PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT
CENEX SUPPLY AND MARKETING, INCORPORATED
(a/k/a WESTERN FARMERS, INCORPORATED)
QUINCY, GRANT COUNTY, WASHINGTON
EPA FACILITY ID: WAD980726269
March 1, 2002
The Washington State Department of Health
Under a cooperative agreement with the
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
TABLE OF CONTENTS
- A. GroundwaterB. Air: On-siteC. Air: Off-siteD. Soil GasE. SoilF. Multiple chemical exposure
|ATSDR||Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry|
|CREG||ATSDR cancer risk evaluation guide|
|CSMI||Cenex Supply and Marketing, Inc.|
|WDOH||Washington State Department of Health|
|Ecology||Washington State Department of Ecology|
|EMEG||ATSDR environmental media evaluation guide|
|EPA||Environmental Protection Agency|
|LOAEL||lowest observed adverse effect level|
|MCL||Safe Drinking Water Act maximum contaminant level|
|MCLG||Safe Drinking Water Act maximum contaminant level goal|
|MRL||ATSDR minimal risk level|
|MTCA||Department of Ecology Model Toxics Cleanup Act regulation|
|NOAEL||no observed adverse effect level|
|ppb||parts per billion|
|ppm||parts per million|
|PAHs||polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons|
|PHA||public health assessment|
|RfD||oral reference dose|
|RMEG||ATSDR reference dose media evaluation guide|
|RCRA||Resource Conservation and Recovery Act|
|SVE||soil vapor extraction|
|USGS||United States Geological Survey|
|VOC||volatile organic compound|
- Occurring over a short period of time. An acute exposure is one which lasts for less than 2 weeks.
- Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR):
- The principal federal public health agency involved with hazardous waste issues, responsible forpreventing or reducing the harmful effects of exposure to hazardous substances on human health andquality of life. ATSDR is part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
- An underground formation composed of materials such as sand, soil, or gravel that can store and/or supply groundwater to wells and springs.
- Cancer risk evaluation guide (CREG):
- The concentration of a chemical in air, soil, or water that is expected to cause no more than oneexcess cancer in 1 million persons exposed over a lifetime. The CREG is a comparison value usedto select contaminants of potential health concern and is based on the cancer slope factor (CSF).
- Cancer slope factor :
- A number assigned to a cancer-causing chemical that is used to estimate its ability to cause cancer inhumans.
- Any substance that can cause or contribute to the production of cancer.
- Chronic :
- A long period of time. A chronic exposure is one which lasts for a year or longer.
- Comparison value :
- A concentration of a chemical in soil, air, or water that, if exceeded, requires further evaluation as acontaminant of potential health concern. The terms comparison value and screening level are oftenused synonymously.
- Contaminant :
- Any chemical that exists in the environment or living organisms that is not normally found there.
- Dose :
- A dose is the amount of a substance that gets into the body through ingestion, skin absorption, orinhalation. It is calculated per kilogram of body weight per day.
- Environmental media evaluation guide (EMEG) :
- A concentration in air, soil, or water below which adverse noncancer health effects are not expectedto occur. The EMEG is a comparison value used to select contaminants of potential health concernand is based on ATSDR's minimal risk level (MRL).
- Epidemiology :
- The study of the occurrence and causes of health effects in human populations. An epidemiologicalstudy often compares two groups of people who are alike except for one factor, such as exposure to achemical or the presence of a health effect. The investigators try to determine if any factor (i.e., age,sex, occupation, economic status) is associated with the health effect.
- Exposure :
- Contact with a chemical by swallowing, by breathing, or by direct contact (such as through the skinor eyes). Exposure might be short-term (acute) or long-term (chronic).
- Groundwater :
- Water found underground that fills pores between materials such as sand, soil, or gravel. In aquifers,groundwater often occurs in quantities where it can be used for drinking water, irrigation, and otherpurposes.
- Hazardous substance :
- Any material that poses a threat to public health and/or the environment. Typical hazardoussubstances are materials that are toxic, corrosive, ignitable, explosive, or chemically reactive.
- Indeterminate public health hazard :
- Sites for which no conclusions about public health hazard can be made because data are lacking.
- Ingestion rate :
- The amount of an environmental medium which could be ingested typically on a daily basis. Unitsfor IR are usually liter/day for water, and mg/day for soil.
- Inorganic :
- Compounds composed of mineral materials, including elemental salts and metals such as iron, aluminum, mercury, and zinc.
- Lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) :
- LOAELs have been classified into "less serious" or "serious" effects. In dose-response experiments,the lowest exposure level at which there are statistically or biologically significant increases in thefrequency or severity of adverse effects between the exposed population and its appropriate control.
- Maximum contaminant level (MCL) :
- A drinking water regulation established by the federal Safe Drinking Water Act. It is the maximumpermissible concentration of a contaminant in water that is delivered to the free-flowing outlet of theultimate user of a public water system. MCLs are enforceable standards.
- Soil, water, air, plants, animals, or any other part of the environment that can contain contaminants.
- Minimal risk level (MRL) :
- An amount of chemical that gets into the body (i.e., dose) below which health effects are notexpected. MRLs are derived by ATSDR for acute, intermediate, and chronic duration exposures bythe inhalation and oral routes.
- Model Toxics Control Act (MTCA) :
- The hazardous waste clean-up law for Washington State.
- Monitoring wells :
- Special wells drilled at locations on or off a hazardous waste site so water can be sampled at selecteddepths and studied to determine the movement of groundwater and the amount, distribution, andtype of contaminant.
- No apparent public health hazard :
- Sites where human exposure to contaminated media is occurring or has occurred in the past, but theexposure is below a level of health hazard.
- No observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) :
- The dose of a chemical at which there were no statistically or biologically significant increases infrequency or severity of adverse effects seen between the exposed population and its appropriatecontrol. Effects might be observed at this dose but were judged not to be "adverse."
- No public health hazard :
- Sites for which data indicate no current or past exposure or no potential for exposure and thereforeno health hazard.
- Oral reference dose (RfD) :
- An amount of chemical ingested into the body (i.e., dose) below which health effects are notexpected. RfDs are published by EPA.
- Organic :
- Compounds composed of carbon, including materials such as solvents, oils, and pesticides, whichare not easily dissolved in water.
- Parts per billion (ppb)/Parts per million (ppm) :
- Units commonly used to express low concentrations of contaminants. For example, 1 ounce oftrichloroethylene (TCE) in 1 million ounces of water is 1 ppm. 1 ounce of TCE in 1 billion ouncesof water is 1 ppb. If one drop of TCE is mixed in a competition-size swimming pool, the water willcontain about 1 ppb of TCE.
- Plume :
- An area of contaminants in a specific media such as groundwater.
- Reference dose media evaluation guide (RMEG) :
- A concentration in air, soil, or water below which adverse noncancer health effects are not expectedto occur. The EMEG is a comparison value used to select contaminants of potential health concernand is based on EPA's oral reference dose (RfD).
- Remedial investigation :
- A study designed to collect the data necessary to determine the nature and extent of contamination ata site.
- Route of exposure :
- The way in which a person might contact a chemical substance that includes ingestion, skin contact,and breathing.
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) :
- Established in 1970 to bring together parts of various government agencies involved with the controlof pollution.
- Volatile organic compound (VOC) :
- An organic (carbon-containing) compound that evaporates (volatilizes) easily at room temperature. A significant number of the VOCs are commonly used as solvents.