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PETITIONED PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

EGLIN AIR FORCE BASE
(a/k/a USAF EGLIN AIR FORCE BASE ARMAMENT DIVISION)
EGLIN AIR FORCE BASE, OKALOOSA COUNTY, FLORIDA


TABLES

Table 1.

Evaluation of Potential Exposure Pathways at Eglin AFB
Site Name/ Event Exposure Pathway Elements Status/Remedial Activities Comments
Source of Contamination Environmental Media Point of Exposure/ Route of Exposure Exposed Population Time of Exposure
Range C-62 and Range C-52N Open burning and open detonation operations Air Downwind residents
  • Inhalation
Off-base residents Past, present, and future These ranges are active and are not currently being investigated under the Installation Restoration Program (IRP). All of the chemicals released to the air were below air quality standards; therefore, even though exposure is possible, there is no public health hazard.
Prescribed Burns Prescribed burns on Eglin Reservation Air Downwind residents
  • Inhalation
Off-base residents Past, present, and future Prescribed burns are not currently being investigated under the IRP. Even though Eglin AFB schedules its prescribed burns to minimize human impacts, unpredictable changes in wind patterns could blow plumes of potentially unhealthy smoke to residential areas on some occasions, which could result in short-term health effects. Therefore, there is a public health hazard for short-term effects.
Wildfires Wildfires on Eglin Reservation Air Downwind residents
  • Inhalation
Off-base residents Past, present, and future Wildfires are not currently being investigated under the IRP. Winds could occasionally blow plumes of potentially unhealthy smoke toward residential neighborhoods, which could result in short-term health effects. Therefore, there is a public health hazard for short-term effects.
C-6 Radar Facility (SS-85) In 1965, a fire destroyed the main building of the C-6 Radar Facility. The burned debris, including high voltage transformers and radar/surveillance equipment, might have been buried at the site. Air Downwind residents
  • Inhalation
Off-base residents Past (1/5/65) One person reported that the entire facility and contents were buried. A second person reported that only minimal inert debris were buried at the site. The fire lasted only one day; therefore, inhalation exposures to contaminants were extremely short-lived and probably did not result in chronic health effects. Therefore, while exposure was possible, there is no public health hazard.
Groundwater None None None The Air Force is conducting long-term groundwater monitoring. Although contamination is present in the groundwater, it is not affecting the nearest downgradient wells. In addition, long-term groundwater monitoring will help ensure that the contamination does not migrate off base. Therefore, there is no public health hazard.
Tom's Bayou Surface water drainage from: DP-07, LF-08, SS-26, OT-29, SS-32, ST-64, DP-96, ST-112, DP-261, AOC-88, AOC-98, POI-324, POI-358, POI-390, POI-408, and POI-412 Surface water, sediment, and fish People using Tom's Bayou Residents who live around the bayou Past, present, and future Tom's Bayou is not currently being investigated under the IRP. Even though contamination is present at sites on Eglin Main Base that are within the Tom's Bayou drainage basin, the levels detected are too low to be of health concern at these source areas. Therefore, even though exposure is possible, Tom's Bayou poses no public health hazard.
Weekly Pond The source is most likely surface runoff from adjacent areas where pesticides and herbicides were applied (personal communication with Eglin AFB personnel, August 2002). Fish People who fished in Weekly Pond
  • Ingestion

Since 1996 only catch-and-release fishing has been allowed in the pond.

People catching and eating fish in the past Past

(Prior to 1996)

Weekly Pond is not currently being investigated under the IRP. Even though pesticides were detected in the fish, the levels detected were too low to be of health concern for anyone eating the fish; therefore, there is no past public health hazard. There is also no present or future public health hazards because people are not allowed to eat fish from Weekly Pond (i.e., no exposure).
Pocosin Pond (AOC-91) Depleted uranium (DU) ammunition were fired at a target located in the middle of the pond. In addition, Pocosin Pond receives surface water runoff from the area of the Cattle Dipping Vat (OT-83; formerly AOC-113). Fish None

Fishing is not allowed in the pond.

None None No Further Action with current land use controls

In 1998, the Air Force removed arsenic-contaminated soil and the concrete cattle dipping vat from OT-83.

People are not allowed to catch and eat fish from Pocosin Pond; therefore, there is no public health hazard.
Pond near the North Gate of Eglin Main Base Unknown; Herbicide Orange suspected Surface water and sediment People using the unnamed pond
  • Ingestion
  • Dermal contact

The pond is located in a remote area with limited accessibility.

People who rode their horses to the pond Past This pond is not currently being investigated under the IRP. Information on the unnamed pond could not confirm whether it might have contained Herbicide Orange. However, it is not expected that anyone could come in contact with Herbicide Orange often enough or in high enough doses to be a cause for health concern. Therefore, there is no public health hazard.
Herbicide Exposure Unit–C-52A Herbicide Test Grid (SS-25) and the Mullet Creek Drum Disposal Site (DP-09) Herbicides, Malathion, and fuel oil were used at SS-25 to evaluate the effectiveness of aerial spray patterns and spray equipment. DP-09 was used for hardfill (e.g., plastics, drums, concrete, etc) disposal. Soil and groundwater None

The site has locked gates and security personnel who patrol the area.

None None No Further Action with land use controls

In 1988, the Air Force removed drums and debris from DP-09.

Even though contamination is present at the site, public access is restricted; therefore, there is no public health hazard.
Air Downwind residents
  • Inhalation
Off-base residents Past, present, and future Same as above Available data for the most extensive activities suggest that air concentrations did not reach unsafe levels at off-base locations; therefore, while exposure is possible, there is no public health hazard.
Surface water, sediment, and fish People using Mullet, Trout, and Basin Creeks
  • Ingestion
  • Dermal contact
Recreational users Past, present, and future Same as above Even though contamination is present in the surface water, sediment, and fish, the levels detected are too low to be of health concern; therefore, while exposure is possible, there is no public health hazard.
C-52A Aerial Overspray Area (AOC-24) Herbicides were sprayed at AOC-24 when climatic conditions were not appropriate for testing at the Herbicide Exposure Unit. Soil and groundwater None

Access is restricted.

None None No Further Action/ AOC file closed Even though contamination is present at the site, public access is restricted; therefore, there is no public health hazard.
Air Downwind residents
  • Inhalation
Off-base residents Past, present, and future Same as above Available data for the most extensive spraying activities (conducted at the Herbicide Exposure Unit) suggest that air concentrations did not reach unsafe levels at off-base locations; therefore, while exposure is possible, there is no public health hazard.
Surface water, sediment, and fish People using Mullet, Trout, and Basin Creeks
  • Ingestion
  • Dermal contact
Recreational users Past, present, and future Same as above Even though contamination is present in the surface water, sediment, and fish, the levels detected are too low to be of health concern; therefore, while exposure is possible, there is no public health hazard.
Upper Memorial Lake (LF-51) Herbicide drums were buried at a site north of Upper Memorial Lake. Soil People using Upper Memorial Lake
  • Ingestion
  • Dermal contact
On-base personnel and their families Past, present, and future Sediment sampling and land use controls

The Air Force posted signs, placed a layer of clean soil over the site, implemented erosion control measures, prevents residential development, annually monitors sediment quality, and quarterly inspects the site.

Even though contamination is present in the subsurface soil at this site, people who have access to the area would have minimal contact with subsurface soils, since Eglin AFB has implemented land use controls to minimize exposure. Therefore, there is no public health hazard.
Fish None

Only catch-and-release fishing is allowed.

None None Same as above People are not allowed to catch and eat fish from Upper Memorial Lake; therefore, there is no public health hazard.
Hardstand 7 (SS-26) The site was used to store herbicide drums and to transfer herbicides to aircrafts. Soil, surface water, sediment, and groundwater None

The site is fenced, locked, has signs posted, and is closely guarded.

None None A draft Statement of Basis proposes that the site be maintained in its current condition with land use controls.

In 1996, the Air Force stabilized the embankment and excavated drums and the drain pit. In 2001, the Air Force installed erosion control structures and an asphalt cap.

Remedial activities limited contaminant exposure/migration and public access is restricted; therefore, there is no public health hazard.
Isotope Burial Area (AOC-63) and C-74 Sled Track Burial Area (AOC-67) Zinc 65 on bullets was buried at the site from 1960 to the early 1970s. Soil None

The site is fenced and locked with signs posted.

None None No Further Action/ AOC files closed No Zinc 65 remains at the site and public access is restricted; therefore, there is no public health hazard.
Test Area C-64 (RW-40) DU from small-scale explosive tests, drop tests, bullet impact tests, and DU ammunition tests Soil and surface water None

The site is fenced and locked with signs posted.

None None No Further Investigative Action with land use controls

In 1999, the Air Force removed DU fragments. In 2000, the Air Force removed soil contaminated with DU.

Remedial activities removed DU fragments and soil contaminated with DU. In addition, public access is restricted; therefore, there is no public health hazard.
Test Area C-74L (RW-41) Testing of DU munitions Soil and surface water None

The site is fenced and locked with signs posted.

None None Additional excavation is recommended.

In 1980, the Air Force removed soil contaminated with DU and in 1999, they removed uranium penetrator fragments.

Although remedial activities removed uranium penetrator fragments and some soil contaminated with DU, additional radioactive contamination still exists. Because, however, public access is restricted, there is no public health hazard.
Low-level Radioactive Waste Site (RW-42) The site was used to dispose of missile fragments, metallic wastes, 55-gallon drums, and batteries. Soil and groundwater Access to the site is highly restricted at the main access road where an armed guard and barbed wire prohibit entrance. Because, however, there are no fences surrounding the site, people can trespass onto the island by boat.
  • Ingestion
  • Dermal contact
People who trespass Past, present, and future No Further Action

In 1993, the Air Force removed surface debris. In 1995, they removed stained soil and in 1999, they removed additional soil.

Public access is restricted at this site. Although trespassing can occur, the levels of radioactive contamination present are too low to be of health concern for this type of exposure (low probability, frequency, and duration). Therefore, there is no public health hazard.


Table 2.

IRP Sites Evaluated for Potentially Contributing Contamination to Tom's Bayou
Site Name Description Nature of Contaminants Status/Remedial Activities
Group 1 Sites
LF-08
Receiver Area Landfill
This site was an active landfill from the late 1960s to the late 1970s. The landfill was closed by covering it with several feet of soil. Debris known and suspected of being dumped include tires, wire, spools, mattresses, concrete, asbestos insulation, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) transformers, electrical components, paint shop residues, aqueous film-forming foam, waste fuel and oils, solvents, septic tank pumpings, federal prison garbage, pesticides, and pesticide containers. The landfill also serves as a storage and venting area for petroleum-contaminated soil, which is placed on three cured 10,000-ft2 concrete pads. Inorganics were identified as the primary contaminants in surface water, groundwater, and sediments; and volatile organics were identified as the primary contaminants in sediments. The Air Force concluded that this site has had no significant effect on human health or the environment. A re-evaluation of analytical sediment results concluded that the sediment contaminants were not emanating from the former landfill. The sediment issue was referred to the Environmental Compliance Division for management under Eglin's Storm Water Management Program.
DP-07
A-19 Drum Disposal Site
The site was used during the 1960s and 1970s to dispose of hardfill and demolition debris (e.g., concrete rubble, scrap metal, asphalt, wood scraps, 55-gallon drums, empty fuel oil drums, and drums potentially containing waste fuels and solvents). Pesticides and petroleum hydrocarbons were identified as the primary contaminants in soils; and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), total lead, and cyanide were identified as the primary contaminants in surface water. No Further Action was approved for the site.
DP-96
Taxiway 9e Disposal Area
This site was used as an unauthorized dumping area. Inorganics, synthetic organic compounds, and pesticides were identified as the primary contaminants in soil, sediment, and surface water. In 1998, the Air Force removed metallic and large surface debris (e.g., concrete rubble, empty 55-gallon drums, scrap metal) from the site.
ST-64
Aero Club/Building 68
The site consists of an aircraft fueling area and parking apron. Petroleum products were discovered in the soil when a former 6,000-gallon steel underground storage tank (UST) was excavated in 1991. Petroleum products were identified as the primary contaminants in soil. The Air Force excavated the excessively contaminated soil. The site was approved for No Further Action by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP).
ST-112
Base Operations Generator Tank, Building 60
A 500-gallon UST was discovered in 1997 to be leaking diesel fuel. Volatile organic compounds and other petroleum by-products were identified as the primary contaminants in soil. The Air Force removed the UST and excessively contaminated soil. The site was approved for No Further Action by FDEP.
POI-324
First Baptist Church of Valparaiso/Napalm Site
In 1967, a napalm bomb was accidentally released near the First Baptist Church. While the bomb did not explode, some napalm leaked from the bomb. None The bomb and napalm were immediately removed, thus any remaining contamination would have quickly biodegraded. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and FDEP concur with No Further Action.
POI-390
Transmission Building Site
Steam was reported to rise from an area of stressed vegetation behind the building. An investigation of personnel and building and utility drawings found no past disposal practices or underground structures. None EPA and FDEP approved No Further Action.

Group 2 Site

AOC-98
Hardfill 01 End of Runway Disposal Area
This area was used during the 1970s for subsurface disposal of hardfill material (e.g., scrap metal, asphalt, and construction debris). Reportedly, in 1981, about 260 cubic yards of soil potentially contaminated with Herbicide Orange was briefly stored at this site. Dieldrin, arsenic, and beryllium were identified as the primary contaminants in subsurface soil. No Further Action with land use controls was approved by EPA and FDEP.
Group 3 Sites
SS-26
Hardstand 7
The site was used to store herbicide drums and transfer herbicides to aircrafts. Herbicides and dioxins were identified as the primary contaminants in soil, sediment, surface water, and groundwater. In 1996, the Air Force stabilized the embankment and excavated drums and the drain pit. In 2001, the Air Force installed erosion control structures and an asphalt cap.
DP-261
Building 914 Disposal Area
The site was used to dispose of hardfill (e.g., plastics, metal debris, concrete, and drums) from the late 1960s to early 1970s. Pesticides and daughter products of DDT were identified as the primary contaminants in soil. In 2001, the Air Force excavated soil to remove the source of contamination to the sediment and a 2-foot sand cover was installed over the entire bottom of upper Hardstand Pond.
AOC-88
Hardstand 8 Alternate Loading Area
The site is a concrete and asphalt pad at Hardstand 8. It was used as an alternate herbicide loading area between 1962 and 1970. Arsenic and lead were identified as the primary contaminants in soil. No Further Investigative Action with land use controls has been accepted by EPA and FDEP. In 2001, the Air Force removed lead-contaminated soil to a safe level (i.e., removed soils with lead concentrations above 400 ppm).
POI-412
HERD (High Explosives Research & Development) Facility Building 1206
Building 1206 was used to partially assemble six warheads in the early 1990s (i.e., the hollow portions of the warheads were filled with inert material and painted to prevent contamination of the facility). None EPA and the Florida Department of Health concur with No Further Action.
POI-358
Water Tower No. 1205
The water tower was constructed in 1986 with paint that is not lead-based. A site investigation in 1998 showed no soil impacts. None No Further Action is approved by EPA and FDEP.
Group 4 Sites
OT-29
Missile Maintenance Paint Stripper Pit
The site was in operation from 1976 to 1981, to capture residues generated from paint stripping of large missile components. Aluminum and antimony were identified as the primary contaminants in groundwater; chromium was identified as the primary contaminant in soil; and arsenic was identified as the primary contaminant in sediment. A concrete cap was placed over the pit in 1984. A Decision Document is pending, stating No Further Remedial Action is required for this site.
POI-408
SAC Munitions Maintenance/ 33rd Flight Munitions Area
The site might contain buried unknown material. This site is still under investigation. This site is still under investigation.


FIGURES

Location of Eglin AFB
Figure 1. Location of Eglin AFB

Eglin Reservation
Figure 2. Eglin Reservation

Eglin Main Base
Figure 3. Eglin Main Base

Demographic Map of Eglin AFB
Figure 4. Demographic Map of Eglin AFB


APPENDICES

APPENDIX A: ATSDR PLAIN LANGUAGE GLOSSARY OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH TERMS

Acute Exposure:
Contact with a chemical that happens once or only for a limited period of time. ATSDR defines acute exposures as those that might last up to 14 days.


Adverse Health Effect:
A change in body function or the structures of cells that can lead to disease or health problems.


Ambient:
Environmental or surrounding conditions.


ATSDR:
The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR is a federal health agency in Atlanta, Georgia that deals with hazardous substance and waste site issues. ATSDR gives people information about harmful chemicals in their environment and tells people how to protect themselves from coming into contact with chemicals.


Background Level:
An average or expected amount of a chemical in a specific environment. Or, amounts of chemicals that occur naturally in a specific environment.


Biota:
Used in public health, things that humans would eat - including animals, fish and plants.


Cancer:
A group of diseases which occur when cells in the body become abnormal and grow, or multiply, out of control


Chronic Exposure:
A contact with a substance or chemical that happens over a long period of time. ATSDR considers exposures of more than one year to be chronic.


Completed Exposure Pathway:
See Exposure Pathway.


Comparison Value (CV) :
Concentrations or the amount of substances in air, water, food, and soil that are unlikely upon exposure, to cause adverse health effects. Comparison values are used by health assessors to select which substances and environmental media (air, water, food and soil) need additional evaluation while health concerns or effects are investigated.


Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA):
CERCLA was enacted in 1980. It is also known as The Superfund Act. This act concerns releases of hazardous substances into the environment, the cleanup of these substances and hazardous waste sites. This act created ATSDR, which is responsible for looking into the health issues related to hazardous waste sites.


Concern:
A belief or worry that chemicals in the environment might cause harm to people.


Concentration:
How much or the amount of a substance present in a certain amount of soil, water, air, or food.


Contaminant:
See Environmental Contaminant.


Dermal Contact:
A chemical getting onto your skin. (see Route of Exposure).


Dose:
The amount of a substance to which a person could be exposed, usually on a daily basis. Dose is often explained as "amount of substance(s) per body weight per day".


Duration:
The amount of time (days, months, years) that a person is exposed to a chemical.


Environmental Contaminant:
A substance (chemical) that gets into a system (person, animal, or the environment) in amounts higher than that found in Background Level, or what would be expected.


Environmental Media:
Usually refers to the air, water, and soil in which chemicals of interest are found. Sometimes refers to the plants and animals that are eaten by humans. Environmental Media is the second part of an Exposure Pathway.


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA):
The federal agency that develops and enforces environmental laws to protect the environment and the public's health.


Epidemiology:
The study of the different factors that determine how often, in how many people, and in which people will disease occur.


Exposure:
Coming into contact with a chemical substance.(For the three ways people can come in contact with substances, see Route of Exposure.)


Exposure Assessment:
The process of finding the ways people come in contact with chemicals, how often and how long they come in contact with chemicals, and the amounts of chemicals with which they come in contact.


Exposure Pathway:
A description of the way that a chemical moves from its source (where it began) to where and how people can come into contact with (or get exposed to) the chemical.

ATSDR defines an exposure pathway as having 5 parts:

  1. Source of Contamination,
  2. Environmental Media and Transport Mechanism,
  3. Point of Exposure,
  4. Route of Exposure, and
  5. Receptor Population.


When all 5 parts of an exposure pathway are present, it is called a Completed Exposure Pathway. Each of these 5 terms is defined in this Glossary.


Frequency:
How often a person is exposed to a chemical over time; for example, every day, once a week, twice a month.


Hazardous Waste:
Substances that have been released or thrown away into the environment and, under certain conditions, could be harmful to people who come into contact with them.


Health Effect:
ATSDR deals only with Adverse Health Effects (see definition in this Glossary).


Hydrogeology:
Dealing with the nature and distribution of aquifers and aquitards in a geologic system.


Indeterminate Public Health Hazard:
The category is used in Public Health Assessment documents for sites where important information is lacking (missing or has not yet been gathered) about site-related chemical exposures.


Ingestion:
Swallowing something, as in eating or drinking. It is a way a chemical can enter your body (See Route of Exposure).


Inhalation:
Breathing. It is a way a chemical can enter your body (See Route of Exposure).


Isotope:
Any of the forms of an element having the same number of protons (atomic number) but a different number of neutrons (atomic mass).


NPL:
The National Priorities List. (Which is part of Superfund.) A list kept by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the most serious, uncontrolled or abandoned hazardous waste sites in the country. An NPL site needs to be cleaned up or investigated to see if people can be exposed to chemicals from the site.


No Apparent Public Health Hazard:
The category is used in ATSDR's Public Health Assessment documents for sites where exposure to site-related chemicals might have occurred in the past or is still occurring but the exposures are not at levels expected to cause adverse health effects.


No Further Action:
No further action indicates that sufficient data is available to determine the site poses no human or ecological health concern and that no additional remediation or sampling is necessary.


No Public Health Hazard:
The category is used in ATSDR's Public Health Assessment documents for sites where there is evidence of an absence of exposure to site-related chemicals.


Plume:
A line or column of air or water containing chemicals moving from the source to areas further away. A plume can be a column or clouds of smoke from a chimney or contaminated underground water sources or contaminated surface water (such as lakes, ponds and streams).


Point of Exposure:
The place where someone can come into contact with a contaminated environmental medium (air, water, food or soil). For examples:
the area of a playground that has contaminated dirt, a contaminated spring used for drinking water, the location where fruits or vegetables are grown in contaminated soil, or the backyard area where someone might breathe contaminated air.


Population:
A group of people living in a certain area; or the number of people in a certain area.


Public Health Assessment(s):
A report or document that looks at chemicals at a hazardous waste site and tells if people could be harmed from coming into contact with those chemicals. The PHA also tells if possible further public health actions are needed.


Public Health Hazard:
The category is used in PHAs for sites that have certain physical features or evidence of chronic, site-related chemical exposure that could result in adverse health effects.


Public Health Hazard Criteria:
PHA categories given to a site which tell whether people could be harmed by conditions present at the site. Each are defined in the Glossary. The categories are:


    -Urgent Public Health Hazard
    -Public Health Hazard
    -Indeterminate Public Health Hazard
    -No Apparent Public Health Hazard
    -No Public Health Hazard

Receptor Population:
People who live or work in the path of one or more chemicals, and who could come into contact with them (See Exposure Pathway).


Route of Exposure:
The way a chemical can get into a person's body. There are three exposure routes:

- breathing (also called inhalation),
- eating or drinking (also called ingestion), and
- or getting something on the skin (also called dermal contact).


Semivolatile Organic Compound:
A class of organic (carbon-containing) chemicals similar to Volatile Organic Compounds, but that evaporate, or release less readily.


Source (of Contamination):
The place where a chemical comes from, such as a landfill, pond, creek, incinerator, tank, or drum. Contaminant source is the first part of an Exposure Pathway.


Special Populations:
People who could be more sensitive to chemical exposures because of certain factors such as age, a disease they already have, occupation, sex, or certain behaviors (like cigarette smoking). Children, pregnant women, and older people are often considered special populations.


Statistics:
A branch of the math process of collecting, looking at, and summarizing data or information.


Superfund Site:
See NPL.


Time Weighted Average:
The threshold limit value consisting of the average airborne concentration of the substance over a specified time limit, usually a normal 8-hour workday and a 40-hour workweek.


Topography:
The surface features of a place or region.


Toxic:
Harmful. Any substance or chemical can be toxic at a certain dose (amount). The dose is what determines the potential harm of a chemical and whether it would cause someone to get sick.


Toxicology:
The study of the harmful effects of chemicals on humans or animals.


Upper Bound Estimate:
Estimate not likely to be lower than the true risk.


Urgent Public Health Hazard:
This category is used in ATSDR's Public Health Assessment documents for sites that have certain physical features or evidence of short-term (less than 1 year), site-related chemical exposure that could result in adverse health effects and require quick intervention to stop people from being exposed.


Volatile Organic Compounds:
A class of organic (carbon-containing) chemicals which reality evaporate, or release. They are frequently used as solvents, degreasing agents, and in other industrial applications.

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