PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT
July 21, 2000
Washington State Department of Health
Under a cooperative agreement with the
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
TABLE OF CONTENTS
- A. Site Description and History
B. ATSDR Involvement
C. Demographics, Land Use, and Natural Resource Use
- A. Introduction B. Completed Exposure Pathways
- Pathway 1: Mountain View Road -> Groundwater -> Mountain View Road Residents Pathway 2: Cattail Lake/Hood Canal -> Fish/Shellfish -> Base personnel/Off-base harvesters Pathway 3: On-base Hazardous Waste Sites -> Surface Soil -> Workers
- Pathway 1: Site A (OU-1) -> Groundwater -> Vinland Supply Wells Pathway 2: Site F (OU-2) -> Groundwater -> Olympic View/Old Bangor Supply Wells Pathway 3: On-base Hazardous Waste Sites -> Groundwater -> Base Supply Wells
|1,2-DCE||cis and trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene|
|Assessment and Control of Installation Pollutants|
|ATSDR||Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry|
|BTEX||Benzene, Ethylbenzene, Toluene, Xylene-1,2-Dichloroethylene|
|CERCLA||Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act|
|COC||Contaminant of Concern|
|CREG||Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide|
|Cancer Slope Factor|
|CPF||Cancer Potency Factor|
|DOD||Department of Defense|
|DOH||Washington State Department of Health|
|DNTs||2,4 and 2,6-Dinitrotoluene|
|Ecology||Washington State Department of Ecology|
|Environmental Media Evaluation Guide|
|EPA||Environmental Protection Agency|
|HARM||Hazard Assessment Rating Methodology|
|IRP||Installation Restoration Program|
|LOAEL||Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level|
|LTHA||Lifetime Health Advisory|
|Maximum Contaminant Level|
|MOU||Memorandum of Understanding|
|MRL||Minimal Risk Level|
|NFA||No Further Action|
|NOAEL||No Observed Adverse Effect Level|
|National Pollution Discharge Elimination System|
|NPL||National Priorities List|
|PAH||Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon|
|Public Health Assessment|
|PHAP||Public Health Action Plan|
|ppb||parts per billion|
|ppm||parts per million|
|RCRA||Resource, Conservation and Recovery Act|
|RDX||Royal Demolition Explosive|
|RfD||Oral Reference Dose|
|RI/FS||Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study|
|RMEG||Reference Media Evaluation Guide|
|ROD||Record of Decision|
|SARA||Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986|
|SMS||Washington State Sediment Management Standards|
|SVOC||Semi-Volatile Organic Chemical|
|TPH||Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons|
|ug/dl||micrograms per deciliter|
|VOC||Volatile Organic Compounds|
- Occurring over a short time, usually a few minutes or hours. An acute exposure can result in short-term or long-term health effects. An acute effect happens a short time (up to 1 year) after exposure.
- Air Sparging:
- Process designed to clean up volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in groundwater by forcing air into the contaminated groundwater which forces the VOCs up to the surface where they are released to the air.
- Air Stripping:
- Process by which volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are removed from soil or water by movement of air through the material causing the VOCs to evaporate more readily.
- Surrounding. For example, ambient air is usually outdoor air (as opposed to indoor air).
- Water-bearing rock or rock formation located bvvxeneath the ground surface.
- Background Level:
- A typical or average level of a chemical in the environment. Background often refers to naturally occurring substances but can include contaminants so widespread in the environment so that no specific source is apparent.
- A general term for the rock that underlies the overburden.
- Bedrock aquifer:
- Sub-surface water-bearing area in which the water is contained in and moves through fractures (cracks) in the bedrock.
- Any substance that may produce cancer.
- Occurring over a long period of time (more than 1 year).
- The amount of one substance dissolved or contained in a given amount of another. For example, sea water contains a higher concentration of salt than fresh water.
- Any substance or material that enters a system (e.g., the environment, human body, food, etc.) where it is not normally found.
- Dermal contact:
- Contact with the skin. Refers to absorption through the skin as a route of exposure.
- The amount of substance to which a person is exposed. Dose often takes body weight into account.
- Refers to a location toward which groundwater will flow.
- Environmental Media:
- Groundwater surface water, air, soil sediment and biota.
- Environmental Transport:
- Movement of contaminants from the source to points where human exposure can occur.
- Contact with a chemical by swallowing, breathing, or direct contact (such as through the skin or eyes). Exposure may be short term (acute) or long term (chronic).
- Exposure Pathway:
- An exposure pathway is the process by which an individual is exposed to contaminants that originate from some source of contamination. It consists of five elements: 1) Source of Contamination, 2) Environmental Media/Transport, 3) Point of Exposure, 4) Route of Expoxsure and 5) Receptor Population.
- Water contained in the spaces between soil and rock below the water table. This water can be in overburden (shallow) aquifers or in bedrock aquifers.
- Swallowing (such as eating or drinking). Chemicals can get into or on food, drink, utensils, cigarettes, or hands where they can then be ingested. After ingestion, chemicals can be absorbed into the blood and distributed throughout the body.
- Part of the breathing process. Exposure can occur by inhaling contaminants which can then be deposited in the lungs, taken into the blood, or both.
- A man-made pond designed to receive wastewater from a drainage system.
- Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level (LOAEL):
- The LOAEL is the lowest dose at which an adverse health effect is seen in a particular study. The LOAEL is often used to derive MRLs and RfDs.
- Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL):
- The MCL is a regulatory limit set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for contaminants in drinking water. If an MCL is exceeded, regulatory action is required under the Safe Drinking Water Act. MCLs are not always strictly health based but can consider technological or economic feasibility.
- Soil, water, air, plants, animals, or any other parts of the environment that can contain contaminants.
- Minimal Risk Level (MRL):
- Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) are levels of chemical exposure below which non-cancer effects are not expected. MRLs are derived by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. An MRL is derived by dividing a LOAEL or NOAEL by "safety factors" to account for uncertainty and provide added health protection.
- National Priorities List (NPL):
- The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) listing of sites that have undergone preliminary assessment and site inspection to determine which locations pose an immediate threat to persons living or working near the release. These sites are most in need of cleanup.
- National Toxicology Program (NTP):
- NTP conducts toxicological testing on those substances most frequently found at sites on the National Priorities List of the EPA, and which also have the greatest potential for human exposure.
- No Apparent Public Health Hazard
- A conclusion category used when human exposure to contaminated media is occurring or has occurred in the past, but the exposure is below a level of health hazard.
- No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL):
- The NOAEL is the highest dose from a study that did not find any adverse health effects. The NOAEL is often used to derive MRLs and RfDs.
- No Public Health Hazard:
- A conclusion category used when data indicate that no current, past or potential future exposure exists and therefore no health hazard.
- Oral Reference Dose (RfD):
- Oral Reference Doses (RfDs) are levels of chemical exposure, derived by the Environmental Protection Agency, below which non-cancer effects are not expected. An RfD is derived by dividing a LOAEL or NOAEL by "safety factors" to account for uncertainty and provide added health protection.
- Military ammunition containing explosive materials.
- An area of chemicals in a particular medium, such as air or groundwater, moving away from its source in a long band or column. A plume can be a column of smoke from a chimney or chemicals moving with groundwater.
- Point of Exposure:
- A location of potential or actual human contact with a contaminated medium (e.g., drinking water well, residential yard, playground, ect..)
- Potential/Indeterminate Public Health Hazard:
- A conclusion category used when no conclusions about public health hazard can be made because environmental and/or toxicological data are lacking.
- Public Availability Session:
- An informal, drop-by meeting at which community members can meet one-on-one with state health department and ATSDR staff members to discuss health and site-related concerns.
- Public Health Assessment:
- The evaluation of data and information on the release of hazardous substances into the environment in order to assess any current or future impact on public health, develop health advisories or other recommendations, and identify studies or actions needed to evaluate and mitigate or prevent human health effects; also, the document resulting from that evaluation.
- Public Health Hazard:
- Sites that pose a public health hazard as the result of long-term exposures to hazardous substances.
- Soil Bioventing:
- Process designed to clean-up contaminated soil through oxygen enrichment. The added oxygen increases microbial activity and speeds up the degradation of the soil contaminants.
- Receptor Population:
- Persons who are exposed or potentially exposed to the contaminants of concern at a point of exposure.
- In risk assessment, the probability that something will cause injury, combined with the potential severity of that injury.
- Route of Exposure:
- The way in which a person may contact a chemical substance. For example, drinking (ingestion) and bathing (skin contact) are two different routes of exposure to contaminants that may be found in water.
- Origin of a contaminant release into the environment, or, if the source is unknown, the environmental media through which contaminants are presented at a point of exposure.
- Another name for the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), which created ATSDR.
- Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs):
- Substances that easily become vapors or gases and contain carbon and different proportions of other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, sulfur, or nitrogen. Many VOCs are commonly used as solvents (paint thinners, lacquer thinner, degreasers, and dry cleaning fluids).