PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT
ANDERSEN AIR FORCE BASE
On the basis of its evaluation of available environmental information, ATSDR concluded that exposures to contaminants in groundwater, surface soil, and local plants and animals harvested for consumption are below levels that would cause adverse health effects. Since exposure to low levels of contamination occurred in the past and may still be possible, ATSDR has categorized this site as no apparent public health hazard. Because of the Air Force's education efforts, access restrictions and monitoring programs at Andersen AFB, contact with UXO and the possibility of harm is remote. ATSDR has categorized exposure to this physical hazard as no apparent public health hazard. In evaluating past exposures to radon in on-base housing, ATSDR concluded that these exposures posed an indeterminate health hazard because of the lack of monitoring data prior to 1987 (definitions of categories are provided in the glossary in Appendix E). Conclusions regarding media- and site-specific exposures are as follows.
The three Northern communities (Yigo, Dededo, and Tamuning) bordering Andersen AFB property contain approximately 47% of the islands population. Yigo and Dededo are located within a mile from military property and their water supplies are downgradient of known groundwater contamination plumes underlying Andersen AFB. A groundwater plume from an unknown source appears to be originating from an area near the MARBO Annex. Continued monitoring of groundwater contamination by both the Air Force and Guam regulatory agencies is critical to ensure that the water resources that off-base communities rely upon is protected from contamination.
No apparent public health hazard exists (past, current, or future) from the consumption of local biota collected on- or off-base at Andersen AFB.
It is unlikely that a harmful outcome would occur during an incidental encounter. However, prudence suggests that education, access restrictions and implementation of a monitoring plan will further reduce the likelihood of a health hazard. Due to the implementation of educational programs, access restrictions and ongoing monitoring efforts, harmful contact with UXO is remote and does not pose a public health hazard.
Additional education activities should be directed toward on-base schools and community centers to enhance public awareness on UXO safety. The United States Department of Defense (DoD) has developed the UXO Safety Education Program to help prevent injury by educating communities about the dangers associated with UXO. DoD designed this program as a "toolkit" from which DoD organizations and the public could use individual "tools" to enhance or supplement their local UXO safety programs. The "toolkit" consists of ready-to-use educational products and materials for classroom, home or community group use. Access to the UXO Safety Education Program is available to DoD personnel on the Defense Environmental Network and Information Exchange (DENIX) web site at http://www.denix.osd.mil/
PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION PLAN
The public health action plan (PHAP) for Andersen AFB contains a description of actions taken and those to be taken by ATSDR, the Air Force, EPA, and GEPA at and in the vicinity of the site subsequent to the completion of this public health assessment. The purpose of the PHAP is to ensure that this public health assessment not only identifies potential and on-going public health hazards, but also provides a plan of action designed to mitigate and prevent adverse human health effects resulting from exposure to hazardous substances in the environment. The public health actions at Andersen AFB that are completed or ongoing/planned are:
Ongoing and Planned Actions
Air Chek. 1998. Air Chek's Radon Laboratory. Radon.com: Radon Information Center. Internet address: http://www.radon.com/radon/facts.html . Last updated April 29, 1998. Copyright 1998.
Andersen Air Force Base (AFB). 1997. Fact Sheet Technology Air Stripping. Andersen Air Force Base, Guam. January 1997.
Andersen AFB. (no date). NFRAP Summary IRP Site 07/Landfill 9.
Andersen AFB. 1998a. Fact Sheet Item No. 19. Asphalt Recovery Plant. Andersen Air Force Base, Guam. March 1998.
Andersen AFB. 1998b. Final NFRAP Decision Document IRP Site 03/Waste Pile 3. Executive Summary) March 1998.
Andersen AFB. 1998c. Final NFRAP IRP Site 18/Landfill 23. Executive Summary. January 1998.
Andersen AFB. 1998d. Decision Summary Report IRP Site 33/DSA-2. Executive Summary. December 1998.
Andersen AFB. 1999a. General Plan Andersen Air Force Base, Guam. Pacific Air Force. February 1999.
Andersen AFB. 1999b. Andersen Air Force Base Radon database. 1999.
Andersen AFB. 1999c. Final NFRAP Decision Document IRP Site 11/Landfill 15A & 15B. Executive Summary. February 1999.
Andersen AFB. 1999d. NFRAP Decision Document IRP Site 17/Landfill 22. Executive Summary. October 1999.
Andersen AFB. 1999e. Final NFRAP Decision Document IRP Site 21/Landfill 26. Executive Summary. September 1999.
Andersen AFB. 1999f. Final NFRAP Decision Document IRP Site 27/HWSA-1. Executive Summary. April 1999.
Andersen AFB. 1999g.Decision Summary Report IRP Site 32/DSA-1. Executive Summary. May 1999.
Andersen AFB. 2000a. E-mail correspondence between Capt Joseph M. Vinch, Andersen AFB, and ATSDR. November 20, 2000.
Andersen AFB. 2000b. NFRAP Decision Document IRP Site 28/CSA-1. Executive Summary. March 2000.
Andersen AFB. 2000c. NFRAP Decision Document IRP Site 30/Waste Pile 4. Executive Summary. April 2000.
Andersen AFB. 2001. E-mail, forwarded by Vic Caravello, Brooks AFB, containing Demographics and EOD information provided by Gregg Ikehara and Capt Joe Vinch, Andersen AFB. June 21, 2001.
ATSDR. 1990. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Toxicological Profile for Radon. December 1990.
ATSDR. 1992. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Radon Toxicity: Case Studies in Environmental Medicine. September 1992.
ATSDR. 1993. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Toxicological Profile for Arsenic. April 1993.
ATSDR. 1997a. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Toxicological Profile for Trichloroethylene. September 1997 (Update).
ATSDR. 1997b. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Toxicological Profile for Tetrachloroethylene. September 1997 (Update).
ATSDR. 1997c. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Toxicological Profile for Aluminum. September 1997 (Update--Draft).
ATSDR. 2000. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Toxicological Profile for Creosote. September 2000 (Update--Draft).
Barrett, Harris, and Associates, Inc., and Camp, Dresser, and McKee (as cited in USAF, 1998b). 1982. Northern Guam Lens Study, Summary Report. October 1982.
Committee on Health Risks of Exposure to Radon (BEIR IV). National Research Council. 1999.
Bias. 1998. Correspondence to Amanda Stoddard, ATSDR, from Captain Craig-Alan C. Bias regarding questions about draft public health assessment. December 8, 1998.
Bias. 1999. Correspondence to Amanda Stoddard, ATSDR, from Captain Craig-Alan C. Bias regarding radon information and updates. March 10, 1999.
Cebrian, M.E., A. Albores, M. Aguilar, et al. 1983. Chronic arsenic poisoning in the north of Mexico. Human Toxicology. 2: 121-133.
Dames & Moore. 2000. Final Fall 1999 Groundwater Data Monitoring Report. March 2000.
DOI. 2001. State of the Island Report. Statistical Summary. Table 1: Demographic Data. http://www.doi.gov/oia/appendix.html .
EA Engineering. 1995. EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Inc.. Exposure Pathway Analysis for Human Health and Ecology at Andersen Air Force Base. Redmond, Washington. June 1995.
EA Engineering. 1998. EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Inc. United States Air Force. Community Relations Plan for the Installation Restoration Program (Final). Andersen Air Force Base, Guam. December 1998.
Earth Tech. 1998. Earth Tech, Inc. Water Vulnerability Assessment: Andersen Air Force Base, Guam. November 1998.
EPA. 1992. United States Environmental Protection Agency. A Citizen's Guide to Radon (second edition): The Guide to Protecting Yourself and Your Family from Radon. ANR-464. May 1992.
Harrington, J.M., J.P. Middaugh, D.L. Morse, et al. 1978. A survey of a population exposed to high arsenic in well water in Fairbanks, Alaska. American Journal of Epidemiology. 108: 377-385.
Hart Crowser. 2000. Research results history of chemical warfare material at PACAF bases installations in Guam. Prepared for U.S., Army Corps of Engineers and Pacific Ar Forces. March 1, 2000.
ICF (as cited in USAF, 1998b). 1994. ICF Technology Incorporated. Final Work Plan Addendum to Operable Unit 6 for Operable Unit 2, Andersen Air Force Base, Guam. March 1994.
Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (DEP). No date. Commonwealth of Massachusetts Department of Public Health Radiation Control Program. A Citizen's Guide to Radon: What it is and What to do about it. (Booklet reprinted with permission from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control.
Mazumder, D.N., A.K Chakraborty, A. Ghose, et al. 1988. Chronic arsenic toxicity from drinking tubewell water in rural West Bengal. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 66: 499-506.
Montgomery Watson. 1998. MARBO Annex Operable Unit. Record of Decision. Andersen Air Force Base, Guam. April 1998.
Puls, R. E. 1989. Mineral Levels in Animal Health: Diagnostic Data. Clearbrook, British Columbia, Canada: Sherpa International. 240 pp.
SAIC. 1991. Science Applications International Corporation. Installation Restoration Program (IRP) - Stage II Remedial Investigation Feasibility Study/Tech Report Volume 1 of VI for Andersen Air Force Base, Guam. Golden, Colorado. December 1991.
Samet, J., D. Pathak, M. Morgan, et al. (as cited in ATSDR, 1990). 1989. Radon progeny exposure and lung cancer risk in New Mexico U miners: a case-control study. Health Physics. 56: 415-421.
Schenck, R.U., J. Bjorksten, and L. Yeager. 1989. Composition and consequences of aluminum in water, beverages, and other ingestibles. In: T.E. Lewis, (ed.). Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology of Aluminum. Chelsea, MI: Lewis Publishers, Inc., 247-269.
Southwick, J.W., A.E. Western, M.M. Beck, et al. 1981. Community health associated with arsenic in drinking water in Millard County, Utah. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Health Effects Research Laboratory, EPA-600/1-81-064. NTIS no. PB82-108374.
USAF. 1992a. United States Air Force. Management Action Plan (MAP) for Andersen Air Force Base, Guam. December 1992.
USAF. 1992b. United States Air Force. Environmental Cleanup at Andersen Air Force Base. Fact Sheet. August 1992.
USAF. 1993. United States Air Force. Community Relations Plan for the Installation Restoration Program (Draft). Andersen Air Force Base, Guam. January 1993.
USAF. 1996. United States Air Force. Executive Summary (Remedial Investigation for Operable Unit 3). USAF-204-R. March 1996.
USAF. 1997. United States Air Force. Management Action Plan (MAP) for Andersen Air Force Base, Guam. December 1997.
USAF. 1998a. United States Air Force. Marbo Annex Operable Unit Record of Decision for Andersen Air Force Base, Guam (Final). The United States Air Force Installation Restoration Program. May 1998.
USAF. 1998b. United States Air Force. Groundwater Summary Report for Andersen Air Force Base, Guam (Draft). The United States Air Force Installation Restoration Program. February 1998.
USAF. 1999. United States Air Force. General Information Requests (in response to ATSDR questions). November 1999.
USAF. 2000. United States Air Force. Management Action Plan (MAP) for Andersen AFB. December 2000.
USAF. 2001.United States Air Force comments on the draft ATSDR Andersen Air Force Base Public Health Assessment. May 2001.
Valentine, J.L., M.S. Reisbord, H.K. Kang, et al. 1985. Arsenic effects on population health histories. In: J.C. Howell, J.M. Gawthorne, L. White (eds.). Trace elements in man and animals - TEMA 5. Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Trace Elements in Man and Animals. Slough, UK: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau, 289-294.
Vartiainen, T., E. Pukkala, T. Rienoja, et al. 1993. Population exposure to tri- and tetrachloroethylene and cancer risk: Two cases of drinking water pollution. Chemosphere. 27: 1171-1181.
Williams. 1993. Trip Report: Andersen Air Force Base Scoping Visit (February 18-March 2, 1993, Andersen AFB, Guam). ATSDR. March 1993.
Table 2. Summary of Exposure Pathways at Andersen Air Force Base
|PATHWAY NAME||SOURCE OF CONTAMINATION||ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIUM||POINT OF EXPOSURE||ROUTE OF EXPOSURE||EXPOSED POPULATION||COMMENTS|
Completed Exposure Pathways
|Groundwater in the vicinity of the MARBO Annex||Andersen AFB--
TCE from the MARBO annex's WDBP site
|Groundwater||Water supplied by two of the nine military production wells (MW-1 and MW-2) and the Tumon-Maui well.||Ingestion
Military personnel, residents, and visitors drinking water from MW-1, MW-2, and the Tumon-Maui well
No off-base populations were exposed
ATSDR estimated past exposure to drinking water from MW-1 and MW-2 assuming exposure to the maximum detected concentration of TCE (9 ppb) and without accounting for dilution that occurs in the military distribution system. Estimated exposure doses were well below levels of health concern. ATSDR concluded that no apparent public health hazard exists from past exposure.
ATSDR concluded that no public health hazard is associated with TCE concentrations in the WDBP area (1 to 3 ppb) because current levels are below health-based guidelines and drinking water standards. Concentrations in the military distribution system are in the subpart per billion to nondetectable range.
Past, current, and future use of Andersen AFB drinking water poses no apparent public health hazards.
|Radon in on-base housing units||Naturally-occurring in Guam -- radon does not originate from military activities at Andersen AFB||Air||Indoor air in certain on-site housing units||Inhalation||Residents of base housing units.||Past:
In 1993, The Air Force tested 1,652 family housing units: 867 units contained indoor air radon levels above EPA's recommended action level of 4 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) (124 contained radon above 120 pCi/L). The Air Force mitigated all radon contamination in these units to EPA's recommended action level.
The full extent of past exposures is unknown; therefore, potential hazards associated with exposures is uncertain. Available information indicates long-term exposure to radon concentrations above 50 pCi/L have been associated with increased incidences of lung cancer. Most past exposures were likely much shorter.
It is not known if people are exposed to radon levels above 4 pCi/L in on-site buildings because current, available data are incomplete.
The Air Force plans to expand its radon mitigation efforts to other, lower-priority buildings on base.
If mitigation efforts continue as planned, people will most likely not be exposed to radon levels above 4 pCi/L in on-site buildings.
Past exposure to radon in on-base family housing units at Andersen AFB poses indeterminate public health hazards. Current and potential future exposures are unlikely due to aggressive Air Force remediation efforts.
Potential Exposure Pathways
|Biota||Andersen AFB||Foods grown on base and game that graze on base||Consumption of foods and game||Ingestion||Residents, hunters and their families||No apparent public health hazard exists (past, current, or future) from the consumption of local biota collected on- or off-base at Andersen AFB. Most contaminants examined were below CVs or at levels below health concern. ATSDR concluded that the consumption of local biota poses no apparent public health hazard.|
|Soil||Andersen AFB IRP sites and areas of concern||Surface soil||Base IRP sites||Skin contact||Trespassers||No apparent public health hazard exists form past or current exposure because most sites are posted with signs and have restricted public access. Any infrequent and brief contact with soil that might occur during trespassing should not result in health effects. Certain sites will be transferred for public use. Deed restrictions and/or soil removal actions should prevent harmful exposure in the future.|
|Physical Hazards||UXO||UXO||Various sites in Northwest field||Detonation of UXO||Trespassers, recreational users||There have been no accidents or incidents involving unexploded ordnance. Education and UXO awareness program is in place. Area restrictions are communicated to recreational users. Incidental contact and resulting health hazards are remote.|
Table 3. Summary of Radon Monitoring at Andersen Air Force Base
|Sampling Year(s)||Sampling Locations||Number of Locations with Reported Indoor Air Radon Levels (pCi/L)||Comment|
|< 4 pCi/L||4-20 pCi/L||20-200 pCi/L||> 200 pCi/L|
|1987 and 1988||33 housing units||15||14||4||0|
|1988 and 1989||1,406 housing units1
(60 day sampler)
|714||617||74||1||One-year samplers were deployed in the 617 homes with levels between 4 and 20 pCi/L until levels fell below 4 pCi/L. The 74 homes with radon levels greater than 20 pCI/L were mitigated and re-sampled to reduce radon levels.|
|1989||2,000 buildings 2
(1 year samplers)
|824||851||85||0||The Air Force installed over-sized air conditioner fans to achieve positive pressure in the buildings.|
|1993||1,652 previously sampled housing units.||785||743||124||0||An Air Force contractor mitigated the 743 units with levels between 4 and 20 pCi/L. The Base Civil Engineering Squadron mitigated the 124 units with higher levels|
|1998||37 housing units (lacking pre and/or post-earthquake sampling and mitigation records.||26||8||0||0||The Air Force renovated three of the eight units that contained 4 to 20 pCi/L. Four of the five other units were previously renovated. The Air Force is reassessing mitigation designs at these units.|
|35 non housing units||33||2||0||0|
Figure 1. Area Map
Figure 2. Subbasins Underlying Andersen AFB
Figure 3. ATSDR's Exposure Evaluation Process
Figure 4a. Locations of the 39 IRP Sites
Figure 4b. Locations of the 39 IRP Sites Andersen AFB, Guam
Figure 5a. Locations of Suspected Groundwater Plumes
Figure 5b. Locations of Suspected Groundwater Plumes
Figure 6. General Regions of On- and Off-base Biota Sampling Collection
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