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PETTITIONED PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

KOPPERS COMPANY, INCORPORATED (OROVILLE PLANT)
[a/k/a KOPPERS (OROVILLE)]
OROVILLE, BUTTE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA


CONCLUSIONS

ATSDR uses one of five conclusion categories to summarize our findings of the site. These categories are: 1) Urgent Public Health Hazard, 2) Public Health Hazard, 3) Indeterminate Health Hazard, 4) No Apparent Public Health Hazard, and 5) No Public Health Hazard. A category is selected from site specific conditions such as the degree of public health hazard based on the presence and duration of human exposure, contaminant concentration, the nature of toxic effects associated with site related contaminants, presence of physical hazards, and community health concerns.

On the basis of available environmental, biologic monitoring, and health outcome data related to the Koppers site, ATSDR concludes that site-related contamination poses no apparent current or potential future public health hazards. Past exposures may have resulted in some reversible health effects, although no firm evidence exists linking known exposures and reported effects. However, ATSDR understands that the reported symptoms have since subsided and no evidence exists that any chronic (long-term) effects have occurred or will occur as a result of past exposures.


RECOMMENDATIONS

Using the findings of this public health assessment, ATSDR makes the following recommendations to ensure the continued protection of the public health of area residents.

  1. Continue monitoring groundwater in the domestic wells as required by EPA (see page 12). Groundwater not meeting health-based cleanup goals should not be used for potable purposes. No new wells should be developed in areas known to be affected by PCP contamination.


  2. Continue to treat and monitor on-property groundwater. As stated in the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Koppers site, future site use should be limited to industrial and commercial use.


  3. Update and educate the community about the significance of dioxin/furan levels detected in home-produced eggs and chickens and review what precautions can be taken to minimize potential health risks.

PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION PLAN

Actions Undertaken

  • CDHS issued an animal products health advisory against consumption of potentially contaminated foods in 1989. Community education occurred at that time. EPA held community meetings in 1991 as part of the site cleanup process, supplying letters and fact sheets to community members.


  • The remedial investigation of the Koppers site was completed in 1988. Subsequently, a site groundwater and soil cleanup plan, approved by EPA, was developed and implemented.


  • Groundwater and soil remedial activities have been ongoing since 1993. Groundwater in most off-property domestic wells has been restored to drinking water quality. On-property groundwater treatment as well as treatment of the off-property residual contamination is still in progress. Site soil cleanup is near completion.

Actions to be Taken

  • CDHS will release reports with the findings of follow-up investigations they have conducted to evaluate the extent of dioxin/furan contamination in the Oroville area. ATSDR will review the findings when they become available, decide whether further public health actions are needed, and modify the conclusions and recommendations of this PHA as necessary.


  • CDHS, in cooperation with the California Department of Food and Agriculture, county health officials, farm advisors, and the University of California Extension Service, will be developing procedures and a comprehensive education program regarding the proper management of backyard livestock and poultry. Efforts are underway.


  • Groundwater monitoring, both on and off property, will continue under the requirements of the ROD to ensure the continued protection of public health.


  • ATSDR will write additional Health Consultations or prepare amendments to this Public Health Assessment if the community requests additional health information from new environmental sampling data. These updates will be written upon receiving additional environmental data to determine possible health implications.

PREPARERS OF REPORT

Kimberly Chapman, MSEH
Environmental Health Scientist
Exposure Investigation and Consultation Branch
Petitions Response Section

Frank Schnell, Ph.D.
Toxicologist
Exposure Investigation and Consultation Branch
Petitions Response Section


REFERENCES

References cited:

ACGIH. 1996. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. 1996 Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs), 6th edition.

ATSDR. 1994. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Toxicological Profile for Pentachlorophenol (Update). TP-93/12. May 1994.

ATSDR. 1998.Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Draft Toxicological Profile for Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins (Update). December 1998.

Aylward et al. 1996. Relative susceptibility of animals and humans to the cancer hazard posed by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin using internal measures of dose. Environ. Sci. Technol. 30: 3534-3543.

Bevenue, A., et al. 1967. A survey of pentachlorophenol content in human urine. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2:319-332, as cited in ATSDR, 1994.

Braun, W.H. et al. 1979. The metabolism/pharmacokinetics of pentatchlorophenol in man, and a comparison with the rat and monkey. In: Deichmann WE, ed. Toxicology and occupational medicine. New York, Amsterdam, Oxford, Elsevier/North-Holland 289-296, as cited in ATSDR, 1994.

Butte County. 1993. Butte County Offices of Agricultural Commissioner. Correspondence from Dennis Pooler, Assistant Agricultural Commissioner to George B. E. West, DVM, MPVM, Staff Veterinarian, California Department of Food and Agriculture. November 2, 1993.

California Department of Food and Agriculture. 1993. Correspondence from Richard E. Breitmeyer, DVM, MPVM, Assistant Director, Division of Animal Industry to William Nelson, Senior Regional Representative, ATSDR Region IX. November 19, 1993.

California Department of Health Services Tumor Registry. 1988 - 1989.

Casarett, L.J., et al. 1969. Observations on pentachlorophenol in human blood and urine. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 30:360-366, as cited in ATSDR, 1994.

CDHS. 1987. Preliminary Incident Report on the Koppers-Oroville Fire. November 9, 1987.

CDHS. 1991. Letter to Residents of Oroville (re: Dioxins). Environmental Epidemiology and Toxicology Branch. May 1991.

CDHS. 1997a. Biologic monitoring and Health Interview Study among Residents of an Area with Pentachlorophenol Contaminated Groundwater. Environmental Health Investigations Branch, Division of Environmental and Occupation Disease Control, California Department of Health Services. June 1997.

CDHS. 1997b. Groundwater database (davis.dbf) - September 1971 to 1985.

CDHS. 1997c. Letter to Dan Strausbaugh, ATSDR, Region IX, from Martha Harnly, Exposure Assessment Section, Environmental Health Investigations Branch, California Department of Health Services. December 10, 1997.

CDHS. 1999. Letter to Naida Gavrelis, Eastern Research Group, from Martha Harnly, Exposure Assessment Section, Environmental Health Investigations Branch, California Department of Health Services. March 25, 1999.

Census of Population and Housing. 1990. Summary Tape File 1 (California) machine-readable data files]/prepared by the Bureau of the Census.--Washington: The Bureau [producer and distributor], 1991.

Dames & Moore. 1988a. Remedial Investigation Report (RI/FS). Job Number 14247-010-44. July 11, 1988.

Dames & Moore. 1988b. Draft Phase I Ground Water Summary Report, Koppers RI/FS, Feather River Plant, Oroville, California: Groundwater monitoring reports dated from September 1984 to 1988.

Dames & Moore. 1996. Quarterly RI/FS Groundwater Monitoring Reports: fourth quarter of 1989 and the four quarters of 1990 on the Koppers Industries Feather River Plant, Oroville, CA.

Ebasco. 1988. Ebasco Services, Inc. (Ebasco). Final Endangerment Assessment. Koppers Company Feather River Plant Superfund Site. Oroville, California. Contract Number 68-01-7250. November 1988.

EPA. 1989. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Operable Unit Record of Decision. September 12, 1989.

EPA. 1997a. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Personal communication between Charles Berrey, Remedial Project Manager, EPA Region IX, and Eastern Research Group. April 7, 1997.

EPA. 1997b. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Personal communication between Charles Berrey, Remedial Project Manager, EPA Region IX, and Eastern Research Group. August 27, 1997.

EPA. 1998. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Koppers Superfund Site Off-Property Groundwater Restoration. (Letters to 34 homeowners with current well status and historical well sampling results of individual domestic wells). April 6, 1998.

EPA. 1999a. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Amendment #2 to the Record of Decision for the Soil and Groundwater Operable Unit, Koppers Company, Inc. Superfund Site, Oroville, California. September 23, 1999.

EPA. 1999b. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Personal communication between Charles Berrey, Remedial Project Manager, EPA Region IX, and ATSDR. November 30, 1999.

EPA. 2000. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Personal communication between Charles Berrey, Remedial Project Manager, EPA Region IX, and ATSDR. March 3, 2000.

Fingerhut, et al. 1989. Levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the serum of U.S. chemical workers exposed to dioxin contaminated products: Interim results. Chemosphere 19:835-840, as cited in ATSDR, 1998.

Goldman, L.R., et al. (CDHS) and Patterson, D.G. Jr., et al. (CDC). 1989. Serum, adipose and autopsy tissue PCDD and PCDF levels in people eating dioxin contaminated beef and chicken. Chemosphere, Vol. 19, Nos. 1-6, pp 841-8, 1989.

Goldman, L.R., et al. 2000. Serum PCDDs and PCDFs among people eating contaminated home-produced eggs and beef. Environmental Health Perspectives. Volume 108, No. 1. January, 2000.

HSI GeoTrans. 1997. Correspondence between Jennifer Abrahams, HSI GeoTrans and Charles Berrey, EPA. September 3, 1997.

HSI GeoTrans. 1999. Correspondence between Jennifer Abrahams, HSI GeoTrans and Eastern Research Group, including "Figure 2-1," depicting the extent of the on-property and off-property pentachlorophenol plumes, based on May/June 1998 analytical results." February 17, 1999.

Kalman and Horstman. 1983. (as cited in CDHS 1987)

Kimbrough. 1992. Tolerable daily intake of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin: Recent data on mechanism and animal carcinogenicity. Toxic Substances Journal 12:295-306, World Health Organization.

Mocarelli, P. et al. 1991. Serum concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and test results from selected residents of Seveso, Italy. J Toxicol Environ Health.32(4):357-66. April 1991.

NTP. 1989. NTP Technical Report on the Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Pentachlorophenol (CAS No 87-5) in B6C3F1 Mice (Feed Studies). NTP TR 349. NIH Publication No. 89-2804. 1989, as cited in ATSDR, 1994.

Needham et al. 1996. Reference range data for assessing exposure to selected environmental toxicants. Toxicology and Industrial Health 2(3/4):507-513, as cited in ATSDR, 1998.

Patterson, D.J., et al. 1989. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in workers exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Am J. Ind Med 16:135-146, as cited in ATSDR, 1998.

Petreas, M., et al. 1996. Bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs from soil by foraging chickens. Organohalogen Compounds. 29:51-54.

Roberts et al. 1985. The Ah receptor and dioxin toxicity: From rodent to human tissues. Chemosphere 14:661-674, as cited in ATSDR, 1998.

Schmidt, S. 1984. Groundwater Study South of Oroville Plant. Prepared for Koppers Company. November 5, 1984.

Stephens, R.D., et al. (CDHS). 1990. Bioaccumulation of Dioxins in Food Animals II: Controlled Exposure Studies. Chemosphere, Vol. 20, September 12, 1997, Nos. 7-9, pp 1091-1096, 1990.

Tepper et al. 1997. Serum levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in pulp and paper mill workers. Chemosphere 34(5-7):1587-1603, as cited in ATSDR, 1998.

TRC. 1998. Construction Documentation and Closure Report for Cell No. 2 and Associated Soil Removal Activities. Koppers Company, Inc. Superfund Site. Feather River Plant. Oroville, CA. Prepared for Beazer East, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA by TRC, Irvine, CA. December 1998.

Triebig, G. et. al. 1987. Pentachlorophenol and the peripheral nervous system: a longitudinal study in exposed workers. Brit. Journ. Ind. Med. 44(9):638-41. September, 1987.

Uhl, S. et al. 1986. Pharmacokinetics of pentachlorophenol in man. Arch Toxicol 58:182-186.

Reference consulted:

ATSDR. 1993. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Toxicological Profile for Arsenic. April 1993.

ATSDR. 1992a. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Record of Activity. ATSDR Official Files for Koppers (Oroville), Inc. September 3, 1992.

ATSDR. 1992b. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Record of Activity. ATSDR Official Files for Koppers (Oroville), Inc. September 11, 1992.

ATSDR. 1992c. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Assessment Guidance Manual. March 1992.

ATSDR. 1993. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Pentachlorophenol Toxicity. Case Studies in Environmental Medicine. 23. September, 1993.

ATSDR. 1995a. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Draft Toxicological Profile for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (Update). August 1995.

ATSDR. 1995b. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Draft Toxicological Profile for Benzene (Update/Draft for Public Comment). August 1995.

Chang, R., et al. 1989. Foraging Farm Animals as Biomonitors for Dioxin Contamination. California Department of Health Services, Chemosphere. Vol. 19, Nos. 1-6, pp 481-486.

Dames & Moore. 1985. Work Plan for the Feather River Plant RI/FS. Job Number 14247-001-03. July 22, 1985.

Dames & Moore. 1986. Work Plan for the RI/FS, Koppers Company, Inc. May 1986.

Dames & Moore. 1986. Surface Water and Sediment Report. November 26, 1986.

Dames & Moore. 1986. Soil Report. December 12, 1986.

Dames & Moore. 1987a. Well Installation Report. January 7, 1987.

Dames & Moore. 1987b. Phase II Surface Water and Sediment Sampling Report. June 12, 1987.

Dames & Moore. 1989. Revised Draft Feasibility Study Report. Job Number 14247-014-44. May 15, 1989.

Dames & Moore. 1996. Site-Wide Soils Remedy Report, Koppers Company, Inc. Superfund Site (Feather River Plant), Oroville, California. March 25, 1996.

DeVito, et al. 1995. Comparisons of estimated human body burdens of dioxin-like chemicals and TCDD body burdens in experimentally exposed animals. Environ Health Perspect 103:820-831, as cited in ATSDR, 1998.

Draper et al. (CDHS). 1988. Assessing environmental contamination form a pentachlorophenol fire. Chemosphere, 17:9, 1831-1850.

Ebasco. 1989a. Ebasco Services, Inc. (Ebasco). Final Emission Data Report. Contract Number 68-01-7250. August 1989.

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EPA. 1986. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Interim Procedures for Estimating Risks Associated with Exposures to Mixtures of Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and -Dibenzofurans (CDDs and CDFs). Risk Assessment Forum, Washington, D.C.

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Amdur, M.O., J. Doull, and C.D. Klaassen (eds.). 1991. Casarett and Doull's Toxicology-The Basic Science of Poisons. Fourth Edition. Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, New York.

Susten, et al. 1990. In vivo percutaneous absorption studies of volatile organic solvents in hairless mice II. J. Appl. Toxicol. 10:217-225.

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