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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

FRONTIER FERTILIZER
DAVIS, YOLO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA


CONCLUSIONS

This public health assessment identified and evaluated exposure pathways by which site-related contaminants may impact workers on the Frontier Fertilizer Property or community members in the general vicinity of the site.

No completed exposure pathways currently exist or are expected to exist in the future. Therefore, the site currently does not pose a public health hazard. Significant future exposure to site-related contaminants is unlikely if: 1) migration of groundwater is controlled via current and future remedial actions; 2) remedial actions reduce groundwater contamination to below levels of health concern; 3) deed restrictions are maintained in areas of groundwater contamination until remediation has reduced contaminant concentrations below levels of health concern; 4) any future excavation/construction projects at the site take the necessary precautions to insure that workers are not exposed to contaminants above levels of health concern; 5) potential exposure to carbon tetrachloride released from contaminated groundwater/soil gas is evaluated prior to any development of the land over the carbon tetrachloride plumes; and 6) deed restrictions restrict future development of the site until soil contamination is remediated.

Based on the information reviewed, ATSDR and CDHS conclude that the Frontier Fertilizer site posed a past public health hazard due to exposure of workers on the property to contaminants in a water supply well. Specifically, workers may have been exposed to 1,2-DCP and EDB by drinking or otherwise using water from the Labor Camp well from about the mid 1970's until 1992. This was the only completed exposure pathway identified in this public health assessment. Based on rough estimates of exposure to workers from drinking water contaminated with 1,2-DCP and EDB, workers may be at increased risk for both cancer and possibly other adverse health effects. However, an accurate toxicological assessment of the site is not possible due to lack of data and information on actual exposure levels.

ATSDR's Health Activities Recommendation Panel (HARP) determined that primary care providers should be made aware of past worker exposure.

PUBLIC HEALTH RECOMMENDATIONS AND ACTIONS

A. Actions Completed

  1. The Planning and Building Department of the City of Davis has place deed restrictions that will restrict development of the area north of the northern boundary of the Property. The land use will be limited to light industrial/business park, industrial, service commercial, office, retail/commercial, single-family, and multi-family uses (31).

  2. According to the California Health and Safety Code Section 25220, "a border zone property determination is required prior to new construction of any hospital, school, day-care facility, residential structure, or other permanently occupied human habitation within 2,000 feet of the property boundaries of the hazardous waste site."

  3. The soil investigation for the Second Street right-of-way has been completed.

  4. An underground storage tank suspected of leaking has been removed.

  5. Ten new extraction wells have been installed; a total of eleven are planned.

B. Actions In Progress

  1. In May 1995, U.S. EPA began additional groundwater and soil investigations and installed three temporary monitoring wells (called hydropunches) in the A2 zone in order to sample the groundwater in this aquifer and to delineate the EDB and 1,2-DCP plumes.

  2. The groundwater pump-and-treat system is currently being upgraded from 1 gallon per minute to between 30 and 50 gallons per minute (37).

  3. A comprehensive soil sampling event to characterize the extent of contamination and the removal of several existing monitoring wells suspected to be providing a conduit for downward migration of contaminants began in May 1995 (37).

C. Recommendations for Further Action:

  1. The potential for exposure and associated risk from carbon tetrachloride should be assessed prior to development of the area (especially the area within the drainage channel north of the Property) over the carbon tetrachloride plume.

  2. In the areas of known ground water contamination, existing deed restrictions should be continued until remediation has reduced contaminant concentrations to below levels of health concern.

  3. To minimize exposures during any future excavation or construction on the site, the work site should be limited to authorized personnel using appropriate personal protective equipment and applicable Occupational and Safety Health Administration (OSHA) and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) guidelines should be followed.

  4. ATSDR and CDHS plans to contact the primary health care providers so that they are made aware of the potential of past exposure to the transient farm labor families from the contaminated groundwater from the Labor Camp well.

  5. ATSDR and CDHS plans to provides health education for the community residing near the Property.

PREPARERS OF REPORT

A.    ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSORS

Sherry Chan, M.P.H.
Industrial Hygienist
Impact Assessment, Inc., Consultant to
Environmental Health Investigations Branch
California Department of Health Services

Marilyn C. Underwood, Ph.D.
Associate Toxicologist
Environmental Health Investigations Branch
California Department of Health Services

David J. Borgeson, M.S.
Epidemiologist
Impact Assessment, Inc., Consultant to
Environmental Health Investigations Branch,
California Department of Health Services
(no longer with Impact Assessment, Inc.)

B.    COMMUNITY RELATIONS COORDINATOR

Jane Riggan, M.S.W.
Impact Assessment, Inc., Consultant to
Environmental Health Investigations Branch,
California Department of Health Services

Gina A. Margillo, M.A.
Impact Assessment, Inc., Consultant to
Environmental Health Investigations Branch,
California Department of Health Services

ATSDR REGIONAL REPRESENTATIVES

Gwendolyn Eng
Regional Services, Region IX
Office of the Assistant Administrator

William Nelson
Regional Services, Region IX
Office of the Assistant Administrator

ATSDR TECHNICAL PROJECT OFFICER

Gail Godfrey
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
Remedial Programs Branch, State Programs Section

CERTIFICATION

The Frontier Fertilizer Site Public Health Assessment has been prepared by the California Department of Health Services under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology and procedures existing at the time the public health assessment was initiated.

Gail D. Godfrey
Technical Project Officer, SPS, RPB, DHAC

The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, ATSDR, has reviewed this public health assessment and concurs with its findings.

Robert C. Williams, P.E., DEE
Director, Division of Health Assessment and Consultation

REFERENCES

  1. Groundwater Technology, Inc., Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study: Frontier Fertilizer/Mace Ranch Park. Davis, California. CERCLIS No. CAD 071530380, Prepared for Ramco Enterprise, Inc. February 15, 1990.

  2. Luhdorff and Scalmanini Consulting Engineers. Preliminary Assessment Report and Work Plan for Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study. November 1987.

  3. Shull, Lee R. in association with Western Environmental Science and Technology. Preliminary Environmental Risk Assessment Report, Frontier Fertilizer Company, Davis, California. December 1987.

  4. Metcalf & Eddy. Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work-plan, Frontier Fertilizer Site, Davis, California. Prepared for DTSC. March 1989.

  5. Envirologic Data. Evaluation of Potential Health Risks Associated with Exposure to Pesticides at Frontier Fertilizer. 1990.

  6. Envirologic Data. Addendum to May 1990 Risk Assessment. 1991.

  7. Department of Toxic Substances Control. Mace Ranch Park Border Zone Property Determination Number 90-22. 1992.

  8. Metcalf & Eddy. Focused Remedial Investigation Report (Draft), Frontier Fertilizer Site, Davis, California. Prepared for DTSC. June 1992.

  9. U.S. EPA/Ecology and Environment, Inc. Hazard Ranking System (HRS) Documentation Record for Frontier Fertilizer. June 25, 1993.

  10. Ecology and Environment, Inc. Report to U.S. EPA on environmental sampling at Frontier Fertilizer. January 13, 1994.

  11. Paul E. Ruffin, Department of Toxic Substances Control, Region 1, Associate Waste Management Engineer, and David Borgeson, ATSDR/CDHS cooperative agreement project, Personal Communication, August 1994.

  12. Mike Bellot, Remedial Project Manager, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 9, and David Borgeson, ATSDR/CDHS cooperative agreement project, Personal Communication, August 1994.

  13. Paul E. Ruffin, Department of Toxic Substances Control, Region 1, Associate Waste Management Engineer, and Sherry Chan, ATSDR/CDHS cooperative agreement project, Personal Communication, August and September 1994.

  14. Ebasco Environmental. Public Participation Plan for the Frontier Fertilizer Site, Davis, California. Prepared for DTSC. July 1992.

  15. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Assessment Guidance Manual, March 1992.

  16. State of California, Regional Water Quality Control Board, Central Valley Region, Frontier Fertilizer, Yolo County. January 1992.

  17. ICF Kaiser Groundwater Data. Report to U.S. EPA. July 1994.

  18. Metcalf & Eddy. Frontier Fertilizer Round 3 Summary. Corrections and Project Status Review. May 25, 1989.

  19. Groundwater Technology, Inc., Results of Continuing Environmental Assessment. Prepared for Mace Ranch Park Investors. February 14, 1992.

  20. California Analytical Laboratories. Groundwater Test Results, Prepared for Calfee & Young Attorneys. September 6, 1988.

  21. URS Consultants, Analytical Results from Groundwater Sampling for Frontier Fertilizer Site. January 20, 1993.

  22. Ecology and Environment, Inc., Frontier Fertilizer Groundwater Monitoring Well Data. January 24, 1994.

  23. State of California Water Resource Control Board - Summary of Industrial Hygiene Field Reports for Frontier Fertilizer. October 1990.

  24. Harding Lawson Associates. Soil Gas Investigation, Report of Findings, Mace Ranch Park. Conducted for the City of Davis. August 29, 1992.

  25. State of California Water Resource Control Board - Summary of Industrial Hygiene Field Reports for Frontier Fertilizer. May 1991.

  26. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Risk Assessment Guidance For Superfund. Volume 1, Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part A). Interim Final. December 1989. Report No. EPA/540/1-89/002.

  27. World Health Organization. Environmental Health Criteria 146: 1,3-Dichloropropene, 1,2-Dichloropropane and mixtures. 1993

  28. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for 1,2-Dichloropropane. PB/90/182122/AS.

  29. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for 1,2-Dibromoethane. #TP-91/13. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. July 1992.

  30. Kennedy/Jenks Consultants. Soil Investigation Report Second Street Right-of-Way, Frontier Fertilizer NPL Site, December 1994, K/J 942516.00. contracted by the City of Davis.

  31. Ordinance Number 1504, Amendment to Chapter 29 of the Davis Municipal Code, 1971, February 22, 1989.

  32. Bob Schoech, City of Davis, Department of Public Works, Senior Assistant Engineer, and Sherry Chan, ATSDR/CDHS cooperative agreement project, Personal Communication, April 21, 1995.

  33. Bruce Sarazin, Yolo County Department of Environmental Health, Hazardous Material Specialist (Supervisor), and Sherry Chan, ATSDR/CDHS cooperative agreement project, Personal Communication, April 25, 1995.

  34. Luhdorff and Scalmanini, Report of Findings Phase I through IV, Groundwater Investigation Monitoring and Cleanup, Frontier Fertilizer Company, Davis, CA, 5/15/85.

  35. Luhdorff and Scalmanini, Site Characterization and Site Confirmation and Remedial Action Plans, Frontier Fertilizer Company, Davis, CA, August 1985.

  36. California Analytical Laboratories, Inc., Report Lab # 18359 to Mr. Steve Posner (DHS), 5/29/84.

  37. Michael E. Bellot, U.S. Environmental Protection, Region 9, Project Manager: Regulatory Comments, received May 10, 1995.

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