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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

FAIRCHILD AIR FORCE BASE
SPOKANE, SPOKANE COUNTY, WASHINGTON
CERCLIS NO. WA9571924647

December 22, 1997

Prepared by:

The Washington State Department of Health
under a cooperative agreement with the
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry


TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF FIGURES

ACRONYMS/ABBREVIATIONS

GLOSSARY

SUMMARY

BACKGROUND

    A. Site Description and History
    B. ATSDR Involvement
    C. Demographics, Land Use, and Natural Resource Use

PATHWAYS ANALYSIS/PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

    A. Introduction
      Pathway Summary Tables

    B. Completed Exposure Pathways

      Pathway 1a: Craig Road Landfill --> Groundwater --> Vietzke Village Residents/Airway Heights Residents/Scafco Employees

        Summary
        Background
        Health Assessment
        Conclusions
        Recommendations

      Pathway 1b: Craig Road Landfill --> Air --> Vietzke Village Residents

        Summary
        Background
        Health Assessment
        Conclusions
        Recommendations

      Pathway 2: Wastewater Lagoons --> Groundwater --> West Thorpe Road Area Residents

        Summary
        Background
        Health Assessment
        Conclusions
        Recommendations

      Pathway 3: No-Name Ditch (Fairchild Easement) --> Sediment/Surface Water --> West Thorpe Road Residents

        Summary
        Background
        Health Assessment
        Conclusions
        Recommendations

      Pathway 4: Tordon --> Groundwater/Soil --> West Thorpe Road Area Residents

        Summary
        Background
        Health Assessment
        Conclusions
        Recommendations

      Pathway 5: On-Base Activities --> Sediment/Soil --> Base Personnel

        Summary
        Background
        Health Assessment
        Conclusions
        Recommendations

    C. Potential Exposure Pathways

      Pathway 1: Future Off-Base Development --> Groundwater --> Off-Base Residents

        Summary
        Background
        Health Assessment
        Conclusions
        Recommendations

      Pathway 2: Future Base Development --> Soil/Groundwater --> Future Residents

        Summary
        Background
        Health Assessment
        Conclusions
        Recommendations

      Pathway 3: On-Base Supply Well #2 --> Groundwater --> Base Personnel

        Summary
        Background
        Health Assessment
        Conclusions
        Recommendations

    D. Toxicological Summaries

      Trichloroethylene (TCE)
      Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH)
      Tordon
      Lead

HEALTH OUTCOME DATA EVALUATION

COMMUNITY HEALTH CONCERNS EVALUATION

PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION PLAN

PREPARERS OF REPORT

REFERENCES

APPENDIX A. Figures

APPENDIX B. Hazardous Waste Sites at Fairchild Air Force Base

APPENDIX C. Contaminants of Concern.

APPENDIX D. Exposure Dose Calculations

APPENDIX E. Response to Public Comment

APPENDIX F. ATSDR Public Health Assessment Conclusion Categories

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1. Fairchild Air Force Base Exposure Pathway Conclusions

Table 2. Completed Exposure Pathways for Fairchild Air Force Base, Washington

Table 3. Potential Exposure Pathways for Fairchild Air Force Base, Washington

Table 4. Vietzke Village Supply Well TCE Measurements

Table 5. Potential Areas of Concern for Future On-Base Residential Soil Exposure at Fairchild Air Force Base, Washington

Appendix B. Table B1.Hazardous Waste Sites at Fairchild Air Force Base, Washington

Appendix C. Table C1.Contaminants of Concern for Fairchild Air Force Base, Washington Pathway 1a: Craig Road Landfill --> Groundwater --> Vietzke Village Residents/Airway Heights Residents/Scafco Employees

Appendix C. Table C2.Contaminants of Concern for Fairchild Air Force Base, Washington Pathway 3: No-Name Ditch (Fairchild Easement) --> Sediment/Surface Water --> West Thorpe Road Area Residents

Appendix C. Table C3.Contaminants of Concern for Fairchild Air Force Base, Washington Pathway 3: No-Name Ditch (Fairchild Easement) --> Sediment/Surface Water --> West Thorpe Road Area Residents

Appendix C. Table C4.Contaminants of Concern for Fairchild Air Force Base, Washington Pathway 4: Tordon --> Groundwater/Soil/Surface Water --> West Thorpe Road Area Residents

Appendix C. Table C5. Contaminants of Concern for Fairchild Air Force Base, Washington Pathway 5: On-Base Activities --> Sediment/Soil --> Base Personnel

Appendix C. Table C6.Contaminants of Concern for Fairchild Air Force Base, Washington Pathway 1: Future Off-Base Development --> Groundwater --> Off-Site Residents

Appendix C. Table C7.Contaminants of Concern for Fairchild Air Force Base, Washington Pathway 2: Future Base Development --> Soil/Groundwater --> Future Residents

Appendix F. Table F1.ATSDR Public Health Assessment Conclusion Categories

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. Fairchild Air Force Base Site Location Map

Figure 2. Fairchild Air Force Base Satellite Facilities

Figure 3. Fairchild Air Force Base Hazardous Waste Sites

Figure 4. Demographics for Fairchild Air Force Base and Surrounding Area

Figure 5. Craig Road Landfill and Surrounding Area

Figure 6. Craig Road Landfill Plume and Well Locations

Figure 7. Well Locations for Sites WW-1, FT-1 and West Thorpe Road Area Residences

ACRONYMS/ABBREVIATIONS

AFFFAqueous Film-Forming Foam
1,2-DCA1,2-Dichloroethane
1,2-DCEcis and trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene
1,1,1-TCA1,1,1-Trichloroethane
AOCArea of Concern
ASTAbove-Ground Storage Tank
ATSDRAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
AWQCAmbient Water Quality Criteria
BTEXBenzene, Ethylbenzene, Toluene, Xylene
cis-1,2-DCEcis-1,2-Dichloroethylene
CERCLAComprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act
COCContaminant of Concern
CREGCancer Risk Evaluation Guide
CSFCancer Slope Factor
CPFCancer Potency Factor
DODDepartment of Defense
DOHWashington State Department of Health
DWELDrinking Water Equivalent Level
EcologyWashington State Department of Ecology
EMEGEnvironmental Media Evaluation Guide
EPAEnvironmental Protection Agency
EODExplosive Ordnance
FAFBFairchild Air Force Base
GPRGround Penetrating Radar
GRRDFGraham Road Recycling and Disposal Facility
HARMHazard Assessment Rating Methodology
IRPInstallation Restoration Program
LFILimited Field Investigation
LOAELLowest Observed Adverse Effect Level
LTHALifetime Health Advisory
LTMLong Term Monitoring
LTOLong Term Operations
MCLMaximum Contaminant Level
MOUMemorandum of Understanding
MRLMinimal Risk Level
MWMonitoring Well
NFANo Further Action
NOAELNo Observed Adverse Effect Level
NPLNational Priorities List
OSHAOccupational Health and Safety Administration
PAHPolycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon
PCPPentachlorophenol
PCBPolychlorinated Biphenyl
PCETetrachloroethylene, Perchloroethylene
PHAPublic Health Assessment
PHAPPublic Health Action Plan
ppbparts per billion
ppmparts per million
RCRAResource, Conservation and Recovery Act
RI/FSRemedial Investigation/Feasibility Study
RfDOral Reference Dose
RMEGReference Media Evaluation Guide
RWResidential Well
SARASuperfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986
SCAPCASpokane County Air Pollution Control Authority
SVOCSemi-Volatile Organic Chemical
TCETrichloroethylene
TCLPToxicity Characteristic Leachate Procedure
TPHTotal Petroleum Hydrocarbons
trans-1,2-DCEtrans-1,2-Dichloroethylene
TRIToxic Release Inventory
ug/dlmicrograms per deciliter
USAFUnited States Air Force
USTUnderground Storage Tank
VOCVolatile Organic Compounds

GLOSSARY

Acute
Occurring over a short time, usually a few minutes or hours. An acute exposure can result in short-term or long-termhealth effects. An acute effect happens a short time (up to 1 year) after exposure.

Air Sparging
Process designed to clean up volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in groundwater by forcing air into the contaminatedgroundwater which forces the VOCs up to the surface where they are released to the air.

Air Stripping
Process by which volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are removed from soil or water by movement of air through thematerial causing the VOCs to evaporate more readily.

Ambient
Surrounding. For example, ambient air is usually outdoor air (as opposed to indoor air).

Aquifer
Water-bearing rock or rock formation located beneath the ground surface.

Background Level
A typical or average level of a chemical in the environment. Background often refers to naturally occurring oruncontaminated levels but can include contaminants so widespread in the environment so that no specific source isapparent.

Bedrock
A general term for the rock that underlies the shallow or overburden aquifer.

Bedrock aquifer
Sub-surface water-bearing area in which the water is contained in and moves through fractures (cracks) in thebedrock.

Carcinogen
Any substance that may produce cancer.

Chronic
Occurring over a long period of time (more than 1 year).

Concentration
The amount of one substance dissolved or contained in a given amount of another. For example, sea water contains ahigher concentration of salt than fresh water.

Contaminant
Any substance or material that enters a system (e.g., the environment, human body, food, etc.) where it is not normallyfound.

Dermal contact
Contact with the skin. Refers to absorption through the skin as a route of exposure.

Dose
The amount of substance to which a person is exposed. Dose often takes body weight into account.

Downgradient
Refers to a location toward which groundwater will flow.

Environmental Media
Groundwater surface water, air, soil sediment and biota.

Environmental Transport
Movement of contaminants from the source to points where human exposure can occur.

Exposure
Contact with a chemical by swallowing, breathing, or direct contact (such as through the skin or eyes). Exposure maybe short term (acute) or long term (chronic).

Exposure Pathway
An exposure pathway is the process by which an individual is exposed to contaminants that originate from somesource of contamination. It consists of five elements: 1) Source of Contamination, 2) Environmental Media/Transport,3) Point of Exposure, 4) Route of Exposure and 5) Receptor Population.

Groundwater
Water contained in the spaces between soil and rock below the water table. This water can be in shallow (overburden)aquifers or bedrock aquifers.

Ingestion
Swallowing (such as eating or drinking). Chemicals can get into or on food, drink, utensils, cigarettes, or hands wherethey can then be ingested. After ingestion, chemicals can be absorbed into the blood and distributed throughout thebody.

Inhalation
Part of the breathing process. Exposure can occur by inhaling contaminants which can then be deposited in the lungs,taken into the blood, or both.

Lagoon
A man-made pond designed to receive wastewater from a drainage system.

Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level (LOAEL)
The LOAEL is the lowest dose at which an adverse health effect is seen in a particular study. The LOAEL is oftenused to derive MRLs and RfDs.

Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL)
The MCL is a regulatory limit set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for contaminants in drinking water. If an MCL is exceeded, regulatory action is required under the Safe Drinking Water Act. MCLs are not always strictlyhealth based but can consider technological or economic feasibility.

Media
Soil, water, air, plants, animals, or any other parts of the environment that can contain contaminants.

Minimal Risk Level (MRL)
Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) are levels of chemical exposure below which non-cancer effects are not expected. MRLsare derived by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. An MRL is derived by dividing a LOAEL orNOAEL by "safety factors" to account for uncertainty and provide added health protection.

National Priorities List (NPL)
The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) listing of sites that have undergone preliminary assessment and siteinspection to determine which locations pose an immediate threat to persons living or working near the release. Thesesites are most in need of cleanup.

National Toxicology Program (NTP)
NTP conducts toxicological testing on those substances most frequently found at sites on the National Priorities List ofthe EPA, and which also have the greatest potential for human exposure.

National Exposure Registry
A listing of persons exposed to hazardous substances. This listing consists of chemical-specific subregistries. Theprimary purpose of the registry program is to create a large database of similarly exposed persons. This database is tobe used to facilitate epidemiology research in ascertaining adverse health effects of persons exposed to low levels ofchemicals over long periods of time.

No Apparent Public Health Hazard
A conclusion category used when human exposure to contaminated media is occurring or has occurred in the past, butthe exposure is below a level of health hazard.

No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL)
The NOAEL is the highest dose from a study that did not find any adverse health effects. The NOAEL is often used toderive MRLs and RfDs.

No Public Health Hazard
A conclusion category used when data indicate that no current, past or potential for future exposure exists and,therefore, no health hazard exists.

Oral Reference Dose (RfD)
Oral Reference Doses (RfDs) are levels of chemical exposure, derived by the Environmental Protection Agency, belowwhich non-cancer effects are not expected. An RfD is derived by dividing a LOAEL or NOAEL by "safety factors" toaccount for uncertainty and provide added health protection

Overburden
All geologic material (loose soil, sand, gravel, ect.) that overlies bedrock.

Plume
An area of chemicals in a particular medium, such as air or groundwater, moving away from its source in a long bandor column. A plume can be a column of smoke from a chimney or chemicals moving with groundwater.

Point of Exposure
A location of potential or actual human contact with a contaminated medium (e.g., drinking water well, residentialyard, playground, ect.)

Potential/Indeterminate Public Health Hazard
A conclusion category used when no conclusions about public health hazard can be made because environmentaland/or toxicological data are lacking.

Public Availability Session
An informal, drop-by meeting at which community members can meet one-on-one with state health department andATSDR staff members to discuss health and site-related concerns.

Public Health Assessment
The evaluation of data and information on the release of hazardous substances into the environment in order to assessany current or future impact on public health, develop health advisories or other recommendations, and identifystudies or actions needed to evaluate and mitigate or prevent human health effects; also, the document resulting fromthat evaluation.

Public Health Hazard
Sites that pose a public health hazard as the result of long-term exposures to hazardous substances.

Receptor Population
Persons who are exposed or potentially exposed to the contaminants of concern at a point of exposure.

Risk
In risk assessment, the probability that something will cause injury, combined with the potential severity of that injury.

Route of Exposure
The way in which a person may contact a chemical substance. For example, drinking (ingestion) and bathing (skincontact) are two different routes of exposure to contaminants that may be found in water.

Shallow aquifer
Sub-surface water-bearing area that lies between the water table and bedrock characterized by loose soil, sand, gravel, ect. Also known as the overburden.

Soil Bioventing
Process designed to clean up contaminated soil through oxygen enrichment. The added oxygen increases microbialactivity and speeds up the degradation of the soil contaminants.

Source
Origin of a contaminant release into the environment, or, if the source is unknown, the environmental media throughwhich contaminants are presented at a point of exposure.

Superfund
Another name for the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA),which created ATSDR.

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
Substances that easily become vapors or gases and contain carbon and different proportions of other elements such ashydrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, sulfur, or nitrogen. Many VOCs are commonly used as solvents (paintthinners, lacquer thinner, degreasers, and dry cleaning fluids).



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