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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

NAVAL AIR STATION WHITING FIELD
MILTON, SANTA ROSA, FLORIDA


TABLES

Table 1.

Evaluation of Potential Exposure Pathways at Naval Air Station Whiting Field
Concern Exposure Pathway Elements Time of Exposure Comments
Source of Contamination Environmental Medium Point of Exposure Route of Exposure Exposed Population
On-sitedrinkingwaterOperations andwaste manage-ment practices atNAS WhitingFieldGroundwaterOn-sitetaps fromNASWhitingField Ingestion,
inhalation,
dermal contact
Installationemployees,residents, andvisitors Past: In the mid-1980s, NAS Whiting Field employees and residents were exposed to concentrations of VOCs above CVs.
Current and Future: Current and future monitoring and treatment of NAS Whiting Field production wells will ensure that water from the distribution system is safe to drink.
Past: Exposure to VOCs detected in the NAS Whiting Field water supply in the mid-1980s is not expected to result in adverse health effects. VOCs are unlikely to have reached levels of health concern prior to 1984, when sampling began. Therefore, past exposure to on-site drinking water poses no apparent public health hazard.
Current and Future: Concentrations of VOCs in installation supply wells are unlikely to reach levels of health concern because the wells are monitored regularly and a treatment system is in place. Thus, on-site drinking water poses no current or future public health hazard.
Off-sitedrinkingwaterOperations andwaste manage-ment practices atNAS WhitingFieldGroundwaterOff-sitetaps frommunicipalor privatewells Ingestion,
inhalation,
dermal contact
Recipients ofmunicipalwater drawnfrom wells nearthe installationand users ofoff-site privatewellsPast, Current, andFuture: There are nomunicipal supply wellswithin a mile of NASWhiting Field. The U.S.Navy has made a concertedeffort to ascertain thelocations of any nearby off-site private wells. No VOCswere detected in the onlyknown private well in thevicinity of groundwatercontamination. Past, Current, and Future: Currently-available information indicates that there is noexposure to contamination in either off-sitemunicipal or private wells. Thus, consumption ofoff-site drinking water presents no apparent publichealth hazard. ATSDR recommends that the U.S.Navy fully delineate all groundwatercontamination near NAS Whiting Fieldboundaries and develop a plan for monitoring anyprivate wells in the path of contaminant migrationand for addressing any private well contaminationthat may be found.
ClearCreekfloodplainSurface water andsedimentcontaminatedfrom operationsand wastemanagementpractices at NASWhiting FieldSurface water,sediment, and fishSurface waterbodies on siteand off site;consumptionof fish Ingestion,
dermal contact
Recreationalusers of ClearCreek and itsfloodplainPast, Current, and Future: Recreational users of the ClearCreek floodplain may comeinto contact with contaminantsin surface water and sediment atlevels exceeding CVs.Contamination in the creek mayalso have affected fish, whichmay occasionally be consumed.Past, Current, and Future: Infrequentexposure to the detected levels of contaminantsin surface water and sediment duringrecreational use of the area is unlikely to causeadverse health effects. Remedial activities willprevent future exposures to site contaminants.Fishing in Clear Creek is thought to occur onlyoccasionally, if at all. Sporadic detections oflow levels of contaminants in sediment suggestthat fish are unlikely to contain site-relatedcontaminants at significant enough levels tocause adverse health effects to anyoneoccasionally consuming the fish.

ATSDR Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
CV comparison value
NAS Naval Air Station
VOC volatile organic compound

FIGURES

Figure 1: Location of NAS Whiting Field
Figure 1: Location of NAS Whiting Field

Figure 2: IRP Sites at NAS Whiting Field
Figure 2: IRP Sites at NAS Whiting Field

Figure 3: ATSDR's Exposure Evaluation Process
Figure 3: ATSDR's Exposure Evaluation Process

Figure 4: Water Supply Wells and IRP Sites in the Industrial Area, NAS Whiting Field
Figure 4: Water Supply Wells and IRP Sites in the Industrial Area, NAS Whiting Field


APPENDICES

Appendix A:

Evaluation of Potential Public Health Hazards at Naval Air Station Whiting Field
Site Site Description/
Waste Disposal History
Investigation Results/
Environmental Monitoring Results
Corrective Activities and/or Current Status Public Health
Evaluation
Landfills and Open Disposal Areas
Site 1:
Northwest Disposal Area
This one-acre area was, from 1943 through 1965, a secondary disposal site for waste generated at Naval Air Station (NAS) Whiting Field. In addition to refuse, it received materials related to the operation and maintenance of aircraft, such as waste paint, paint thinner, solvents, waste oil, and hydraulic fluids. The site is now covered with pine trees. Soil: In three surface soil samples analyzed in 1992 and five samples analyzed in 1995, no contaminants were detected at levels exceeding Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) comparison values (CVs) except arsenic, found at a maximum concentration of 4.2 parts per million (ppm).
Groundwater: One sample was analyzed in 1986, and samples from four wells were analyzed in 1993 and 1996. The 1993 samples contained levels of beta-BHC (0.025 parts per billion [ppb]), aluminum (61,700 ppb), chromium (1,150 ppb), iron (318,000 ppb), nickel (210 ppb), and vanadium (1,360 ppb) at levels exceeding CVs.
A record of decision (ROD) for soil contamination at the site, which calls for the implementation of land use controls, was finalized in September 1999. Site-related groundwater contamination will be addressed as part of Site 40. Soil poses no public health hazard. No contaminants have been detected at concentrations exceeding CVs other than arsenic. There is no public access to the installation, and the levels of arsenic detected would not cause adverse health effects to anyone exposed to them infrequently and incidentally. For a discussion of groundwater, see Site 40.
Site 2:
Northwest Open Disposal Area
This site, formerly a borrow pit, was used from 1976 until 1984. It is also known as the Wood Dump. Construction and demolition waste, as well as wood, tires, furniture, and similar bulky debris were disposed of on site, as they were not suitable for disposal in the installation's primary landfill. The site covers about 12 acres and currently is vegetated. Soil: Five 1995 surface soil samples contained only arsenic (4.2 ppm) at concentrations exceeding its CV.
Groundwater: One sample collected in 1993 contained concentrations of bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (BEHP, a possible laboratory contaminant) (7 ppb), chromium (163 ppb), iron (74,200 ppb), and vanadium (169 ppb) above CVs. Three 1996 samples did not contain any contaminants at levels exceeding CVs.
A ROD for soil contamination at the site, which calls for the implementation of land use controls, was finalized in September 1999. Site-related groundwater contamination will be addressed as part of Site 40. No one is likely to be exposed to arsenic in the soil at sufficient doses to cause adverse health effects. No other contaminants were detected at concentrations exceeding CVs. Thus, soil poses no public health hazard. For a discussion of groundwater, see Site 40.
Site 10:
Southeast Open Disposal Area A
This 4-acre site received mostly waste not suitable for landfill disposal, such as construction debris, trees, and metal cans from 1965 to 1973. Reportedly, waste also included empty cans of pesticides and herbicides and possibly PCB-containing transformer oil. Once within the installation, access to the site is unrestricted. It is currently covered with shrubs and planted pine trees, and several piles of construction debris remain. Soil: Arsenic, iron, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected at concentrations exceeding CVs in samples from 1992, 1995, and 1996 (arsenic: 8.8 ppm, iron: 23,800 ppm, benzo[a]anthracene: 1.4 ppm, benzo[a]pyrene: 2.5 ppm, benzo[b]flouranthene: 2.5 ppm, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene: 1.0 ppm, and ideno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene: 3.2 ppm).
Groundwater: No contaminants were detected at levels exceeding CVs in one 1986 sample or 1993 and 1996 samples from two monitoring wells.
Contaminated soil at the site was covered with 2 feet of clean fill, which is stabilized by vegetation. In 1999, a remedial investigation (RI) report for this site was released. It recommends a feasibility study (FS) for surface soil and no further action for subsurface soil. In the future, groundwater contamination will be addressed as part of work on Site 40. The public is not allowed on site. Incidental, occasional, and brief exposures to the levels of contaminants detected in soil would not cause adverse effects. Thus, exposure to soil poses no public health hazard. Contaminants were not detected in groundwater at concentrations above CVs; therefore, it poses no public health hazard.
Site 11:
Southeast Open Disposal Area B
This 3-acre site was an open disposal area, with no access restrictions, from 1943 through 1970. Refuse, construction debris, and furniture were left on site. Other possible waste includes liquids related to the operation and maintenance of aircraft (including paint, solvents, oils, and hydraulic fluid) and transformer oil. There is a field used for crops to the east of the site. Soil: In 1992, five surface soil samples revealed benzo(a)anthracene (1.8 ppm), benzo(a)pyrene (910 ppm), arsenic (3.8 ppm), and lead (2,230 ppm) at concentrations exceeding CVs. 1996 surface soil samples contained only arsenic (2.7 ppm) at levels above its CV.
Groundwater: 1993 and 1996 samples from four locations, as well as one 1986 sample, contained benzene (2 ppb), vinyl chloride (2 ppb), BEHP (23 ppb), arsenic (3.3 ppb), aluminum (24,000 ppb), chromium (55.2 ppb), iron (37,800 ppb), lead (21.9 ppb), thallium (0.7 ppb), and vanadium (61.8 ppb) at concentrations exceeding CVs.
In the early 1970s, a final soil covering was placed over the site. Pine trees were also reportedly planted at that time. Soil and groundwater sampling have been proposed to occur during the ongoing RI/FS at the site. No one is expected to regularly access this site. Levels of contaminants in soil are sufficiently low that they would not cause adverse health effects. Thus, soil poses no public health hazard. For a discussion of groundwater, see Site 40.
Site 13:
Sanitary Landfill
This site, the installation's last operating landfill, may have received waste solvents and residue from paint stripping during its first year of use, 1979. From 1980 to 1988, the landfill did not receive any hazardous waste; it received only refuse, along with asbestos wrapped in plastic. Soil: In five surface soil samples analyzed in 1992 and five samples analyzed in 1995, only arsenic (6.9 ppm) and iron (23,500 ppm) were detected at concentrations above CVs.
Groundwater: One sample did not contain contaminants at concentrations above CVs in 1986. 1993 and 1996 samples from three locations contained trichloroethylene (TCE) (7 ppb), tetrachloroethylene (PCE) (1 ppb), BEHP (10 ppb), arsenic (2.3 ppb), cadmium (12.6 ppb), iron (39,600 ppb), and manganese (753 ppb) at concentrations exceeding CVs.
An RI for soil at this site was completed in 1999, and an FS to address soil contamination is planned. Site-related groundwater contamination will be addressed as part of Site 40. Limited exposure to the arsenic and iron levels detected in the soil would not cause adverse health effects. No other contaminants were detected at concentrations exceeding CVs. Thus, soil poses no public health hazard. For a discussion of groundwater, see Site 40.
Site 14:
Short-Term Sanitary Landfill
This site served as a landfill for 6 to 9 months beginning in 1978. In 1979, operations were transferred to Site 13 because of drainage problems caused by clayey soil. Most waste received at this site was non-hazardous, but waste solvents and residue from paint stripping might have been disposed of on site. The area is currently vegetated. Soil: Analyses of three surface soil samples in 1992 and another three in 1995 indicated that no contaminants were present at levels exceeding CVs except arsenic (4.3 ppm).
Groundwater: One 1986 sample did not contain contaminants above CVs. In 1993 and 1996 samples from two locations, only BEHP (18 ppb) and arsenic (0.5 ppb in one sample) were detected at levels exceeding CVs.
An RI for this site was completed in 1999, and an FS to address soil contamination is planned. Site-related groundwater contamination will be addressed as part of Site 40. Soil poses no public health hazard. No contaminants have been detected at concentrations exceeding CVs other than arsenic. There is no public access to the installation, and the levels of arsenic detected would not cause adverse health effects to anyone exposed to them infrequently and incidentally. For a discussion of groundwater, see Site 40.
Site 15: Southwest Landfill From 1965 to 1979, this 15-acre site was the primary installation landfill, accepting refuse and waste associated with aircraft operation and maintenance. Bagged asbestos and dielectric fluid containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were also reportedly recieved. Waste was covered with soil daily. Currently, much of the site harbors pine trees, but some tracts are bare. In these areas, berms are in place to reduce erosion. Clear Creek is about 1,200 feet to the west. Soil: Three 1991 samples, five 1992 samples, and twenty-five 1995 samples did not contain any contaminants at levels exceeding CVs except arsenic (which reached 6.8 ppm).
Sediment: Three sediment samples from Y Ditch analyzed in 1991 contained only arsenic at levels above CVs (3.2 ppm).
Groundwater: One 1986 sample, eleven 1993 samples, and 1996 and 1997 samples from eight locations contained benzene (130 ppb) 1,1-dichloroethene (1,1-DCE) (11 ppb), TCE (350 ppb), BEHP (118 ppb), aluminum (76,400 ppb), arsenic (2.3 ppb), cadmium (23.3 ppb), chromium (71.5 ppb), iron (94,500 ppb), manganese (1,270 ppb), thallium (1 ppb), and vanadium (136 ppb) at concentrations exceeding CVs.
An RI for this site was completed in 1999, and an FS is planned. Only arsenic, at very low concentrations, has been detected in soil at this site and nearby sediment samples. Regular exposure to these media is not expected. However, limited exposure to detected levels would not cause adverse health effects. Thus, soil and sediment pose no public health hazard. For a discussion of groundwater, see Site 40.
Site 16:
Open Disposal and Burning Area
From 1943 to 1965, this 10-acre site was the primary destination for waste generated on site, including refuse, paint, oil, solvents, hydraulic fluids, and possibly PCB-contaminated transformer oil. Spent diesel fuel was used to burn most of the waste to decrease its volume. Currently, the site is covered with pine trees. Clear Creek is located approximately 200 feet from the site. Soil: Three 1991 samples, three 1992 samples, and sixteen samples analyzed in 1996 contained dieldrin (0.13 ppm), benzo(a)anthracene (2.3 ppm), benzo(b)flouranthene (3.6 ppm), dibenzo(a,h)anthracene (0.7 ppm), benzo(a)pyrene (3.1 ppm), indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (1.9 ppm), arsenic (12.1 ppm), iron (48,900 ppm), and lead (759 ppm) levels exceeding CVs.
Groundwater: One 1986 sample, twelve 1993 samples, and 1996 and 1997 samples from seven locations contained benzene (1,400 ppb), 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) (32 ppb), TCE (7 ppb), BEHP (53 ppb), DDT (0.15 ppb), arsenic (4.5 ppb), antimony (124 ppb), cadmium (56.5 ppb), chromium (225 ppb), iron (313,000 ppb), lead (69.1 ppb), manganese (1,370 ppb), and vanadium (987 ppb) at levels exceeding CVs.
An RI for this site was completed in late 1999, and an FS is planned. The public is not allowed on site. Infrequent exposure to the levels of contaminants found at this site would not result in adverse health effects. Therefore, soil poses no public health hazard. For a discussion of groundwater, see Site 40.

Fuel Disposal Areas

Site 4:
North AVGAS Tank Sludge Disposal Area (and associated Underground Storage Tank [UST] Site 1467)
At this site, there were formerly nine USTs, eight of which held aviation gasoline (AVGAS). Sludge from the bottom of the tanks was disposed of approximately every 4 years in shallow holes near the tanks from 1943 through 1968. North Well is located approximately 1,100 feet southeast of the site. Soil: A 1986 composite soil sample did not contain any contaminants at concentrations exceeding CVs. Eleven 1998 borings contained benzo(a)anthracene (1.9 ppm), benzo(a)pyrene (1.2 ppm), benzo(b)flouranthene (1.2 ppm), dibenzo(a,h)anthracene (0.23 ppm), dieldrin (0.085 ppm), and arsenic (6.4 ppm) at levels above CVs.
Groundwater: One 1986 sample, eighteen 1993 samples, and one 1998 sample contained chloroform (25 ppb), 1,2-dichloroethene (1,2-DCE) (80 ppb), TCE (510 ppb), benzene (5,500 ppb), toluene (24,000 ppb), ethylbenzene (2,000 ppb), xylenes, bis(2-chloroethyl)ether (18 ppb), carbazole (4 ppb), BEHP (32 ppb), antimony (12.5 ppb), arsenic (17.2 ppb), cadmium (17.2 ppb), chromium (84 ppb), iron (78,300 ppb), lead (481 ppb), manganese (605 ppb), and vanadium (196 ppb) at levels exceeding CVs. At the associated UST site, maximum levels of contaminants exceeding CVs in groundwater samples were: benzene, 5,360 ppb; ethylbenzene, 1,700 ppb; toluene, 18,970 ppb; xylenes, 4,100 ppb; chlorobenzene, 1,420 ppb; 1,1-DCE, 2 ppb; 1,2-DCE, 192 ppb; TCE, 390 ppb; PCE, 2 ppb; bis(2-chloroethyl)ether, 1 ppb; BEHP, 14 ppb; benzo(a)pyrene, 0.2 ppb; carbazole, 6 ppb; dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, 1 ppb; indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, 1 ppb; arsenic, 19.6 ppb; chromium, 75.3 ppb; iron, 70,300 ppb; lead, 145 ppb; manganese, 799 ppb; and vanadium, 31.8 ppb.
A pilot study to remove petroleum products from soil at the site is underway. An RI for this site was completed in 1999, and an FS is planned. The public is not allowed to access the installation. Others would come into contact with soil at this site only occasionally and incidentally. Detected levels of contaminants would not cause adverse health effects under such circumstances. Therefore, soil poses no public health hazard. For a discussion of groundwater, see Site 40.
Site 7:
South AVGAS Tank Sludge Disposal Area (and associated UST Site 1466)
Eight USTs held AVGAS and two USTs held aviation lube oil on this site from 1943 to the late 1970s. Sludge from the bottom of the tanks was buried in shallow holes near tanks. Soil: Two composite samples were analyzed for lead in 1986. The lead level (575 ppm) in one exceeded the CV. Samples from one boring analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), pesticides, PCBs, and metals in 1997 did not contain any contaminants at concentrations exceeding CVs.
Groundwater: One 1986 sample, twelve 1993 samples, one 1996 sample, and one 1997 sample contained vinyl chloride (190 ppb), 1,1-DCE (5 ppb), 1,2-DCE (170 ppb), carbon tetrachloride (1 ppb), TCE (1,400 ppb), benzene (14,000 ppb), toluene (47,000 ppb), ethylbenzene (2,400 ppb), xylenes (12,000 ppb), 1,2-dibromoethane (23.56 ppb), 4-methylphenol (390 ppb), carbazole (10 ppb), antimony (27.9 ppb), arsenic (29.3 ppb), cadmium (32 ppb), chromium (26.5 ppb), iron (42,500 ppb), lead (1,290 ppb), manganese (725 ppb), and vanadium (36.4 ppb) were detected at levels above CVs. At the associated UST site, maximum levels of contaminants exceeding CVs in groundwater samples were: benzene, 2,800 ppb; ethylbenzene, 2,400 ppb; toluene, 23,000 ppb; xylenes, 5,100 ppb; 1,1-DCE, 6 ppb; TCE, 390 ppb; antimony, 19.8 ppb; arsenic, 8.4 ppb; iron, 40,800 ppb; lead, 282 ppb; and thallium, 6.3 ppb.
Further soil sampling is planned, according to a January 2000 RI/FS work plan. Soil sampling suggests that little, if any, soil contamination is present at this site. Since any exposures would be infrequent, soil poses no public health hazard. For a discussion of groundwater, see Site 40.
Site 8:
AVGAS Fuel Spill Area (and associated UST Site 3054)
In the summer of 1972, about 25,000 gallons of high octane aviation fuel was spilled and covered an area of about 2 acres. Soil: In 1986, twelve composite soil samples were analyzed for lead, which was not detected at levels above the CV.
Groundwater: One 1986 sample contained benzene (2 ppb) at a level exceeding the CV, but a 1995 sample analyzed for VOCs and a 1996 sample analyzed for the full range of parameters did not contain at contaminants at levels exceeding CVs.
An RI/FS is planned. The public is not allowed on-site, and other personnel would not come into contact with on site soil with any regularity. Therefore, no public health hazard is expected. For a discussion of groundwater, see Site 40.
Site 9:
Waste Fuel Disposal Area
In the 1950s and 1960s, waste fuel, including AVGAS, was disposed of in a clay borrow bit at this site. Apparently, tanker trucks transported the waste fuel, carrying 200 to 300 gallons of fuel per trip. The pit was later covered with soil. There is a ponded area in the northeastern portion of the site, which is currently covered with shrubs and planted pine trees. Soil: In 1986, twelve composite soil samples were analyzed for lead, 1,2-dibromoethane, benzene, toluene, and xylene, which were not detected at levels exceeding CVs. Five 1995 samples analyzed for VOCs, SVOCs, pesticides, PCBs, and metals contained only arsenic (10.1 ppm) and iron (29,800 ppm) at concentrations exceeding CVs.
Surface Water: A 1996 sample from the ponded area contained only arsenic (0.6 ppb) at a level above the CV.
Groundwater: One 1986 sample analyzed for the same parameters as the 1986 soil sample did not contain levels of contaminants above CVs. Seven groundwater samples collected in 1993 and 1996 contained levels of arsenic (3.6 ppb), chromium (67.8 ppb), and vanadium (32.7 ppb) exceeding CVs.
Contaminated soil at the site has been covered with 2 feet of clean fill and vegetation has been planted. A 1999 RI report for this site recommends a FS for surface soil and no further action for subsurface soil and surface water. Groundwater contamination will be addressed in the future as part of work on Site 40, Facility-wide Groundwater. The low levels of arsenic and iron detected in soil and surface water would not cause adverse health effects to individuals with infrequent, incidental exposure. Thus, neither soil nor surface water poses a public health hazard. For a discussion of groundwater, see Site 40.
Site 12: Tetraethyl Lead Disposal Area On May 1, 1968, the North and South Aqua Fuel System storage tanks and fuel filters were cleaned. The sludge from the bottoms of the tanks was left in six mounds on this site. Each mound is estimated to contain 200 to 400 gallons of sludge. The mounds are currently approximately 2 to 4 feet high and surrounded by dense shrubbery. There are signs posted around the site, indicating the possible hazard contained. Y Ditch is adjacent to the southern boundary of the site. Soil: 1986, 1991, 1993, and 1996 samples collected from the surface of the mounds, as well as their centers, have not contained any contaminants at concentrations above CVs except arsenic (which reached 3.6 ppm).
Sediment: The only contaminant detected at concentrations exceeding CVs in three 1991 sediment samples from Y Ditch was arsenic (1.8 ppm).
Groundwater: One sample was analyzed in 1986 and 1993, and two samples were analyzed in 1996. Cadmium (22.3 ppb) exceeded its CV in 1993, and thallium (0.7 ppb) exceeded its CV in 1996.
An RI for soil at this site was completed in 1999, and an FS to address soil contamination is planned. Site-related groundwater contamination will be addressed as part of Site 40. No one is expected to regularly access this site. Levels of contaminants in soil and sediment are sufficiently low that they would not cause adverse health effects. Thus, soil poses no public health hazard. For a discussion of groundwater, see Site 40.
Other Liquid Disposal Areas
Site 3:
Underground Waste Solvent Storage
From 1980 to 1984, two USTs at this site received waste generated by paint stripping operations. One of the tanks was punctured while being removed, and 120 gallons of liquid spilled from it. Some of this liquid was immediately pumped for proper disposal, and some of the contaminated soil was removed. Additional holes were discovered in both tanks after they were removed. Soil: A 1986 soil sample did not contain any contaminants at levels above CVs. Thirty-three 1993 subsurface soil samples and four 1998 soil borings contained dieldrin (0.044 ppm), arsenic (16 ppm), and iron (32,600 ppm) at concentrations exceeding CVs.
Groundwater: 1993, 1995, and 1998 samples from thirteen wells, as well as two 1986 samples, contained the following contaminants at levels exceeding CVs: 1,1-DCE (2 ppb), 1,2-DCE (240 ppb), PCE (1 ppb), 1,1,2-trichloroethane (111 ppb), TCE (250 ppb), benzene (4,500 ppb), toluene (15,000 ppb), ethylbenzene (2,800 ppb), xylenes (5,300 ppb), BEHP (490 ppb), heptachlor epoxide (0.26 ppb), arsenic (25.9 ppb), cadmium (34.4 ppb), chromium (82.4 ppb), iron (57,300 ppb), lead (221 ppb), mercury (19.8 ppb), and vanadium (36.4 ppb).
An RI for this site was completed in 1999, and an FS is planned. The public is not allowed on site. Occasional exposure of facility personnel to the concentrations of contaminants found at this site would not result in adverse health effects. Therefore, soil poses no public health hazard. For a discussion of groundwater, see Site 40.
Site 5:
Battery Acid Seepage Pit
From 1967 through 1984, waste electrolyte solution containing heavy metals and waste battery acid were poured down the drain of the battery shop, which drained to a dry well west of the building. The pit is located 110 feet from South Well. Soil: In 1985, samples were collected from four borings and analyzed for five metals. Of those metals, only arsenic (1.27 ppm) was detected at concentrations exceeding CVs.
Groundwater: Four August 1985 samples contained benzene (26 ppb), aldrin (0.13 ppb), heptachlor (0.04 ppb), arsenic (2 ppb), antimony (170 ppb), cadmium (3 ppb), lead (37 ppb), thallium (100 ppb) at levels above CVs. November 1985 samples from the same wells contained only benzene (14 ppb) and mercury (10 ppb) at levels exceeding CVs. 1993, 1995, 1996, and 1997 samples from eight locations revealed concentrations of benzene (32 ppb), PCE (3 ppb), TCE (154 ppb), BEHP (36 ppb), aluminum (29,500 ppb), antimony (23 ppb), arsenic (3.6 ppb), cadmium (32.6 ppb), chromium (123 ppb), iron (34,800 ppb), lead (30.5 ppb), and vanadium (117 ppb) exceeding CVs.
The site was first investigated in 1985, at which time sampling of South Well commenced. Further soil sampling is planned, according to a January 2000 RI/FS work plan. Although soil sampling has not been completed at this site, soil is not expected to pose a public health hazard because authorized personnel would be exposed to soil at the site only infrequently and incidentally. For a discussion of groundwater, see Site 40.
Site 6:
South Transformer Oil Disposal Area
From the 1940s through 1964, PCB-contaminated dielectric fluid was disposed of in a ditch known as 0-2 Ditch. The ditch, which has since been paved, drains to O Ditch, which in turn drains to P Ditch. Soil: Ten soil samples from the ditch analyzed for PCBs in 1986 did not contain detectable concentrations of PCBs (over 0.2 ppm). Twelve surface soil samples were analyzed in 1991 for PCBs. While Aroclor-1260 was detected in some samples, all detected concentrations were below CVs.
Groundwater: In samples from three locations analyzed in 1993, 1995, 1996, and 1997, levels of 1,1-DCE (18 ppb), 1,2-DCE (23 ppb), TCE (520 ppb), BEHP (12 ppb), dieldrin (0.47 ppb), cadmium (13.1 ppb), chromium (61.2 ppb), iron (21,000 ppb), lead (24 ppb), and vanadium (75.5 ppb) were detected at concentrations exceeding CVs.
An RI for this site was completed in 1999, and an FS is planned. There is no evidence of soil contamination at levels of health concern at this site. Furthermore, exposure to the soil would be very limited. Thus, soil poses no public health hazard. For a discussion of groundwater, see Site 40.
Crash Crew Training Areas
Site 17:
Crash Crew Training Area
From 1951 to 1991, crash crew training occurred at this site. Typically, about 100 gallons of fuel (JP-4, JP-5, or AVGAS mixed with waste oil) were poured into a shallow pit, the fuel was ignited, then the fire was extinguished with a non-toxic foam agent. It is estimated that in 1984, about 6,200 gallons of fuel were used in crash crew training at two sites. At Site 17, there are seven burn pits of varying sizes. There are oil stains on surface soil in drainage swales leading from the burn pits. Soil: 1992 analyses of 32 surface soil samples detected cadmium levels (reaching 30.6 ppm) in several samples and an iron level (23,800 ppm) in one sample exceeding CVs.
Groundwater: One 1986 and four 1993 samples contained levels of BEHP (18 ppb), chromium (201 ppb), iron (146,000 ppb), and vanadium (508 ppb) exceeding CVs. 1996 samples from the same four monitoring wells did not contain any contaminants at levels above CVs.
In August 1994, metal tanks and abandoned aircraft fuselage were removed from the site. Mounds of soil mixed with burnt debris were dispersed across the site area. Also, 2 feet of clean fill were placed over this site and stabilized by vegetation. Additional soil and groundwater sampling have been proposed to occur during the ongoing RI/FS at the site. Detected levels of metals in soil samples only slightly exceed CVs and would not cause adverse health effects to anyone exposed to them occasionally. More frequent exposure is not expected. Thus, soil poses no public health hazard. For a discussion of groundwater, see Site 40.
Site 18:
Crash Crew Training Area
There are five shallow burn pits on this site. There are oil stains on surface soil in drainage swales leading from the burn pits. For a further description of site history, see Site 17. Soil: In 1992, 47 surface soil samples from this site were analyzed. Results revealed arsenic (3.1 ppm), cadmium (38.8 ppm), iron (51,700 ppm), benzo(a)anthracene (1.3 ppm), and benzo(a)pyrene (1.2 ppm) at levels exceeding CVs. Two SVOCs without available CVs were also detected: phenanthrene (2.2 ppm) and bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane (0.44 ppm).
Groundwater: One 1986 and three 1993 samples contained BEHP (32 ppb), arsenic (2.1 ppb), chromium (70.8 ppb), iron (61,800 ppb), lead (23 ppb), and vanadium (133 ppb) at concentrations exceeding CVs, but no contaminants exceeded CVs in 1996.
In 1993, four rusted metals drums that were partially buried in soil were removed from this site. In August 1994, two abandoned, charred aircraft fuselages were also removed. In addition, a mound of soil containing burnt debris was dispersed over the site. Two feet of clean fill have been placed on the site and vegetation has been planted. Further soil and groundwater sampling are proposed to occur during the ongoing RI/FS at the site. The public cannot access this site. Sporadic, incidental, and brief soil exposures are not expected to cause adverse health effects to authorized personnel. Therefore, soil poses no public health hazard. For a discussion of groundwater, see Site 40.
Maintenance Hangars
Site 30:
South Field Maintenance Hangar
Aircraft maintenance activities were conducted in this paved area beginning in the mid-1940s. Waste generated on site included stripping compounds, solvents, paints, alkaline cleaners, detergents, oil, and hydraulic fluid. There were formerly underground waste oil tanks (abandoned in the 1980s) and a washrack used to clean aircraft on site. Soil: Twenty-three 1993 subsurface soil samples, six 1996 borings, and six 1998 borings contained only arsenic (11.5 ppm) and iron (24,500 ppm) at concentrations exceeding CVs.
Groundwater: Four samples from 1993 and three samples from 1996 contained levels of 1,1-DCE (27 ppb), 1,2-DCE (4 ppb), TCE (620 ppb), benzene (140 ppb), bromodichloromethane (2 ppb), dibromochloromethane (2 ppb), arsenic (13 ppb), cadmium (31.4 ppb), chromium (40.8 ppb), iron (40,100 ppb), lead (18.4 ppb), manganese (799 ppb), thallium (3.2 ppb), and vanadium (45.2 ppb) exceeding CVs.
An RI for this site was completed in 1999, and an FS is planned. The public is not allowed to access maintenance hangars or any other parts of the installation. Employee exposure to soil at the site is not frequent enough for health effects to be expected. Therefore, on-site soil poses no public health hazard. For a discussion of groundwater, see Site 40.
Site 32:
North Field Maintenance Hangar
This hangar was used to support aircraft maintenance activities beginning in the mid-1940s. Waste generated on site included stripping compounds, solvents, paints, alkaline cleaners, detergents, oil, and hydraulic fluid. There were formerly underground waste oil tanks (abandoned in the 1980s) and a washrack used to clean aircraft on site. Soil: Fifty-three 1993 subsurface soil samples and eleven 1998 borings contained only arsenic (2.8 ppm) at concentrations exceeding CVs.
Groundwater: Monitoring wells from twelve locations sampled in 1993, 1995, and 1998 contained benzene (1,900 ppb), bromodichloromethane (1 ppb), dibromochloromethane (1 ppb), 1,1-DCE (3 ppb), 1,2-DCE (1,000 ppb), 1,2-DCA (7 ppb), PCE (1.9 ppb), TCE (21,750 ppb), toluene (15,000 ppb), ethylbenzene (2,790), xylenes (6,400 ppb), BEHP (46 ppb), benzo(b)flouranthene (1 ppb), heptachlor (0.028 ppb), heptachlor epoxide (0.062 ppb), aluminum (53,900 ppb), antimony (21.9 ppb), arsenic (5ppb), cadmium (12.5 ppb), chromium (212 ppb), iron (110,000 ppb), lead (265 ppb), manganese (3,220 ppb), and vanadium (515 ppb) at concentrations exceeding CVs.
An RI for this site was completed in 1999, and an FS is planned. Levels of arsenic in soil similar to the ones detected at this site would not cause adverse health effects at low doses. Since exposure would only be incidental, soil does not pose a public health hazard. For a discussion of groundwater, see Site 40.
Site 33:
Midfield Maintenance Hangar
This hangar was constructed in the mid-1940s as an area within which engine maintenance, corrosion control, and aircraft cleaning activities, among others, could be performed. Waste solvents, oil, antifreeze, and other fluids were poured into bowsers or an underground tank, abandoned in the 1980s. Soil: Twenty-two 1993 subsurface soil samples, three 1996 borings, and seven 1998 borings contained only arsenic (11.5 ppm) at concentrations exceeding CVs.
Groundwater: 1993, 1995, 1996, and 1997 samples from five locations contained levels of 1,1-DCE (10 ppb), 1,2-DCA (1 ppb), TCE (470 ppb), heptachlor epoxide (0.035 ppb), aluminum (45,700 ppb), antimony (3.5 ppb), cadmium (20.4 ppb), chromium (61.9 ppb), iron (28,300 ppb), thallium (6 ppb), and vanadium (72.1 ppb) exceeding CVs.
An RI for this site was completed in 1999, and an FS is planned. No one is likely to be exposed to arsenic in the soil at sufficient doses to cause adverse health effects. No other contaminants were detected at concentrations exceeding CVs. Thus, soil poses no public health hazard. For a discussion of groundwater, see Site 40.
Miscellaneous Maintenance Facilities
Site 29:
Auto Hobby Shop
A tank at this site used to store waste motor oil and potentially solvents and paints from the 1940s through 1986, when it was abandoned. It was removed in 1998, as was an UST that held heating oil. Auto repair, maintenance, and painting materials may also have contaminated the site. Soil: Three 1998 subsurface soil samples collected when the USTs were removed did not contain any contaminants at concentrations exceeding CVs.
Groundwater: Five 1993 samples contained aluminum (49,400 ppb), antimony (13.9 ppb), arsenic (5.6 ppb), cadmium (8.1 ppb), chromium (173 ppb), iron (104,000 ppb), lead (32.4 ppb), and vanadium (130 ppb) at concentrations exceeding CVs, but not exceeding CVs in 1996 samples from the same wells.
The two USTs at the site were removed in 1998, at which time subsurface soil sampling was conducted. Surface and subsurface soil sampling is planned, according to a January 2000 RI/FS work plan. No soil contamination has been detected. Public access to the installation is prohibited; therefore, soil poses no public health hazard. For a discussion of groundwater, see Site 40.
Site 35:
Public Works Maintenance Facility
Uses of the building at this site, built in 1943, included maintenance of vehicles and equipment, power generation, and metals and woodworking repair. There was a service station with three USTs (one diesel and two gasoline), abandoned in 1984. Five USTs, four holding fuel and the other holding diesel, remain. Soil: Twenty 1996 subsurface soil samples were analyzed for VOCs, but none were detected at levels exceeding CVs.
Groundwater: In six 1997 samples, 1,1-DCE (7 ppb) and BEHP (9 ppb), a possible laboratory contaminant, were detected once at levels over CVs.
According to a January 2000 RI/FS work plan, soil sampling is planned at this site. While soil sampling at this site is incomplete, exposure to soil would be limited to occasional contact by authorized personnel, which would not be expected to result in adverse health effects. Thus, soil poses no apparent public health hazard. For a discussion of groundwater, see Site 40.
Site 36:
Auto Repair Booth
This site was used until the early 1980s as an auto repair booth. An aboveground storage tank holding waste oil is on site. Fuel pumps and a buried fuel tank may also have been present. Soil: Fourteen subsurface soil samples did not contain any VOCs at concentrations exceeding CVs in 1996.
Groundwater: In 1997, two samples contained carbon tetrachloride (1 ppb), 1,1-DCE (2 ppb), and TCE (17 ppb) at levels exceeding CVs.
An RI/FS is underway. The only expected exposure to on-site soil would be to installation personnel on an incidental and irregular basis. This type of exposure is not expected to result in adverse health effects, so soil is not expected to pose a public health hazard. For a discussion of groundwater, see Site 40.
Site 37:
Paint Spray Booth
A paint spray booth and a furniture shop were present in a building on site, built in 1944. Fumes from painting were captured and combined with water, then discharged to the sanitary sewer. Soil: Eleven 1997 subsurface soil samples did not contain any VOCs at concentrations exceeding CVs.
Groundwater: In one of two 1997 samples, 1,1-DCE (7 ppb) and benzene (3 ppb) were detected at levels exceeding CVs.
An RI/FS is underway. It is possible that no further action will occur. Soil contamination has not yet been fully investigated, but is unlikely to result in adverse health effects under infrequent exposure scenarios. Therefore, soil poses no apparent public health hazard. For a discussion of groundwater, see Site 40.
Site 38:
Golf Course Maintenance Building
Until 1983, pesticides were stored and mixed in this building, which has since been demolished. Also, until the mid-1970s, batteries were reconditioned in the building. Any chemicals poured into the sinks in the building would have drained into an open tank and then a gravel-lined area on the ground. Soil: In March 1996, a composite surface soil sample was analyzed. No organics were detected. Planned soil sampling and groundwater well installation and sampling are outlined in a January 2000 RI/FS work plan. Public access to NAS Whiting Field is prohibited, and others would only be exposed to soil on an infrequent basis. Soil contamination is unlikely to result in adverse health effects in these instances. Thus, soil poses no apparent public health hazard. There has not yet been groundwater sampling at this site; for a discussion of groundwater, see Site 40.
Other Sites
Site 31:
Sludge Drying Beds and Disposal Area
Sludge from the wastewater treatment plant was disposed of in several locations at the installation from 1943 through 1990. Site 31A is approximately one-fifth of an acre and contains four sludge drying beds covered with sand and gravel and surrounded by containment walls. The sludge was periodically trucked off and disposed of at Sites 31B, 31C, and 31D after it dried. Sites 31B, 31C, and 31D received both liquid waste and sludge materials. The three sites are on sloped terrain, where there are berms to reduce soil erosion from surface water runoff. Sites 31E and 31F are locations along the perimeter road where liquid sludge was formerly sprayed on grass. It is estimated that the two sites together comprise almost 7 acres. Soil: In 1992, 24 surface soil samples were analyzed. Contaminants present at levels exceeding CVs included dieldrin (0.12 ppm), Aroclor-1260 (1.4 ppm), cadmium (26.8 ppm), chromium (295 ppm), and lead (1,890 ppm). The highest levels of these contaminants were detected at Site 31C. In eight borings and nineteen surface soil samples analyzed for all parameters in 1996, only arsenic (2.9 ppm) was detected at levels above its CV.
Groundwater: 1996 and 1997 samples from six wells did not contain any contaminants at concentrations above CVs.
Contaminated soil has been removed from Site 31C, and sampling was conducted afterwards to verify that all contaminated soil had been removed. Then Site 31C was covered with clean fill to replicate the original grade. Further soil and groundwater sampling at Site 31 have been proposed to occur during the ongoing RI/FS at the site. The public is not allowed on site. Incidental, infrequent, and brief exposures to installation personnel to the levels of contaminants detected in soil would not cause adverse effects. Thus, exposure to soil poses no public health hazard. For a discussion of groundwater, see Site 40.
Site 39:
Clear Creek Floodplain
The floodplain is primarily densely vegetated. Much of the surface water in the area comes from a concrete drainage ditch in the northeast portion of the site which originates at the west end of South Field runway No. 13. Groundwater is also thought to contribute to surface water flow. Potential sources of floodplain contamination are Site 16 and four drums that were removed from the creek bed in 1993. Groundwater: Five 1997 groundwater samples did not contain any contaminants at concentrations exceeding CVs.
Surface Water/Sediment: Forty-nine surface water samples analyzed in 1986, 1990, 1992, and 1997 contained benzene (5 ppb), bromodichloromethane (3 ppb), dibromochloromethane (1 ppb), arsenic (1 ppb), cadmium (4 ppb), manganese (1,420 ppb), and thallium (1.4 ppb) at levels exceeding CVs. The forty-one sediment samples collected in 1990, 1992, 1993, and 1997 contained benzo(a)pyrene (0.16 ppm), BEHP (9,300 ppm), Aroclor-1260 (0.45 ppm), dieldrin (0.29 ppm), arsenic (20 ppm), cadmium (20 ppm), iron (54,800 ppm), and lead (981 ppm) at concentrations exceeding CVs.
In 1993, four drums, some of them rusted and containing only creek water, were removed from the floodplain. Additional sampling described in a RI/FS work plan includes the collection of an additional 20 surface water samples. At each sampling location, a sample will be collected at the groundwater/surface water interface. Sediment samples from ten of the sampling locations will also be analyzed. Recreational use of Clear Creek is limited. Incidental and occasional contact by recreational users with the detected levels of contaminants in surface water and sediment does not pose a public health hazard. The U.S. Navy is conducting additional sampling and will select an appropriate remedial alternative. For a discussion of groundwater, see Site 40.
Site 40:
Facility-wide Groundwater
In 1997, facility-wide groundwater was designated a separate site to address the plumes of different contaminants in the groundwater underlying the installation. To date, all groundwater sampling has been associated with individual sites. See entries for the sites for information about available groundwater data. According to a January 2000 RI/FS work plan, there will be further sampling of 24 existing monitoring wells and the collection of samples from 35 new monitoring wells. Soil sampling at twelve sites (Sites 3, 4, 6, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 30, and 32) will also be conducted to evaluate the potential of soil contamination leaching into groundwater. There are three water supply wells in the Industrial Area that provide potable water to the installation. VOCs were detected in two wells and in the installation distribution system in the mid-1980s. The two wells were closed in 1986 until they were fitted with treatment systems to address the VOCs. A treatment system was also installed on the third supply well, as a precautionary measure. Levels of VOCs in water leaving all three treatment systems is sampled monthly, ensuring that the base drinking water system poses no current or future public health hazard. Since it is unknown for how long and at what concentrations the installation distribution system was contaminated prior to 1986, consumption of the water until that time poses an indeterminate public health hazard.
There are six domestic wells, two wells used for landscaping, and one well used for agriculture within one mile of the installation. All the domestic wells are west of the installation except one, which is just east of Site 13. Groundwater sampling to ascertain the extent of all contaminant plumes is ongoing. The only known location in which groundwater contamination is migrating off site is east of Site 13. Tap water from a residence in the vicinity has been sampled, as have two wells west of the installation. No VOCs were detected in any of the samples. If future investigations suggest that any private wells might be in the path of contaminant migration, ATSDR recommends that the U.S. Navy develop and implement a plan for monitoring these wells and for addressing any contamination that may be detected. Since no exposure to contaminants at levels of health concern in off-site wells is expected, consumption of water from these wells poses no apparent public health hazard.
Sources: ABB-ES 1992, 1993a, b, 1995c, 1996, 1997a, b, 1998a, b, 1999; Geraghty & Miller 1984, 1985, 1986; Hendon Engineering Associates 1989; HLA 1999a, 1999b; NASWF 1999; Tetra Tech NUS 1999, 2000; and Touart 2000.

Notes:

  • Sites 19 through 28 are not included in this table, as they are located at Outlying Landing Field Barin in Foley, Alabama.
  • Site 34 was initially assigned to the former facility laundry. However, based on a record search and site history review, the site was removed from the IRprogram. Thus, there is no longer a Site 34.
Abbreviations:
ATSDR Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
AVGAS aviation gasoline
BEHP bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate
CV comparison value
1,2-DCA 1,2-dichloroethane
1,1-DCE 1,1-dichloroethene
1,2-DCE 1,2-dichloroethene
FS feasibility study
NAS Naval Air Station
PAH polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
PCE tetrachloroethylene
ppb parts per billion
ppm parts per million
RI remedial investigation
ROD record of decision
SVOC semi-volatile organic compound
TCE trichloroethylene
UST underground storage tank
VOC volatile organic compound


Appendix B: Glossary

Absorption:
How a chemical enters a person's blood after the chemical has beenswallowed, has come into contact with the skin, or has been breathed in.


Acute Exposure:
Contact with a chemical that happens once or only for a limited period oftime. ATSDR defines acute exposures as those that might last up to 14 days.


Adverse Health Effect:
A change in body function or the structures of cells that can lead to disease orhealth problems.


ATSDR:
The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR is a federalhealth agency in Atlanta, Georgia, that deals with hazardous substances andwaste site issues. ATSDR gives people information about harmful chemicalsin their environment and tells people how to protect themselves from cominginto contact with chemicals.


Background Level:
An average or expected amount of a chemical in a specific environment. Or,amounts of chemicals that occur naturally in a specific environment.


Cancer:
A group of diseases which occur when cells in the body become abnormaland grow, or multiply, out of control.


Cancer Risk Evaluation Guides (CREG):
An estimated contaminant concentration in water, soil, or air that would beexpected to cause no more than one excess cancer in a million personsexposed over a 70-year lifetime according to EPA estimates. As ATSDR'smost conservative comparison value, the CREG merits special attention.Note that this does not mean that exposures equivalent to the CREG areactually expected to cause one excess cancer in a million persons exposedover a lifetime. Nor does it mean that every person in an exposed populationof one million has a 1-in-a-million chance of developing cancer from thespecified exposure. Although ATSDR CREGs continue to be useful devicesfor screening cancer-causing substances at a site, they cannot be used topredict cancer incidence rates at a site. Furthermore, the exposureassumptions on which EPA's cancer risk estimates and ATSDR's CREGsare based (i.e., essentially lifetime exposure) seldom apply at contaminatedsites.


Chronic Exposure:
A contact with a substance or chemical that happens over a long period oftime. ATSDR considers exposures of more than one year to be chronic.


Completed Exposure Pathway:
See Exposure Pathway.


Comparison Value (CV):
Concentrations or the amount of substances in air, water, food, and soil thatare unlikely, upon exposure, to cause adverse health effects. Comparisonvalues are used by health assessors to select which substances andenvironmental media (air, water, food and soil) need additional evaluationwhile health concerns or effects are investigated.


Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA):
CERCLA was put into place in 1980. It is also known as Superfund. Thisact concerns releases of hazardous substances into the environment, and thecleanup of these substances and hazardous waste sites. ATSDR was createdby this act and is responsible for looking into the public health issues relatedto hazardous waste sites.


Concern:
A belief or worry that chemicals in the environment might cause harm to people.


Concentration:
How much or the amount of a substance present in a certain amount of soil,water, air, or food.


Contaminant:
See Environmental Contaminant.


Dermal Contact:
A chemical getting onto your skin. (see Route of Exposure).


Dose:
The amount of a substance to which a person may be exposed, usually on adaily basis. Dose is often explained as "amount of substance(s) per bodyweight per day."


Duration:
The amount of time (days, months, years) that a person is exposed to a chemical.


Environmental Contaminant:
A substance (chemical) that gets into a system (person, animal, or theenvironment) in amounts higher than that found in Background Level, orwhat would be expected.


Environmental Media:
Usually refers to the air, water, and soil in which chemicals of interest arefound. Sometimes refers to the plants and animals that are eaten by humans.Environmental Media is the second part of an Exposure Pathway.


Environmental Media Evaluation Guides (EMEG):
A concentration of a contaminant in water, soil, or air that is unlikely to beassociated with any appreciable risk of deleterious noncancer effects over aspecified duration of exposure. EMEGs are derived from ATSDR MinimalRisk Levels by factoring in default body weights and ingestion rates.Separate EMEGs are computed for acute ( 14 days), intermediate (15-364days), and chronic (365 days) exposures.


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA):
The federal agency that develops and enforces environmental laws to protectthe environment and the public's health.


Epidemiology:
The study of the different factors that determine how often, in how manypeople, and in which people disease will occur.


Exposure:
Coming into contact with a chemical substance. (For the three ways peoplecan come in contact with substances, see Route of Exposure.)


Exposure Pathway:
A description of the way that a chemical moves from its source (where itbegan) to where and how people can come into contact with (or getexposed to) the chemical.

ATSDR defines an exposure pathway as having 5 parts:

  1. Source of Contamination,
  2. Environmental Media and Transport Mechanism,
  3. Point of Exposure,
  4. Route of Exposure, and
  5. Receptor Population.

When all 5 parts of an exposure pathway are present, it is called aCompleted Exposure Pathway. Each of these 5 terms is definedin this Glossary.

Frequency:
How often a person is exposed to a chemical over time; for example, everyday, once a week, twice a month.


Hazardous Waste:
Substances that have been released or thrown away into the environmentand, under certain conditions, could be harmful to people who come intocontact with them.


Health Effect:
ATSDR deals only with Adverse Health Effects (see definition in thisGlossary).


Indeterminate Public Health Hazard:
The category is used in Public Health Assessment documents for siteswhere important information is lacking (missing or has not yet beengathered) about site-related chemical exposures.


Ingestion:
Swallowing something, as in eating or drinking. It is a way a chemical canenter your body (See Route of Exposure).


Inhalation:
Breathing. It is a way a chemical can enter your body (See Route ofExposure).


Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL):
A contaminant concentration in drinking water that U.S. EnvironmentalProtection Agency (USEPA) deems protective of public health (consideringthe availability and economics of water treatment technology) over a lifetime(70 years) at an exposure rate of 2 liters of water per day.


Minimal Risk Level (MRL):
An estimate of daily human exposure - by a specified route and length oftime -- to a dose of chemical that is likely to be without a measurable risk ofadverse, noncancerous effects. An MRL should not be used as a predictor ofadverse health effects.


National Priories List:
Part of Superfund, a list kept by USEPA of the most serious, uncontrolled,or abandoned hazardous waste sites in the country. An NPL site needs to becleaned up or is being looked at to see if people can be exposed to chemicalsfrom the site.


No Apparent Public Health Hazard:
The category is used in ATSDR's public health assessments for sites whereexposure to site-related chemicals may have occurred in the past or is stilloccurring but the exposures are not at levels expected to cause adverse healtheffects.


No Public Health Hazard:
The category is used in ATSDR's public health assessments for sites wherethere is evidence of an absence of exposure to site-related chemicals.


Plume:
A line or column of air or water containing chemicals moving from thesource to areas further away. A plume can be a column or clouds of smokefrom a chimney or contaminated underground water sources or contaminatedsurface water (such as lakes, ponds and streams).


Point of Exposure:
The place where someone can come into contact with a contaminatedenvironmental medium (air, water, food, or soil). For example:
the area of a playground that has contaminated dirt, a contaminated springused for drinking water, the location where fruits or vegetables are grown incontaminated soil, or the backyard area where someone might breathecontaminated air.


Population:
A group of people living in a certain area; or the number of people in acertain area.


Public Health Assessment (PHA):
A report or document that looks at chemicals at a hazardous waste site andtells if people could be harmed from coming into contact with thosechemicals. The PHA also tells if possible further public health actions areneeded.


Public Health Hazard:
The category is used in PHAs for sites that have certain physical features orevidence of chronic, site-related chemical exposure that could result inadverse health effects.


Public Health Hazard Category:
PHA categories given to a site which tell whether people could be harmed byconditions present at the site. Each are defined in the glossary. The categoriesare:
  1. Urgent Public Health Hazard

  2. Public Health Hazard

  3. Indeterminate Public Health Hazard

  4. No Apparent Public Health Hazard

  5. No Public Health Hazard


Receptor Population:
People who live or work in the path of one or more chemicals, and who couldcome into contact with them (See Exposure Pathway).


Reference Dose (RfD):
An estimate, with safety factors (see safety factor) built in, of the daily, life-time exposure of human populations to a possible hazard that is not likely tocause harm to the person.


Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guide (RMEG):
The concentration of a contaminant in air, water or soil that corresponds toUSEPA's RfD for that contaminant when default values for body weight andintake rates are taken into account.


Route of Exposure:
The way a chemical can get into a person's body. There are three exposureroutes:
- breathing (also called inhalation),
- eating or drinking (also called ingestion), and
- or getting something on the skin (also called dermal contact).


Safety Factor:
Also called Uncertainty Factor. When scientists don't have enoughinformation to decide if an exposure will cause harm to people, they use"safety factors" and formulas in place of the information that is not known.These factors and formulas can help determine the amount of a chemicalthat is not likely to cause harm to people.


Source (of Contamination):
The place where a chemical comes from, such as a landfill, pond, creek,incinerator, tank, or drum. Contaminant source is the first part of anExposure Pathway.


Survey:
A way to collect information or data from a group of people (population).Surveys can be done by phone, mail, or in person. ATSDR cannot do surveysof more than nine people without approval from the U.S. Department ofHealth and Human Services.


Toxic:
Harmful. Any substance or chemical can be toxic at a certain dose (amount).The dose is what determines the potential harm of a chemical and whether itwould cause someone to get sick.


Toxicology:
The study of the harmful effects of chemicals on humans or animals.


Tumor:
Abnormal growth of tissue or cells that have formed a lump or mass.


Uncertainty Factor:
See Safety Factor.


Urgent Public Health Hazard:
This category is used in ATSDR's public health assessments for sites thathave certain physical features or evidence of short-term (less than 1 year),site-related chemical exposure that could result in adverse health effects andrequire quick intervention to stop people from being exposed.

Table of Contents

  
 
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