; the CERCLA processof determining the type and extent of hazardous materialcontamination at a site and the options for cleanup.
Restoration AdvisoryBoard (RAB)A committee of public and private citizens formed to serve as afocal point for information exchange between military bases,private citizens, and other public agencies.
RiskA qualitative and quantitative expression of the probability ofpotential cancerous adverse health effects occurring at specificlevels of exposure to chemical or physical hazards. Adversehealth effects can be the result of noncancer and cancer. Riskfrom cancer adverse health effects are expressed as a probabilitysuch as 1 in 1,000,000 (also expressed 1 × 10-6 or 1E-6). Thismeans that there is a probability of 1 in 1,000,000 that an excesscancer will occur in the population over a lifetime. Other riskvalues considered are 1 in 10,000 and 1 in 100,000.

A noncancer health risk is expressed as a hazard quotient.

SWMUSolid waste management unit. A term RCRA uses in RFAs todescribe areas or man-made units that contain or handle wastematerials.
solventA liquid capable of dissolving or dispersing another substance;for example, acetone or mineral spirits.
TCETrichloroethene
TDSTotal dissolved solids
treatment techniqueA specific treatment method required by EPA to be used tocontrol the level of a contaminant in drinking water. In specificcases where EPA has determined it is not technically oreconomically feasible to establish an MCL, EPA can insteadspecify a treatment technique.
gLMicrograms per liter
gdLMicrograms per deciliter; a measure of the concentration of achemical in a known amount (deciliter) of liquid; for example,the concentration of lead in a blood sample
g/m3 Microgram per cubic meter.
VOCVolatile organic compound

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