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PRELIMINARY PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

PLYMOUTH AVENUE LANDFILL
DELAND, VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA


CONCLUSIONS

Based on the information currently available, we classify the public health hazard at this landfill as indeterminate. Additional environmental data is necessary to assess the public health threat to nearby residents. Conclusions supporting this classification are as follows:

1. Ingestion of contaminated ground water is a past completed human exposure pathway. The predominate ground-water contaminant associated with this landfill is nitrate. Concentrations of nitrate greater than 10 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in water used to make formula can cause methemoglobinemia in infants less than six months old. When the Volusia County Public Health Unit found >10 mg/L nitrate in a drinking-water well, they advised the owner not to use this water to prepare infant formula. Since there were no infants in these homes, we do not expect there were any cases of methemoglobinemia or "blue baby syndrome." There have been no reports of methemoglobinemia in this area.

2. In 1989, the Volusia CPHU sampled ten nearby private drinking-water wells and analyzed for gasoline components. They found low levels of 1,2-dichloroethene and vinyl chloride in the Volusia County Humane Society private drinking-water well. Ground water sampling was inadequate, however, to fully determine the area of contamination.

3. Most of the approximately 20 nearby private drinking-water wells that had less than 5 mg/L nitrate in 1987 have not been resampled. Due to the karst (cavernous) geology of the area, ground water concentrations can change rapidly. The lack of follow-up analysis for nitrate in these wells is a significant data gap.

4. Giardia is a possible cause of diarrhea experienced by one nearby resident. Laboratories do not commonly analyze for giardia in drinking-water wells. Giardia, from septic tank waste disposed of at the landfill, could have traveled to nearby drinking-water wells though the karst (cavernous) limestone. It could also have infiltrated from contaminated surface water to ground water along poorly constructed or deteriorated drinking-water wells. Coliform bacteria are also associated with animal or human waste from residential septic tanks. High levels of sulfate are another possible cause of diarrhea.

5. Between 1988 and 1990, four off-site monitor wells and one private drinking-water well were tested for sulfate. Sulfate concentrations in these five wells were below state drinking water standards. Since we do not know the sulfate concentrations prior to 1988, we cannot assess the public health threat of sulfate in the ground water prior to 1988. It is likely that the sulfate concentrations will continue to decline since the landfill stopped accepting the Brunswick Corporation sulfuric acid waste in 1980. Therefore, we do not recommend additional sampling for sulfate.


RECOMMENDATIONS

Cease/Reduce Exposure Recommendations

1. Avoid feeding water with greater than 10 mg/L nitrate to infants less than six months old. Owners of wells with nitrate concentrations greater than 10 mg/L should not use this water to prepare formula for infants less than six months old.


Site Characterization Recommendations

2. Sample all of the nearby private drinking-water wells and analyze for vinyl chloride. We recommend the Volusia County Department of Solid Waste Management sample all of the nearby private drinking-water wells and analyze for vinyl chloride.

3. Resample all these nearby private drinking-water wells and analyze for nitrate. We recommend the Volusia County Department of Solid Waste Management resample all of the private drinking-water wells within 0.25 mile of the landfill and analyze for nitrate.

4. Sample nearby wells and analyze for coliform bacteria and giardia. If nearby residents experience diarrhea again, we recommend the Volusia County Public Health Unit sample their wells and analyze for coliform bacteria and if funds are available, for giardia.


Health Activities Recommendation Panel (HARP) Recommendations

The Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended, requires the ATSDR to take necessary public actions at hazardous waste sites. To determine necessary public health actions, the ATSDR's Health Activities Recommendation Panel (HARP) evaluated the data and information developed in this preliminary public health assessment.

The Panel determined that no follow-up health activities are currently needed because there is no evidence that people have been exposed to contaminants from this landfill at concentrations likely to affect their health. If information becomes available indicating exposure at levels of concern, the ATSDR will evaluate that information to decide what actions, if any, are necessary.


PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIONS

This section describes what the ATSDR and/or the Florida HRS will do at the Plymouth Avenue Landfill after the completion of this public health assessment report. The purpose of a Public Health Action Plan is to ensure that the appropriate agency or party reduce any existing health hazards and prevent future health hazards. The ATSDR and/or the Florida HRS will do the following:

1. If diarrhea recurs in nearby residents, the Volusia County Public Health Unit will sample their private drinking-water wells and analyze for coliform bacteria. If funds are available, they will also analyze for giardia.

The ATSDR and/or the Florida HRS will reevaluate the Public Health Action Plan when new environmental, toxicological, or health outcome data are available.


PREPARERS OF REPORT

E. Randall Merchant
Biological Administrator
Office of Toxicology and Hazard Assessment
Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services

H. Joseph Sekerke
Biological Scientist
Office of Toxicology and Hazard Assessment
Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services


The ATSDR Technical Project Officer:

Richard R. Kauffman
Remedial Programs Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation


The ATSDR Regional Representative:

Bob Safay
Regional Services
Office of the Assistant Administrator


CERTIFICATION

This Plymouth Avenue Landfill Public Health Assessment was prepared by the Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology and procedures existing at the time the public health assessment was begun.

Richard R. Kauffman, M.S.
Technical Project Officer
Remedial Programs Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation (DHAC)
ATSDR

The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, ATSDR, has reviewed this public health assessment, and concurs with its findings.

Robert C. Williams, P.E., DEE
Director, DHAC, ATSDR


REFERENCES

ATSDR 1990. Toxicological Profile for 1,2-Dichloroethene. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Public Health Service. ATSDR/TP-90/13.

ATSDR 1992. Toxicological Profile for Barium. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Public Health Service. ATSDR/TP-91/03.

ATSDR 1993a. Toxicological Profile for Chromium. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Public Health Service. ATSDR/TP-92/08.

ATSDR 1993b. Toxicological Profile for Vinyl Chloride. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Public Health Service. ATSDR/TP-92/20.

BOC 1990. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. 1990 Census Data Files.

BWA 1981. Briley, Wild and Associates. Hydrogeology at Plymouth Avenue Landfill, Volusia County. September 1981.

BWA 1988. Briley, Wild and Associates. Contamination Assessment Plan for Plymouth Avenue Landfill Volusia County, Florida. June 1988. VC 86131-6.

BWA 1992. Briley, Wild and Associates. Contamination Assessment Report for Plymouth Avenue Landfill Volusia County, Florida. November 1992. VC 89122-6.

DEP 1989. Florida Department of Environmental Protection. Plymouth Avenue Landfill, FLD984167569, Preliminary Assessment, January 27, 1989.

DEP 1994. Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Waste Cleanup file on Plymouth Avenue Landfill. Twin Towers Building, Tallahassee, Florida.

HRS 1994. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services: Record of Telephone Conversation Between Randy Merchant and Jim Griffin, Assistant Director Volusia County Department of Solid Waste Management. April 22, 1994.

NAS 1977a. National Academy of Sciences. Drinking Water and Health. Washington, D.C., 1977:411-425

NAS 1977b. National Academy of Sciences. Drinking Water and Health. Washington, D.C., 1977:425-428

NUS 1990. NUS Corporation. Final Screening Site Inspection Report, Phase II, Plymouth Avenue Landfill, DeLand, Volusia County, Florida. September 19, 1990. TDD No. F4-8911-85. Contract No. 68-01-7346.

Russell 1978. Russell Laboratories, "Report on Spent Acid Disposal by Brunswick Corporation," Submitted to Volusia County Department of Public Works, Volusia County Environmental Control Office and the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation.

USGS 1977. United States Geological Survey. Letter from Joel Kimrey to Harry Lampe concerning geological data collected at the Plymouth Avenue Landfill. June 16, 1977.

VCDSWM 1994. Volusia County Department of Solid Waste Management. Plymouth Avenue Landfill ground-water monitoring data file, County Administration Building, DeLand, Florida.

VCPHU 1994. Volusia County Public Health Unit. Plymouth Avenue Landfill drinking-water data file. Environmental Health Section, DeLand, Florida.

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