PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT
FAIRCHILD AIR FORCE BASE
SPOKANE, SPOKANE COUNTY, WASHINGTON
CERCLIS NO. WA9571924647
December 22, 1997
The Washington State Department of Health
under a cooperative agreement with the
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
TABLE OF CONTENTS
- A. Site Description and History
B. ATSDR Involvement
C. Demographics, Land Use, and Natural Resource Use
- A. Introduction
|AFFF||Aqueous Film-Forming Foam|
|1,2-DCE||cis and trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene|
|AOC||Area of Concern|
|AST||Above-Ground Storage Tank|
|ATSDR||Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry|
|AWQC||Ambient Water Quality Criteria|
|BTEX||Benzene, Ethylbenzene, Toluene, Xylene|
|CERCLA||Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act|
|COC||Contaminant of Concern|
|CREG||Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide|
|CSF||Cancer Slope Factor|
|CPF||Cancer Potency Factor|
|DOD||Department of Defense|
|DOH||Washington State Department of Health|
|DWEL||Drinking Water Equivalent Level|
|Ecology||Washington State Department of Ecology|
|EMEG||Environmental Media Evaluation Guide|
|EPA||Environmental Protection Agency|
|FAFB||Fairchild Air Force Base|
|GPR||Ground Penetrating Radar|
|GRRDF||Graham Road Recycling and Disposal Facility|
|HARM||Hazard Assessment Rating Methodology|
|IRP||Installation Restoration Program|
|LFI||Limited Field Investigation|
|LOAEL||Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level|
|LTHA||Lifetime Health Advisory|
|LTM||Long Term Monitoring|
|LTO||Long Term Operations|
|MCL||Maximum Contaminant Level|
|MOU||Memorandum of Understanding|
|MRL||Minimal Risk Level|
|NFA||No Further Action|
|NOAEL||No Observed Adverse Effect Level|
|NPL||National Priorities List|
|OSHA||Occupational Health and Safety Administration|
|PAH||Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon|
|PHA||Public Health Assessment|
|PHAP||Public Health Action Plan|
|ppb||parts per billion|
|ppm||parts per million|
|RCRA||Resource, Conservation and Recovery Act|
|RI/FS||Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study|
|RfD||Oral Reference Dose|
|RMEG||Reference Media Evaluation Guide|
|SARA||Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986|
|SCAPCA||Spokane County Air Pollution Control Authority|
|SVOC||Semi-Volatile Organic Chemical|
|TCLP||Toxicity Characteristic Leachate Procedure|
|TPH||Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons|
|TRI||Toxic Release Inventory|
|ug/dl||micrograms per deciliter|
|USAF||United States Air Force|
|UST||Underground Storage Tank|
|VOC||Volatile Organic Compounds|
Occurring over a short time, usually a few minutes or hours. An acute exposure can result in short-term or long-termhealth effects. An acute effect happens a short time (up to 1 year) after exposure.
Process designed to clean up volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in groundwater by forcing air into the contaminatedgroundwater which forces the VOCs up to the surface where they are released to the air.
Process by which volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are removed from soil or water by movement of air through thematerial causing the VOCs to evaporate more readily.
Surrounding. For example, ambient air is usually outdoor air (as opposed to indoor air).
Water-bearing rock or rock formation located beneath the ground surface.
A typical or average level of a chemical in the environment. Background often refers to naturally occurring oruncontaminated levels but can include contaminants so widespread in the environment so that no specific source isapparent.
A general term for the rock that underlies the shallow or overburden aquifer.
Sub-surface water-bearing area in which the water is contained in and moves through fractures (cracks) in thebedrock.
Any substance that may produce cancer.
Occurring over a long period of time (more than 1 year).
The amount of one substance dissolved or contained in a given amount of another. For example, sea water contains ahigher concentration of salt than fresh water.
Any substance or material that enters a system (e.g., the environment, human body, food, etc.) where it is not normallyfound.
Contact with the skin. Refers to absorption through the skin as a route of exposure.
The amount of substance to which a person is exposed. Dose often takes body weight into account.
Refers to a location toward which groundwater will flow.
Groundwater surface water, air, soil sediment and biota.
Movement of contaminants from the source to points where human exposure can occur.
Contact with a chemical by swallowing, breathing, or direct contact (such as through the skin or eyes). Exposure maybe short term (acute) or long term (chronic).
An exposure pathway is the process by which an individual is exposed to contaminants that originate from somesource of contamination. It consists of five elements: 1) Source of Contamination, 2) Environmental Media/Transport,3) Point of Exposure, 4) Route of Exposure and 5) Receptor Population.
Water contained in the spaces between soil and rock below the water table. This water can be in shallow (overburden)aquifers or bedrock aquifers.
Swallowing (such as eating or drinking). Chemicals can get into or on food, drink, utensils, cigarettes, or hands wherethey can then be ingested. After ingestion, chemicals can be absorbed into the blood and distributed throughout thebody.
Part of the breathing process. Exposure can occur by inhaling contaminants which can then be deposited in the lungs,taken into the blood, or both.
A man-made pond designed to receive wastewater from a drainage system.
Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level (LOAEL)
The LOAEL is the lowest dose at which an adverse health effect is seen in a particular study. The LOAEL is oftenused to derive MRLs and RfDs.
Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL)
The MCL is a regulatory limit set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for contaminants in drinking water. If an MCL is exceeded, regulatory action is required under the Safe Drinking Water Act. MCLs are not always strictlyhealth based but can consider technological or economic feasibility.
Soil, water, air, plants, animals, or any other parts of the environment that can contain contaminants.
Minimal Risk Level (MRL)
Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) are levels of chemical exposure below which non-cancer effects are not expected. MRLsare derived by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. An MRL is derived by dividing a LOAEL orNOAEL by "safety factors" to account for uncertainty and provide added health protection.
National Priorities List (NPL)
The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) listing of sites that have undergone preliminary assessment and siteinspection to determine which locations pose an immediate threat to persons living or working near the release. Thesesites are most in need of cleanup.
National Toxicology Program (NTP)
NTP conducts toxicological testing on those substances most frequently found at sites on the National Priorities List ofthe EPA, and which also have the greatest potential for human exposure.
National Exposure Registry
A listing of persons exposed to hazardous substances. This listing consists of chemical-specific subregistries. Theprimary purpose of the registry program is to create a large database of similarly exposed persons. This database is tobe used to facilitate epidemiology research in ascertaining adverse health effects of persons exposed to low levels ofchemicals over long periods of time.
No Apparent Public Health Hazard
A conclusion category used when human exposure to contaminated media is occurring or has occurred in the past, butthe exposure is below a level of health hazard.
No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL)
The NOAEL is the highest dose from a study that did not find any adverse health effects. The NOAEL is often used toderive MRLs and RfDs.
No Public Health Hazard
A conclusion category used when data indicate that no current, past or potential for future exposure exists and,therefore, no health hazard exists.
Oral Reference Dose (RfD)
Oral Reference Doses (RfDs) are levels of chemical exposure, derived by the Environmental Protection Agency, belowwhich non-cancer effects are not expected. An RfD is derived by dividing a LOAEL or NOAEL by "safety factors" toaccount for uncertainty and provide added health protection
All geologic material (loose soil, sand, gravel, ect.) that overlies bedrock.
An area of chemicals in a particular medium, such as air or groundwater, moving away from its source in a long bandor column. A plume can be a column of smoke from a chimney or chemicals moving with groundwater.
Point of Exposure
A location of potential or actual human contact with a contaminated medium (e.g., drinking water well, residentialyard, playground, ect.)
Potential/Indeterminate Public Health Hazard
A conclusion category used when no conclusions about public health hazard can be made because environmentaland/or toxicological data are lacking.
Public Availability Session
An informal, drop-by meeting at which community members can meet one-on-one with state health department andATSDR staff members to discuss health and site-related concerns.
Public Health Assessment
The evaluation of data and information on the release of hazardous substances into the environment in order to assessany current or future impact on public health, develop health advisories or other recommendations, and identifystudies or actions needed to evaluate and mitigate or prevent human health effects; also, the document resulting fromthat evaluation.
Public Health Hazard
Sites that pose a public health hazard as the result of long-term exposures to hazardous substances.
Persons who are exposed or potentially exposed to the contaminants of concern at a point of exposure.
In risk assessment, the probability that something will cause injury, combined with the potential severity of that injury.
Route of Exposure
The way in which a person may contact a chemical substance. For example, drinking (ingestion) and bathing (skincontact) are two different routes of exposure to contaminants that may be found in water.
Sub-surface water-bearing area that lies between the water table and bedrock characterized by loose soil, sand, gravel, ect. Also known as the overburden.
Process designed to clean up contaminated soil through oxygen enrichment. The added oxygen increases microbialactivity and speeds up the degradation of the soil contaminants.
Origin of a contaminant release into the environment, or, if the source is unknown, the environmental media throughwhich contaminants are presented at a point of exposure.
Another name for the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA),which created ATSDR.
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
Substances that easily become vapors or gases and contain carbon and different proportions of other elements such ashydrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, sulfur, or nitrogen. Many VOCs are commonly used as solvents (paintthinners, lacquer thinner, degreasers, and dry cleaning fluids).