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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

HIPPS ROAD LANDFILL
JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA


CONCLUSIONS

Based on the information currently available, we classify this site as a public health hazard. Specific reasons for our classification are:

  1. In the past, nearby residents were exposed to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and tetrachloroethene in the environment at doses associated with noncancer illnesses in human and animal studies. Furthermore, residents were exposed to arsenic, benzene, 1,2-dichloroethane, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, methylene chloride, PCBs, and vinyl chloride in the environment at levels that could increase their cancer risk. Presently, all nearby residents drinking water from private wells might be exposed to low levels of solvents and metals. Our exposure evaluation assumed nearby residents were not exposed to metal-containing aerosols via inhalation.
  2. Many citizens with contaminated private well water are reportedly still using their wells for drinking water or other household purposes. At residents' request, Duval CPHU is sampling private wells at area residences to detect groundwater contamination.
  3. Solvents and other contaminants still may be present in on-site surface soils, subsurface soils, and groundwater at unknown concentrations. Solvents are likely to be present in on-site air if the air stripper operates. As of November 18, 1994, the site's fence (along Exline Road) had a hole cut through it, permitting site access and possible exposure to contaminated air on-site.
  4. There are no surface soil samples (0-3 inches deep) in residential yards adjacent to the site. Without this information we cannot characterize the extent and nature of the contamination in this medium, or assess the potential health threat from incidental ingestion.
  5. The number and location of off-site sediment samples is insufficient to characterize the extent and nature of the contamination in this medium. Until off-site sediments are more fully characterized, we fully cannot assess the potential health threat from incidental ingestion.
  6. The number and location of off-site present-day surface water samples is insufficient to characterize the extent and nature of the contamination in this medium. Until off-site surface water is more fully characterized, we cannot fully assess the potential health threat from incidental ingestion or skin absorption. Presently, contaminants may be entering the cypress pond east of the site through groundwater recharge from the site. Flood waters containing contaminants from the site may also be entering this pond. Neighborhood children play in storm water ditches draining the cypress pond.
  7. Neither groundwater movement in directions other than to the northeast of the landfill nor the possibility of off-site plumes in these directions has been fully investigated.
  8. Contaminated groundwater has been found in and around the landfill, and has migrated northeast from the landfill's northern boundary. Many residents living near the contaminant plume northeast of the site may be using private well water for drinking and other household purposes.
  9. The individual solvent inhalation doses we estimated for both healthy and sick individuals exposed to air-stripper effluent have not been associated with illnesses. For some chemicals, our inability to identify an association between air-stripper contaminants and illnesses may be due to inadequate toxicological data. Furthermore, the interactive effects among all airborne contaminants released from the air stripper are unknown. Although our evaluation indicates breathing each contaminant by itself is not a concern, we do not have the toxicological information needed to determine if breathing all of the contaminants at the same time could cause illness or worsen pre-existing illnesses.
  10. Some nearby residents need assistance in understanding the nature of contamination at this site, the potential for exposure to these contaminants, and the possible health risks.
  11. Area physicians and other health professionals need information about possible health effects in residents exposed to contaminants on or around the site.
  12. Nearby residents have been exposed to contaminants at levels associated with noncancer illnesses and increased cancer risks. We do not have sufficient information about the incidence of cancer or noncancer illnesses among people who worked at the site, trespassers, or nearby residents.
  13. Sixty-three chemicals found at the site (Table 3, Appendix B) lack enough toxicological information to determine their public health significance. In addition, there is not enough toxicological information on all exposure routes, particularly skin absorption and (sometimes) inhalation, in ATSDR's toxicological profiles to fully evaluate all potential health effects from exposure to a substance found at the site.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Cease/Reduce Exposure Recommendations

  1. Reduce exposure of nearby residents to contaminated groundwater. Connect homes with private wells containing contaminants above primary drinking water standards to public water. If the air stripper is used, EPA or the potentially responsible parties (PRPs) should maintain the demister on top of the air-stripping tower so that metal-containing aerosols are not emitted.
  2. Perform a well survey and determine which residents living near the groundwater contaminant plume are still using their well water. Encourage residents living close to known or suspected groundwater contamination areas to connect their homes to the public water supply where it is available. Encourage residents already connected to public water to properly plug their private wells so that they are not available for future use by any party. Duval CPHU should continue analyzing private well samples near the site for metals and solvents, as requested, to detect groundwater contamination.
  3. Restrict future uses of the landfill to those compatible with the remaining contamination. Repair the hole in the site's fence along Exline Road to maintain site security and reduce the exposure risk to trespassers and nearby residents. EPA or the PRPs should ensure the fence surrounding the site is kept in good repair, the gates are locked, and the warning signs remain posted on the fence through periodic inspections of the site.

Site Characterization Recommendations

  1. Characterize off-site surface soils. EPA or the PRPs should collect one surface soil sample (0-3 inches deep) from the part of each private yard, bordering the southern eastern, northern, and western site boundaries, that is most likely to have received surface soils blown off site. We recommend these soils be analyzed for inorganics, pesticides, base neutrals, and acid extractables including: arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, cresol, DDT, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, 1,2-diphenylhydrazine, hexachloroethane, lead, manganese, mercury, naphthalene, nickel, n-nitrosodiphenylamine, PCBs, selenium, and tin. If significant contamination is found, more samples may need to be taken.
  2. Characterize off-site sediments from storm water run-off. EPA or the PRPs should collect one sediment sample every 150 feet for the first 500 feet of every storm water drainage system leaving the site. These systems include: the storm water swales along the sites northern and western borders, the cypress pond along the eastern site boundary, and any other storm water conduits leaving the site. In addition, we recommend collection of two sediment samples from the ground depression immediately northeast of the intersection of Hipps and Bunion Roads. We recommend these sediments be analyzed for inorganics, pesticides, base neutrals, and acid extractables including: arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, cresol, DDT, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, 1,2-diphenylhydrazine, hexachloroethane, lead, manganese, mercury, naphthalene, nickel, n-nitrosodiphenylamine, PCBs, selenium, and tin. If significant contamination is found, more samples may need to be taken.
  3. Characterize surface water quality in the cypress pond east of the site and in flood waters running off from the site. EPA or the PRP should collect one surface water sample from the cypress pond to determine if solvents (VOCs) are present in this water body. pH should be measured on all surface water or groundwater samples collected, and additional analyses for metals should be conducted if the pH is low. In addition, EPA or the PRP should collect flood water samples from the cypress pond and in the site's perimeter ditches at 50 foot intervals during or within 12 hours of the next reported flooding event. In the cypress pond, at least one sample should be collected at the surface to capture oils or other substances less dense than water, and at least one other sample should be collected from below the pond's surface. Flood water samples should be measured for pH and analyzed for inorganics, pesticides, purgeables, base neutrals, acid extractables, and any contaminant of concern not covered by this list. Additional analyses for metals should be conducted if the pH is low.
  4. Characterize off-site groundwater movement in the shallow aquifer. EPA or the PRPs should investigate groundwater movement within ½-mile around the eastern, southern, and western site boundaries and delineate the extent of groundwater contamination in this area. Groundwater samples should be measured for pH and analyzed for inorganics, pesticides, purgeables, base neutrals, acid extractables, radionuclides, and any contaminant of concern not covered by this list.

Environmental Monitoring Recommendations

  1. Continue monitoring groundwater in the contamination area northeast of the site. EPA or the PRPs should continue monitoring the area's groundwater to ensure changes in the composition or migration of the contaminant plume are discovered as quickly as possible. If any groundwater contaminant concentration exceeding a MCL is found, EPA or the PRPs should take appropriate action, including immediately notifying the Duval CPHU of the sample results.
  2. Collect and analyze the water influent to the air stripper at least monthly for the first three months of operation, and at least every three months for the duration of operation. If the air stripper is used, EPA or the PRPs should analyze these samples for metals and all of the volatile organic compounds already detected in the groundwater at this site, as well all of the volatile organic compounds already detected in the air from the air stripper. If any influent sample result exceeds the maximum detected concentration measured during the air stripper's trial run, EPA and FHRS should re-evaluate the influent data to determine if adverse health effects are likely. In addition, if any groundwater contaminant concentration exceeding a MCL is found, EPA or the PRPs should take appropriate action, including immediately notifying the Duval CPHU of the sample results.

Health Activities Recommendation Panel (HARP) Recommendations

The Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act of 1980, as amended, requires ATSDR to perform public actions needed at hazardous waste sites. To determine if public health actions are needed, ATSDR's Health Activities Recommendation Panel (HARP) has evaluated the data and information developed in the Hipps Road Landfill Public Health Assessment.

The Panel has determined that the following actions are needed at this site:

  1. Residents near the site need a public education program to help them understand the most recent findings concerning contaminants found at the site and the possible health risks from exposure to them.
  2. Local physicians and other health care professionals need information about the possible health effects from exposure to contaminants found at the site.
  3. A health study of nearby residents should be conducted. ATSDR's Division of Health Studies has not yet determined the most appropriate type of health study to perform at the site.
  4. More toxicological data should be gathered on the listed unknown contaminants (Table 3, Appendix B). As sufficient studies become available, ATSDR's Division of Toxicology should publish the summary material in toxicological profiles.

If information becomes available indicating additional exposures at levels of concern, ATSDR will evaluate that information to determine what additional actions, if any, are necessary.

PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIONS

This section describes what ATSDR or FHRS will do at the Hipps Road Landfill site after the completion of this public health assessment report. The purpose of a Public Health Action Plan is to ensure that any existing health hazards are reduced and any future health hazards are prevented. ATSDR or FHRS will do the following:

  1. The Duval County Public Health Unit (CPHU) will continue to monitor private wells near the site to detect increases in current contaminants and the appearance of new contaminants.
  2. FHRS will develop educational materials to inform the residents who obtain their drinking water from private wells of their potential for exposure and possible health risks. In particular, the material will discourage these residents from continued use of their private well water for drinking, cooking or other domestic purposes.
  3. The Duval CPHU will distribute these educational materials to the affected residents and provide consultation to those individuals who require additional information or assistance.
  4. FHRS will develop a physician education program to inform local doctors of the possible health effects their patients may exhibit as a result of their exposure to contaminants from the Hipps Road Landfill site.
  5. ATSDR will assist FHRS in the development of these educational materials to ensure that the information is accurate and reflects the most recent scientific findings and agency guidelines.
  6. ATSDR, Division of Health Studies, will consider conducting a health study of residents likely to have been exposed to site-related contaminants.
  7. ATSDR, Division of Toxicology, will consider developing toxicological profiles for some of the 63 chemicals listed in Table 3, Appendix B. FHRS will work with ATSDR, as needed, to prioritize and select contaminants for future investigation. In addition, ATSDR will update the existing toxicological profiles with new information every three years or as needed.
  8. FHRS will review additional site data as they become available.

ATSDR and/or FHRS will re-evaluate the Public Health Action Plan when new environmental, toxicological, or health outcome data are available.

PREPARERS OF REPORT

Carolyn E. Voyles, M.S.
Environmental Specialist
Office of Toxicology and Hazard Assessment
Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services

E. Randall Merchant, M.S.
Biological Administrator
Office of Toxicology and Hazard Assessment
Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services


ATSDR Technical Project Officer:

Richard R. Kauffman, M.S.
Superfund Site Assessment Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation


ATSDR Regional Representative:

Bob Safay
Regional Services
Office of the Assistant Administrator

CERTIFICATION

This Hipps Road Landfill Public Health Assessment was prepared by the Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology and procedures existing at the time the public health assessment was begun.


Richard R. Kauffman, M.S.
Technical Project Officer
Remedial Project Officer
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation (DHAC)
ATSDR

The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, ATSDR, has reviewed this public health assessment, and concurs with its findings.


Richard Gillig
for Robert C. Williams, P.E., DEE
Director, DHAC, ATSDR


REFERENCES

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ATSDR. 1986. Health Assessment for Hipps Road Landfill, Jacksonville, Florida - May 16, 1986. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.

ATSDR. 1989a. Toxicological Profile for Bromodichloromethane (December). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR/TP-89/04.

ATSDR. 1989b. Toxicological Profile for Chloroform (January). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR/TP-88/09.

ATSDR. 1989c. Toxicological Profile for 1,2-Dichloropropane (December). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR/TP-89/12.

ATSDR. 1989d. Toxicological Profile for Selenium (December). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR/TP-89/21.

ATSDR. 1989e. Toxicological Profile for 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane (December). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR/TP-89/22.

ATSDR. 1989f. Toxicological Profile for Vinyl Chloride (August). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR/TP-88/25.

ATSDR. 1990a. Toxicological Profile for Bromoform/Chlorodibromomethane (December). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR/TP-90/05.

ATSDR. 1990b. Toxicological Profile for Chlorobenzene (December). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR/TP-90/06.

ATSDR. 1990c. Toxicological Profile for 1,1-Dichloroethane (December). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR/TP-90/12.

ATSDR. 1990d. Toxicological Profile for 1,2-Diphenylhydrazine (December). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR/TP-90/11.

ATSDR. 1992a. Public Health Assessment Guidance Manual (March). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.

ATSDR. 1992b. Toxicological Profile for Barium (July). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR/TP-91/03.

ATSDR. 1992c. Toxicological Profile for Cobalt (July). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR/TP-91/10.

ATSDR. 1992d. Toxicological Profile for Cresols: o-Cresol, m-Cresol, p-Cresol (July). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR/TP-91/11.

ATSDR. 1992e. Toxicological Profile for 4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDD (October). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.

ATSDR. 1992f. Toxicological Profile for Manganese (July). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR/TP-91-19.

ATSDR. 1992g. Toxicological Profile for Tin (September). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR/TP-91/27.

ATSDR. 1992h. Update Toxicological Profile for 1,2-Dichloroethane (October). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.

ATSDR. 1992i. Update Toxicological Profile for Mercury (October). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.

ATSDR. 1993a. Comparison Value Tables for Drinking Water, Soil, and Air (Expiring 9/30/93). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.

ATSDR. 1993b. Public Health Assessment Training Manual. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.

ATSDR. 1993c. Toxicological Profile for Cyanide (April). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR/TP-92/09.

ATSDR. 1993d. Update Toxicological Profile for Arsenic (April). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR/TP-92/02.

ATSDR. 1993e. Update Toxicological Profile for Benzene (April). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR/TP-92/03.

ATSDR. 1993f. Update Toxicological Profile for Beryllium (April). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR/TP-92/04.

ATSDR. 1993g. Update Toxicological Profile for Cadmium (April). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR/TP-92/06.

ATSDR. 1993h. Update Toxicological Profile for Chloroform (April). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR/TP-92/07.

ATSDR. 1993i. Update Toxicological Profile for Chromium (April). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR/TP-92/08.

ATSDR. 1993j. Update Toxicological Profile for 1,4-Dichlorobenzene (April). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR/TP-92/10.

ATSDR. 1993k. Update Toxicological Profile for Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (April). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR/TP-92/05.

ATSDR. 1993l. Update Toxicological Profile for Lead (April). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR/TP-92/12.

ATSDR. 1993m. Update Toxicological Profile for Methylene Chloride (April). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR/TP-92/13.

ATSDR. 1993n. Update Toxicological Profile for Naphthalene (October). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.

ATSDR. 1993o. Update Toxicological Profile for Nickel (April). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR/TP-92/14.

ATSDR. 1993p. Update Toxicological Profile for n-Nitrosodiphenylamine (April). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR/TP-92/15.

ATSDR. 1993q. Update Toxicological Profile for PCBs (April). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR/TP-92/16.

ATSDR. 1993r. Update Toxicological Profile for Tetrachloroethene (April). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR/TP-92/18.

ATSDR. 1993s. Update Toxicological Profile for Trichloroethene (April). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR/TP-92/19.

ATSDR. 1993t. Update Toxicological Profile for Vinyl Chloride (April). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR/TP-92/20.

Avery E. 1993. $150 Million More Sought from Navy. Florida Times Union: February 13. Jacksonville, FL.

BESD. 1983a. Hipps Road Landfill ponds' sample data (May 25) with a cover letter (July 20) from Gary V. Weise to Ernie Frey, FDER. City of Jacksonville; Department of Health, Welfare, and Bio-Environmental Services; Bio-Environmental Services Division.

BESD. 1983b. Letter (November 2) from P.C. Cowdery to Jake Godbold, Mayor, concerning the joint recommendation of declaration of a water pollution emergency. City of Jacksonville; Department of Health, Welfare, and Bio-Environmental Services; Bio-Environmental Services Division.

BESD. 1984. Memo (June 29) from P.C. Cowdery to Allan Williams, Department of Public Works, concerning the contamination in water pollution emergency areas. City of Jacksonville; Department of Health, Welfare, and Bio-Environmental Services; Bio-Environmental Services Division.

BESD. 1990. Memo (July 23) from James L. Manning to Ann Shorestein, Mayor's Office, summarizing the results of the July 11 public meeting with Hipps Road residents. City of Jacksonville; Department of Health, Welfare, and Bio-Environmental Services; Bio-Environmental Services Division.

BOC. 1992. 1990 Census Data Files. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.

Burr J. 1986. Cap Eyed for Hazardous Landfill. Jacksonville Journal: c. April 28, 1986.

City of Jacksonville. 1983. Proclamation (November 7) of water pollution emergency adjacent to the Hipps Road Landfill by Jake M. Godbold, Mayor. City of Jacksonville, Mayor's Office.

CompuChem. 1988. Letter (February 19) from Mary E. Mitchell to Warren Tripp of Bedell, Dittmar, Devault, and Pillans with on-site monitor well data attached. CompuChem Laboratories, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC.

CRAP. 1989. Letter (March 5) from a private citizen to EPA's project manager about the presence of TOCP at the Hipps Road Landfill. Found as an attachment to a letter (March 22) from Stephen Wise (Florida House of Representatives) to Dale Twachtmann (FDER). Citizens Reaction Against Pollution, Jacksonville, FL.

Disposal Safety. 1990. Ground-water Contamination Around the Hipps Road Landfill, Jacksonville, Florida (October 12). Washington, D.C.: Disposal Safety, Inc.

Disposal Safety. 1991. Letter (September 25) from Benjamin Ross to Chuck Flowe, BESD, concerning pentobarbital found during the August 5 sampling of monitor well DS-1 north of Hipps road. Disposal Safety, Inc., Washington, D.C.

EPA. 1985a. Draft (February 7) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan, Hipps Road Landfill Site, Jacksonville, Florida. Atlanta, GA: Camp, Dresser, and McKee.

EPA. 1985b. Remedial Technologies Memorandum (October 25), Hipps Road Landfill Site, Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study. Atlanta, GA: Camp, Dresser, and McKee.

EPA. 1985c. Site Screening Report (January 29), Hipps Road Landfill, Jacksonville, Florida. Tucker, GA: NUS Corporation.

EPA. 1986a. Draft Feasibility Study (March 28) for the Hipps Road Landfill Site, Jacksonville, Florida. Atlanta, GA: Camp, Dresser, and McKee.

EPA. 1986b. Final Feasibility Study (September 26) for the Hipps Road Landfill Site, Jacksonville, Florida. Atlanta, GA: Camp, Dresser, and McKee.

EPA. 1986c. Record of Decision - Remedial Alternative Selection (September 3); for the Hipps Road Landfill Site, Jacksonville, FL. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

EPA. 1986d. Remedial Investigation Report (February 5) for Hipps Road Landfill Site, Jacksonville, Florida. Atlanta, GA: Camp, Dresser, and McKee.

EPA. 1988. Remedial Design Activities (September); Hipps Road Landfill Site, Jacksonville, Florida. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

EPA. 1989. Remedial Design Activities (August); Hipps Road Landfill Site, Jacksonville, Florida. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

EPA. 1990a. Exposure Factors Handbook (March). Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. EPA/600/8-89-043.

EPA. 1990b. Hazardous Substances in Our Environment; A Citizen's Guide to Understanding Health Risks and Reducing Exposure (September). Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. EPA/230/09/90/081.

EPA. 1990c. Transcript of the July 11, 1990 public meeting for the Hipps Road Landfill Superfund Site, Jacksonville, Florida. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

EPA. 1991. Letter (Sept 5) from Greer C. Tidwell to Barry Hartman (Department of Justice) concerning the Final Consent Decree for Hipps Road Landfill Site, Jacksonville, Florida. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region IV, Atlanta, GA.

EPA. 1992a. Screen 2 Model User's Guide (September). Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality and Screening Standards. EPA-450/4-92-006.

EPA. 1992b. Site Status Summary for Hipps Road Landfill, Florida (March). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

EPA. 1993a. Draft Baseline Risk Assessment (December 13) for the Wingate Site [in] Fort Lauderdale, Florida. Fairfax, VA: ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc, 33-35, 64-68.

EPA. 1993b. Letter (August 30) from Patsy Goldberg to E. Randall Merchant, FHRS, concerning shutting down the air stripper at the Hipps Road Landfill site after test samples are taken. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region IV, Atlanta, GA.

FDER. 1983a. Memo (April 13) from Jerry Owen to Greg Parker, FDER, regarding VHO samples taken in the Hipps Road area. Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, Northeast District Office, Jacksonville, FL.

FDER. 1983b. Memo (June 1) from Rick Hicks to Ernie Frey, FDER Northeast District Office, regarding the Hipps Road Landfill electromagnetic survey. Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, Headquarters Office, Tallahassee, FL.

FDER. 1983c. Memo (May 11) from Rick Hicks to Doug Dutton, FDER Northeast District Office, regarding priority pollutant analyses in two domestic wells near the Hipps Road Landfill. Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, Headquarters Office, Tallahassee, FL.

FDER. 1983d. Memo (September 7) from Sue Levin to the enforcement files regarding a meeting with Navy representatives (including handwritten notes). Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, Northeast District Office, Jacksonville, FL.

FDER. 1983e. Memo (September 9) from Sue Levin to the enforcement file regarding a meeting with Hipps Road residents (including handwritten notes). Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, Northeast District Office, Jacksonville, FL.

FDER. 1983f. Private well and monitor well sample data results. Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, Headquarters Office, Tallahassee, FL.

FDER. 1983g. Site Status Summary (June); Hipps Road Landfill. Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, Headquarters Office, Tallahassee, FL.

FDER. 1984a. Site Status Summary (no date); Hipps Road Landfill Site. Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, Headquarters Office, Tallahassee, FL.

FDER. 1984b. Site Status Summary (November); Hipps Road Landfill Site. Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, Headquarters Office, Tallahassee, FL.

FDER. 1993. Site Status Summary (January 28); Hipps Road Landfill Site. Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, Headquarters Office, Tallahassee, FL.

FHRS. 1981a. Complaint (January 22) about taste and odor in private well water. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Duval County Public Health Unit, Jacksonville, FL.

FHRS. 1981b. Private well sample data results. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Duval County Public Health Unit, Jacksonville, FL.

FHRS. 1983a. Complaint (February 15) about taste and odor in private well water. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Duval County Public Health Unit, Jacksonville, FL.

FHRS. 1983b. Letter (October 7) from William H. Reese to a private citizen concerning the citizen's letter about bottled water provisions and private well testing. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Duval County Public Health Unit, Jacksonville, FL.

FHRS. 1983c. Private well sample data. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Duval County Public Health Unit, Jacksonville, FL.

FHRS. 1984. Private well sample data. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Duval County Public Health Unit, Jacksonville, FL.

FHRS. 1990. Private well sample data. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Duval County Public Health Unit, Jacksonville, FL.

FHRS. 1991. Private well sample data. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Duval County Public Health Unit, Jacksonville, FL.

FHRS. 1992. Private well sample data. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Duval County Public Health Unit, Jacksonville, FL.

FHRS. 1993a. Letter (August 26) from E. Randall Merchant to Patsy Goldberg, EPA, asking EPA to shut down the air stripper after initial samples are collected to evaluate air sample data. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Environmental Toxicology Section, Tallahassee, FL.

FHRS. 1993b. Meeting summary (June 30) with Hipps Road area residents listing exposure and community health concerns. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Environmental Toxicology Section, Tallahassee, FL.

FHRS. 1993c. Memo (August 30) from E. Randall Merchant to the file summarizing the August 24 meeting with Hipps Road area residents. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Environmental Toxicology Section, Tallahassee, FL.

FHRS. 1993d. Private well sample data. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Duval County Public Health Unit, Jacksonville, FL.

FHRS. 1994a. Memo (January 3) from E. Randall Merchant and Carolyn E. Voyles to Richard Kauffman (ATSDR) containing the health consultation for the air stripper at the Hipps Road Landfill site. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Environmental Toxicology Section, Tallahassee, FL.

FHRS. 1994b. Phone conversation record (February 3) with Mr. Donald Miller, Golder Associates, about the placement of a demister screen on the air stripper at the Hipps Road landfill. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Tallahassee, FL.

Florida Times Union. 1991. Hipps Road Residents, Waste Firm Settle Suit. Florida Times Union: December 12. (N.B. The newspaper is not identified on the xerox, but is assumed to be FTU.)

Golder Associates. 1989a. Letter (January 3) to Leanne Moore, EPA, concerning the Hipps Road Landfill methane gas survey. Golder Associates, Inc., Atlanta, GA, under contract to Waste Control of Florida, Inc..

Golder Associates. 1989b. Remedial Action Plan Construction of Landfill Closure Cover (October), Hipps Road Landfill, Jacksonville, Florida. Atlanta, GA: Golder Associates, Inc., under contract to Waste Control of Florida, Inc.

Golder Associates. 1990. Groundwater Recovery System Design Revised Final Report (October), Hipps Road Landfill, Jacksonville, Florida. Atlanta, GA: Golder Associates, Inc., under contract to Waste Control of Florida, Inc.

Golder Associates. 1991. Private Well Abandonment Plan Final (October), Hipps Road Landfill, Jacksonville, Florida. Atlanta, GA: Golder Associates, Inc., under contract to Waste Control of Florida, Inc.

Golder Associates. 1992. Letter (June 4) to Patsy Goldberg, EPA, concerning baseline groundwater sampling with sample data attached. Golder Associates, Inc., Atlanta, GA, under contract to Waste Control of Florida, Inc.

Golder Associates. 1993a. Letter (November 24) to Patsy Goldberg, EPA, concerning the trail test results of the air stripper at the Hipps Road Landfill, with attached sample results. Golder Associates, Inc., Atlanta, GA, under contract to Waste Control of Florida, Inc.

Golder Associates. 1993b. Remediation Goal Verification Plan (September), Hipps Road Landfill Remedial Action, Jacksonville, Florida. Atlanta, GA: Golder Associates, Inc., under contract to Waste Control of Florida, Inc.

Guyton AC. 1981. Textbook of Medical Physiology. 6th ed. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 983.

IRIS. 1994. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Software. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Kamrin MA. 1988. Toxicology - A Primer on Toxicology Principles and Applications. Chelsea MI: Lewis Publishers, 11-12, 36-37.

Keneagy B. 1987. Ex-Hipps Road Residents Long for Stability After Forced Move. Florida Times Union: September 21. Jacksonville, FL.

Keneagy B. 1991. Victim of Landfill? Florida Times Union: July 1. Jacksonville, FL.

Keneagy B. 1992a. Dozens Testify in Court Bid For Hipps Road Health Aid. Florida Times Union: November 10. Jacksonville, FL.

Keneagy B. 1992b. Hipps Road Verdict Leaves Residents in Tears. Florida Times Union: March 7. Jacksonville, FL.

Keneagy B. 1992c. Navy Found At Fault for Tainted Wells. Florida Times Union: January 31. Jacksonville, FL.

Klaassen CD, Amdur MO, and Doull J, eds. 1986. Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 373, 378.

Lewis, RJ. 1993. Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 595.

Marshall PH. 1992. Woodman, et al. v. United States of America, et al. - Transcript (March 6) of Nonjury Trial Proceedings before The Honorable Prentice H. Marshall. Jacksonville, FL: U.S. District Court, 68-70.

NJDEP. 1990. Improving Dialogue with Communities. New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Science and Research, Trenton, NJ, 69.

Norman M. 1994. Letter (June 2) to Randy Merchant and Carolyn Voyles, FHRS, containing comments on the May 9 draft of the Hipps Road Public Health Assessment. Kent, Ridge, and Crawford, Jacksonville, FL.

Nyenhuis M. 1993. Grant Due for Advisor. Florida Times Union: n.d. (c. May). Jacksonville, FL.

Nyenhuis M. 1994. Trial Begins in Hipps Road Suit Over Cause of Activist's Death. Florida Times Union: March 8, 1994. Jacksonville, FL.

Paigen B. 1991. Pattern of Illness in the Community Living Near the Hipps Road Landfill, Jacksonville. Bar Harbor, ME: The Jackson Laboratory.

Pinkham P and Nyenhuis M. 1993. Landfill Sparks Some New Suits. Florida Times Union: July 30. Jacksonville, FL.

Rea WJ. 1992. Chemical Sensitivity. Volume 1. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers.

Risk*Assistant. 1993. Risk*Assistant software. Hampshire Research Institute, Alexandria, VA.

Sittig M. 1985. Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens. 2nd ed. Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Publications, 889-890.

WMF. 1994. Notice (March) of resumption of air stripper operation. Waste Management of Florida, Inc., Jacksonville, FL.

Wilson JD, et al. 1991. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 12th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 121, 273, 344, 1891, 1894, 1898.

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