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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

BOEING MICHIGAN AERONAUTICAL RESEARCH CENTER/MCGUIRE MISSLE
NEW EGYPT, OCEAN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY


CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Conclusions regarding potential past, current, and future exposures to various environmental media on and in the vicinity of the McGuire AFB BOMARC site are based on a thorough evaluation of remedial site investigation data; groundwater, soil, and surface water/sediment monitoring data; municipal drinking water supply data; and observations made during site visits. Conclusions regarding exposures are described below. (The public health hazard conclusion categories used below are described in the glossary.)

  • No apparent public health hazards are associated with an explosion and fire at the BOMARC site in 1960, which released radionuclides to the environment via smoke, dust, and water runoff from fire-fighting efforts. Workers responding to the accident, downwind at the time of the accident, or involved in cleanup may have breathed in alpha radiation when then inhaled radionuclides, primarily plutonium, carried on smoke or attached to resuspended soil, or they could have been exposed to small amounts of external gamma radiation. Given the lack of information about the exposure conditions at the time of the accident, it is challenging to accurately assess workers' intake and doses. Conservative estimates, however, suggest that radiation doses received during or after the accident are not expected to cause harmful long-term effects or cancer. At the conservatively estimated radiation doses, the risks are generally so small that the effects are not measurable in small populations and may be negligible. Because sufficient conservatism has been used in deriving the radiation dose, the estimated dose likely overestimates the exposure incurred by the workers. Exposure levels would have been highest near the accident site, but would have decreased with distance to levels similar to background radiation levels. Due to the restricted nature of the site, the concrete and asphalt barriers, and remedial activities, on-site contamination is not expected to pose a current or future threat to public health.


  • No public health hazards are associated with VOC-contaminated groundwater moving eastward from the BOMARC site: no wells draw water from the area of the VOC plume.


  • No apparent public health hazards to off-site recreational users of the nearby streams (Elisha Branch or Success Branch) or the Colliers Mill Wildlife Management Area are associated with past or current exposures to contaminants in surface water and sediment. To prevent future exposures, the Air Force is evaluating remedies with oversight by NJDEP.

PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION PLAN

The Public Health Action Plan (PHAP) for the BOMARC Missile site contains a description of actions taken by ATSDR, the Air Force, EPA, and NJDEP at and in the vicinity of the site. It also describes the actions the same entities plan to take after this public health assessment is completed. The purpose of the PHAP is to ensure that this public health assessment not only identifies public health hazards, but also provides a plan of action designed to mitigate and prevent adverse human health effects resulting from exposure to hazardous substances in the environment. The public health actions that are completed, being implemented, planned, or recommended are as follows:

Completed Actions

  1. Following the explosion that occurred in 1960, paint was applied to the shelter and concrete was poured over the most heavily plutonium-contaminated portions of the asphalt apron and floor area of the shelter. An asphalt cover was placed in the drainage ditch that leads from the shelter to the nearby stream to impede erosion of contaminated soil. Access to the accident area is restricted by a 6-foot chain link fence topped with barbed wire.


  2. The BOMARC site was deactivated in 1972 and all missiles were removed.


  3. The Air Force conducted a series of radiological surveys at and near the site to characterize the radiological releases to soil, air, surface water/sediment, and groundwater in the aftermath of the 1960 explosion at the missile shelter. Several other investigations have been conducted at this site (RW-01) under the IRP program. The Air Force and EPA signed a ROD for the area in 1992 that earmarks an estimated 7,000 cubic yards of radiological-contaminated soil (containing plutonium 239 at levels above 8 pCi/g) and other material for removal and proper disposal at an approved waste disposal facility.


  4. The Air Force identified five other IRP sites during base investigations. Interim remedial actions were conducted at three of these: OT-12, OT-16, and ST-15. PCB-contaminated soil was removed from OT-12 in 1993, launcher hydraulic fluid was removed from OT-16 in 1996, and petroleum-contaminated soil and underground storage tanks were removed from ST-15 in 1993.


  5. Groundwater monitoring efforts of the Air Force, USGS, NJDEP, and EPA have helped to identify a roughly 60-acre TCE plume and delineate its northern and southern boundaries. The plume, which extends eastward from the site, discharges into Success Branch.


  6. The Air Force proposed no further response actions for WP-05, OT-12, WP-17, and ST-15.

Ongoing/Planned Actions

  1. The Air Force is gathering additional confirmation sampling to support a no further action decision and closure at OT-12, ST-15, and WP-05.


  2. Further monitoring of groundwater and surface water quality is underway in the area of the TCE plume to further delineate the eastern, western, and northern boundary of the plume and to determine whether natural attenuation is effectively reducing the concentrations of TCE/DCE in the groundwater.


  3. The Air Force has begun demolishing buildings and establishing plans for removal of soil and debris from the BOMARC site. The excavated material, including approximately 12,500 cubic yards soil and 440 cubic yards debris, will be transported by truck through Fort Dix and Naval Air Engineering Station Lakehurst, and then shipped by train to a Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensed disposal facility area in Utah. Once the site is determined to be clean through confirmatory surveys, the Air Force will backfill the excavated areas with clean soil.


  4. Members of the community and the Air Force participate in regularly scheduled Restoration Advisory Board meetings. These meetings serve as a forum for communication of ongoing and planned activities at BOMARC to the community and for communication of community concerns to Air Force and McGuire AFB personnel.

Recommended Actions

  1. If new information from site investigations identifies contaminants in site media above ATSDR's health-based comparison values, ATSDR will assess contaminant data and exposure situations to identify if any public health hazards exist. ATSDR will also re-evaluate the potential for public health hazards if changes in proposed land use, remedial activities, or risk management actions (e.g., institutional controls) may lead to future exposures.

PREPARERS OF REPORT

Paul Charp, Ph.D.
Health Physicist
Federal Facilities Assessment Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation

Gary Campbell, Ph.D.
Environmental Health Scientist
Federal Facilities Assessment Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation


REFERENCES

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1990. Toxicological Profile for Plutonium. Atlanta. US Department of Human and Human Services.

AMC.2001. Comments provided by the Air Mobility Command, McGuire AFB, on the data validation draft public health assessment. November 2001.

ATSDR. 1999. Toxicological Profile for Ionizing Radiation. Atlanta. US Department of Human and Human Services.

Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). 2000. Technology demonstration plan for natural attenuation of chlorinated solvent groundwater plume discharging into wetlands: BOMARC Missile Facility, McGuire AFB, NJ/Colliers Mill Wildlife Management Area Wetland Site. Air Research Laboratory and U.S. Geological Survey. April 30, 2000.

Army. See U.S. Army.

Case. 2002. Personal communication with Dr. David Case, former USAF Radiological Hygiene Consultant. RE: Disposal of Missle Shelter 204 launcher and wreckage. August 22, 2002.

Earth Technology. 1991. The Earth Technology Corporation. Installation restoration program, Stage 2: First draft remedial investigation/feasibility study for BOMARC Missile Accident Site, McGuire Air Force Base, New Jersey. USAF Contract No. F33615-85-D-4533. Delivery Order No. 10. February 1991.

Eisenbud M. and Gesell T. 1997. Environmental Radioactivity from natural, industrial, and military sources. 4th edition. New York: Academic Press.

EPA. See U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Hunter. 1988. Results of the 1988 radiological survey at Fort Dix BOMARC site, New Jersey, USAFOEHL Report 88-150RA0121MRD. December 1988.

International Commission on Radiological Protection. 1991. 1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. ICRP Publication 60. Annals of the ICRP 21 No. 1-3, 1991.

Lakehurst. 2001. Naval Air Engineering Station, Lakehurst. Web site. http://www.lakehurst.navy.mil/nlweb/.

Maher. 1986. Results of the 1985 radiological survey at Fort Dix BOMARC site NJ, USAFOEHL Report 86-034RA121ERD. June 1986.

Mak, K. 1998. Point paper prepared by King Mak. August 1998.

McGuire Air Force Base (AFB). 2002. Web site. http://www.mcguire.af.mil/BOMARC.

Montgomery, J.D. 1994. Consultative letter, AL/OE-CL-1994-0138, Site survey, BOMARC site, Ft Dix NJ. August 1994.

Montgomery, J.D. 1995. Consultative letter, AL/OE-CL-1995-0181, Site survey, BOMARC site, Ft Dix NJ. June 1995.

OHM Remediation Services Corp (OHM). 1996. Site characterization report for the McGuire Air Force Base BOMARC Missile Accident Site, located in Ocean County, New Jersey, Volume 1. January 31, 1996.

OHM. 1998. Final report for BOMARC Missile Accident Site (RW01). McGuire Air Force Base, Bomarc Facility, Plumsted Township, Ocean County, New Jersey.

National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). 1999. Recommended screening limits for contaminated surface soil and review of factors relevant to site-specific studies. Report 129. January 1999.

Sandoval, R.P., et al. 1983. An assessment of the safety of spent fuel transportation in urban environs, Sand82-2365-TTC-0398.

Tetra Tech, Inc. (Tetra Tech). 1998. Final engineering evaluation/cost analysis. TCE/DCE groundwater plume at the BOMARC Missile Instillation. McGuire Air Force Base, New Jersey. Groundwater screening survey report. Air Mobility Command. June 1998.

URS (URS Consultants). 1998a. Remedial investigation/remedial action selection report. BOMARC Neutralized Nitric Acid Pit (WP-17). Confirmation sampling and analysis for multiple sites. October 1998.

URS. 1998b. Remedial investigation/remedial action selection report. BOMARC JP-X Discharge Pit (WP-05). Confirmation sampling and analysis for multiple sites. October 1998.

URS. 1998c. Draft final remedial investigation/remedial action selection report. BOMARC Transformer Pad T-15 (OT-12). Confirmation sampling and analysis for multiple sites. October 1998.

URS. 1998d. Draft final remedial investigation/remedial action selection report. BOMARC MOGAS UST (ST-15). Confirmation sampling and analysis for multiple sites. October 1998.

U.S. Air Force (USAF). 1985. Memorandum from the U.S. Air Force. RE: Evaluation of plutonium contamination on groundwater, BOMARC site, Ft. Dix, NJ. October 21, 1985.

USAF. 1992. Record of decision. BOMARC Missile Accident site, McGuire Air Force Base, New Jersey. November 1992.

USAF. 1995a. Restoration advisory board minutes September 26, 1995. RE: Historical overview of BOMARC missile accident by Jeff Wrightman, McGuire AFB Environmental Flight.

USAF. 1995b. Restoration advisory board minutes December 6, 1995. RE: Historical overview of BOMARC missile accident by Jeff Wrightman, McGuire AFB Environmental Flight.

USAF. 1997a. Community relations plan: McGuire AFB, New Jersey. July 1997.

USAF. 1997b. Memorandum from Det. HSC/OEBZ to HQ AMC SGPB. RE: Consultative letter, AL/OE-CL-1997-0219B, dose reconstruction and data interpretation (by Major Kimm) for the BOMARC incident, McGuire AFB, NJ. Downwind persons and populations November 1997.

USAF. 1998a. Management action plan: McGuire AFB, Wrightstown, New Jersey. June 1998.

USAF. 1998b. McGuire AFB/BOMARC restoration advisory board meeting minutes March 10, 1998. BOMARC. Presentation by Major Wrobel. March 10, 1998.

U.S. Army. 1977. Installation assessment of Fort Dix (BOMARC site) Report No. 108. March 1977.

U.S. Army. 1981. Memorandum from the Department of the Army. RE: Water quality consultation No. 32-24-033305-81, Fort Dix, NJ, 6-7 April 1981.

U.S. Army. 2001. Comments provided on the data validation draft public health assessment. November 2001.

U.S.Army Environmental Hygiene Agency (USAEHA). 1982. Radiation Protection Survey No. 28-43-0329-83. Fort Dix, New Jersey, 17-20 United States Army Environmental Hygiene Agency. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21010. August 1982.

USAEHA. 1985. Radiation Protection Survey No. 28-43-0918-86. Fort Dix, New Jersey, 26-29

United States Army Environmental Hygiene Agency. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21010. August 1985.

U.S. Census Bureau. 2002. Fax from Lanette M. Swopes. U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau, Philadelphia, PA. RE: 1960 and 1990 U.S. Census data for New Egypt, Lakehurst, and Wrightstown. April 26, 2002.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2001. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund listing. NPL site narrative for Naval Air Engineering Center. September 4, 2001.


TABLES

Table 1. Evaluation of IRP Sites at the BOMARC Site

Site Description and History Investigation Results/Environmental Monitoring Results1 Corrective Activities and/or Current Status Evaluation of Exposure
Boeing Michigan Aeronautical Research Center (BOMARC) Missile Accident Site (Radioactive Waste Site [RW]-01)
During the 1950s, rows of shelters were constructed to house missiles and their launchers. On June 7, 1960, a fire and non-nuclear explosion occurred in Missile Shelter 204. Weapons-grade plutonium and enriched uranium were released through airborne emissions and transported via surface water flow to a nearby drainage ditch by the fire-fighting efforts working to contain the fire. Groundwater: The groundwater was monitored for radionuclides during remedial investigation (RI) field activities. No radionuclides were detected.

Soil: Soil was analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and radionuclides. The primary radionuclide of concern is plutonium 239/240. Plutonium 239/240 at levels above U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) risk-based level of 0.3 becquerels per gram (Bq/g) (or 8 picocuries per gram [pCi/g]) was found to be concentrated in the top layers of soil. At one sampling location (where water used to extinguish the fire first entered the soil) a high concentration of plutonium 239/240 (5,180 Bq/g, or 140,000 pCi/g) was detected.

Surface Water: (same as groundwater)

Sediment: Sediment from the nearby drainage ditch was analyzed for VOCs, semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and radionuclides. Of the radionuclides, plutonium 239/240 was detected most frequently. Other analytes, including metals, pesticides, SVOCs, and PCBs were detected.

Structures: Contained alpha radiation greater than permissible levels.

Following the accident, containment measures were applied to the missile shelter and a nearby asphalt apron. The shelter was washed down and painted (both inside and outside) and 6 inches of reinforced concrete was poured in front of Missile Shelter 204 to fix the plutonium. Installation restoration program (IRP) activities were initiated in 1986 followed by a remedial investigation /feasibility study between 1989 and 1992. A record of decision (ROD) recommending excavation and off-site disposal of contaminated waste was signed on November 16, 1992. To address issues raised in the ROD, a site characterization report was completed in August 1995. Additional areas were addressed in a final study in February 1998. Past: Response workers, remediation workers, and downwind populations may have been exposed to radionuclides released during or shortly after the 1960 accident.

Current and Future: No harmful exposures are occurring, nor are they expected to occur. Access has been restricted since the facility was deactivated in 1972. Any off-site exposure to radiological contaminants in resuspended soil or foods is not expected to be at levels of health concern.

JP-X Discharge Pit (Waste Pit [WP]-05)
The JP-X discharge pit was used from 1958 to 1972 for disposal of missile fuel residues generated from routine missile maintenance activities. The pit is located near Building No. 37, in the west-central portion of the support area at the BOMARC Missile Facility. Groundwater: In 1991, groundwater samples collected from the JP-X discharge pit were analyzed for VOCs, SVOCs, pesticides, metals, and hydrazines. Trichloroethylene (TCE) was detected frequently at concentrations up to 67 ppb, which exceeds the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's [ATSDR's] Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide [CREG] of 3 ppb in drinking water and EPA's maximum contaminant levels (MCL) of 5 ppb. Other analytes were also detected, but infrequently or at low concentrations.

Soil: Samples were analyzed for VOCs, SVOCs, pesticides, PCBs, petroleum hydrocarbons, and metals; select samples were analyzed for hydrazines. Most analytes were either not detected or detected at levels below New Jersey's Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP's) unrestricted use soil cleanup criteria.

Surface Water/Sediment: Surface water was sampled for pesticides; 4,4-DDE, 4,4-DDE, and 4,4,-DDT were detected. Sediment was not sampled.

A no further response action planned (NFRAP) decision document (DD) was prepared by the Air Force and submitted to NJDEP in 1991. A RI is currently underway. The Air Force is in the process of collecting additional data to aid in the process of closing this site. Past: Due to restricted access at the site, no harmful exposures were likely to have occurred in the past.

Current and Future: No exposures are occurring, nor are they expected to occur. Access to the facility has been restricted since the facility was deactivated in 1972 and no one drinks water drawn from beneath this site.

Transformer Locations (Other [OT]-12)
In 1958, electric power was distributed throughout the site by five power transformers mounted on concrete pads (T-11 through T-15) and by transformers on poles. PCBs and petroleum hydrocarbons were disposed of at these locations. Groundwater: Not sampled.

Soil: Soil samples were analyzed for VOCs, SVOCs, pesticides, PCBs, and petroleum hydrocarbons in 1993 and/or 1997. PCBs and petroleum hydrocarbons were detected at three of the transformer pads. VOCs, SVOCs, and pesticides were typically at levels below NJDEP's cleanup criteria.

Surface Water/Sediment: Not sampled.

A contractor removed the transformer pads (T-12, T-13, and T-15) and excavated the surrounding contaminated soil (containing up to 16.6 parts per million [ppm] PCBs in a subsurface sample at T-15) in October 1993 to meet NJDEP's cleanup goal of 100 ppm in effect at the time. (PCB contamination around T-11 and T-14 did not exceed NJDEP's unrestricted use criteria.) After NJDEP lowered their PCB non-residential cleanup goal to 2 ppm, the Air Force excavated an additional 80 tons of PCB-contaminated soil in 1997. The Air Force may need to establish institutional controls before obtaining NJDEP's approval for no further action. Past: Due to restricted access to the site, no harmful exposures were likely to have occurred in the past.

Current and Future: No exposures are occurring, nor are they expected to occur. Access has been restricted since the facility was deactivated in 1972 and contaminated soil and material have been removed from the site.

MOGAS Storage Tank (Storage Tank [ST]-15)
This 5,000 gallon-capacity gasoline tank was located on the west side of Auto Alley near the intersection of South BOMARC Drive at the BOMARC Missile Facility. It was used for fueling motor vehicles with MOGAS (automobile gasoline) from 1961 to 1972. Groundwater: In 1991, groundwater samples were analyzed for VOCs, SVOCs, and metals, but only metals (antimony, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel) were detected. Samples collected in 1996 and 1997 (after soil and underground storage tank [UST] removal) were analyzed for VOCs, lead, methyl-tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), and tertiary butyl alcohol, but only lead was detected. With the exception of one hit (31.3 ppb), the levels of lead in the groundwater were below the EPA action levels (15 ppb).

Soil: In 1987, surface and subsurface soil samples were analyzed for VOCs, SVOCs, lead, and petroleum hydrocarbons. Analytes were detected at levels below NJDEP's target cleanup criteria then in effect. Post-excavation surface and subsurface soil samples were analyzed for VOCs, SVOCs, petroleum hydrocarbons, and lead in 1993 and 1997. No VOCs were detected. Lead and petroleum hydrocarbons were detected but at levels below NJDEP's unrestricted use cleanup criteria.

Surface Water/Sediment: Not sampled.

To eliminate petroleum-contaminated soil and to comply with UST regulations, the contaminated soil and UST were removed in 1993.

An NFRAP DD was signed in 1994. The Air Force is collecting additional data as part of the process to support closing this site.

Past: Due to restricted access to the site, no harmful exposures were likely to have occurred in the past.

Current and Future: No exposures are occurring, nor are they expected to occur. Access has been restricted since the facility was deactivated in 1972, the UST and associated contaminated soil have been removed from the site, and no one drinks water drawn from beneath this site.

Missile Launchers (OT-16)
Eighty-four missile launch shelters were located in the northern half of the BOMARC Missile Facility. Each launcher had a 150-gallon reservoir of hydraulic fluid, although some have been drained. Some hydraulic units were reported to be leaking fluid. Maintenance shop waste solvents, including TCE and dichloroethylene (DCE), were disposed of in the launcher area. Groundwater: During 1991 field investigations, samples were analyzed for VOCs, petroleum hydrocarbons, and radionuclides. Of the analytes, the VOCs TCE and DCE were detected most frequently and in the highest concentrations. Plutonium was also detected. As part of the 1997 TCE/DCE plume characterization, groundwater samples were analyzed for select VOCs. The study identified a TCE/DCE plume extending from this site beyond the eastern site boundary. Concentrations exceeded ATSDR CV and EPA's MCL of 5 ppb for TCE. The specific source of the TCE/DCE has not yet been identified.

Soil: Not sampled.

Surface Water/Sediment: In 1997, surface water samples from Elisha Creek were analyzed for select VOCs. TCE was detected but at low concentrations. Sediment was not sampled.

All missiles were removed in 1972, when the site was decommissioned.

Through a 1996 Hydraulic Fluid Interim Remedial Action, hydraulic fluids in the launcher sump pit and in the hydraulic supply were drained.

The area is being investigated through activities related to the TCE/DCE groundwater plume.

Past: Due to the restricted access to the site, no harmful exposures were likely to have occurred in the past.

Current and Future: No exposures are occurring, nor are they expected to occur. Access has been restricted since the facility was deactivated in 1972. No operating drinking water supply wells have been identified in the vicinity of the TCE/DCE plume. Contact with contaminants reaching Elisha Branch or Success Branch at Colliers Mill Wildlife Management Area is not expected to pose harm to recreational users of the area.

Acid Neutralization Pit (WP-17)
The acid neutralization pit, an unlined crushed limestone filled below-grade concrete basin, was located near Building No. 26 in the west-central portion of the support area. The pit was used between 1958 and 1972 for disposal of fuel residues from routine missile maintenance operations. Acid spills and rinsates were flushed to an acid spill pit and then to the acid neutralization pit. Groundwater: In 1991 and 1997, samples were analyzed for VOCs, SVOCs, and metals; 1991 samples were also analyzed for hydrazines, nitrate/nitrite, and plutonium. Only metals (chromium, lead, nickel, and mercury) and nitrite were detected. Nitrates were detected at concentrations up to 2.96 ppm, but at levels below EPA's MCL of 10 ppm. Chromium (up to 258 ppb) and lead (up to 22.7 ppb) were detected at levels above their respective EPA MCL (100 ppb) or EPA action level (15 ppb).

Soil: In 1991 and 1997, samples were analyzed for VOCs, SVOCs, and metals; 1991samples were also analyzed for pesticides, PCBs, petroleum hydrocarbons, and hydrazines. No contamination was present.

Surface Water/Sediment: Not sampled.

An NFRAP DD was submitted to NJDEP in September 1991. A RI is currently underway. The Air Force is collecting additional data as part of the process to support closing this site. Past: Due to restricted access to the site, no harmful exposures were likely to have occurred in the past.

Current and Future: No exposures are occurring, nor are they expected to occur. Access has been restricted since the facility was deactivated in 1972.

.

Sources: URS 1998a, 1998b, 1998c, 1998d; OHM 1996, 1998.

Key:

ATSDR

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
BOMARC Boeing Michigan Aeronautical Research Center
Bq/g Becquerels per gram
CREG ATSDR's cancer risk evaluation guide
DCE dichloroethylene
DD Decision Document
EMEG ATSDR's environmental media evaluation guide
IRP Installation Restoration Program
MCL EPA's maximum contaminant level
MOGAS automobile gasoline

MTBE

methyl tertiary butyl ether
NFRAP no further response action planned
NJDEP New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection
OT other
PCBs polychlorinated biphenyls
pCi/g picocuries per gram
ppb parts per billion
ppm parts per million
PQL practical quantitation limit
RI remedial investigation
RW radioactive waste site
ST storage tank
TCE trichloroethylene
EPA U. S. Environmental Protection Agency
UST underground storage Tank
VOC volatile organic compound
WP waste pit

1 A formal background quality study has not been established for the BOMARC Missile Facility. In the absence of site-specific background concentrations, ATSDR presented groundwater/surface water analytes that exceed NJDEP's practical quantitation limits (PQLs) and soil/sediment analytes that exceed NJDEP clean-up criteria or EPA's risk based criteria. The PQL is the lowest concentration of a constituent that can currently be reliably detected during routine laboratory operations.


Table 2. Area Drinking Water Wells in 2.5 Mile Radius of the BOMARC

Description Years of Operations Location/Approximate Distance from BOMARC Depth of Wells (feet)
On-Site Wells
BOMARC Well 1 approximately 1958 - 1972 southwest corner of site 100
BOMARC Well 2 approximately 1958 - 1972 southwest corner of site 100
BOMARC Well approximately 1958 - 1972 unknown unknown
BOMARC Well approximately 1958 - 1972 unknown unknown
Off-Site Wells
Ft. Dix, National Guard UTES
(for BOMARC)
1979 - present 1.5 miles W 87
NAES, Lakehurst 1958 - present 0.88 miles N 50
NAES, Lakehurst 1958 - present 1.7 miles ESE 52
Army Corp of Engineers 1958 0.66 miles WNW 93
Ft. Dix, Bivouac Site 18 unknown 2.3 miles SSE 103
Ft. Dix, Bivouac Site 20 unknown 1.2 miles SSW 118
Ft. Dix, Bivouac Site 22a unknown 0.9 miles WNW 125

Sources: U.S. Army 1981; URS 1998b.


Table 3. Exposure Pathways Evaluation Table

Exposure Pathway Elements Comments
Source of Contamination Time Period of Exposure Environmental Medium Point of Exposure Route of Exposure Potentially Exposed Population
Exposures Related to the 1960 Accident at Missile Shelter 204
BOMARC Missile Facility Accident-- On June 7, 1960, an explosion and a fire occurred at Missile Shelter 204. Past--during and shortly after the accident in 1960 • Airborne weapons-grade plutonium exhausted from the building during and shortly after the June 7, 1960, accident.
• External gamma radiation
• Contaminated resuspended dust
On-site and, possibly, off-site downwind locations • Inhalation of smoke and resuspended dust
• External radiation exposure
McGuire AFB personnel assigned to the BOMARC site, McGuire AFB and Fort Dix personnel responding to the accident (fire-fighters, disaster control personnel, air police), and possibly Fort Dix personnel at the surrounding off-site downwind locations. Personnel responding to the accident and in the immediate area (less than 0.5 miles from the accident site) were likely exposed to the highest levels of weapons-grade plutonium. On-site (and off-site) personnel downwind beyond 0.5 miles of the accident site were exposed, if at all, to radiation levels indistinguishable from background radiation levels.
BOMARC Missile Facility Accident Current and Potential Future • External gamma radiation
• Contaminated resuspended dust
• Contaminated foods
Off-site downwind locations, including Fort Dix (to the south and southwest) and Naval Air and Engineering Station, Lakehurst. These areas are sparsely populated and cover a 5-mile radius from the BOMARC Missile Facility. • Inhalation of resuspended dust
• Ingestion of soil and foods
• External radiation exposure
Personnel working and residents living in downwind locations No releases of plutonium or other radioactive material have been reported after the 1960 accident, and the site has been deactivated since 1972. Any exposure of off-site populations to radiological contaminant in soil or foods is not of health concern.

Exposures Related to the VOC plume

BOMARC Missile Facility. The specific source of VOCs at the site has not yet been identified. Past, Current, and Potential Future Groundwater None None None The former BOMARC drinking water supply wells were located upgradient and away from the VOC plume. No private or public drinking water wells draw water from the path of the plume.
Surface water Success Branch in Colliers Mill Wildlife Management Area Dermal contact Recreational users (e.g., anglers, hunter) of the wildlife area VOCs have been detected in Success Branch. Limited contact with surface water associated with fishing or hunting is not expected to be of health concern.


Table 4. Maximum Estimated Annual Committed Effective Doses for Radiation Exposure Near BOMARC

Time Period Route of Exposure Maximum Estimated Annual Committed Effective Dose (mSv)
Past Radiation from smoke
Radiation from ground
Inhalation of particles
40-foot high release about 0.1 Sv at less than 0.1 miles from the accident site
400-foot high release 0.81 - 1.62 mSv at 0.25 mile from the accident site
buoyant plume up to 0.16 mSv at almost 1 mile from the accident site
Current/Potential Future Radiation from ground
Inhalation of particles
Ingestion of food and soil
0.47 mSv
Key: mSv = millisieverts

FIGURES

Location Map
Figure 1. Location Map

Site Map
Figure 2. Site Map

Demographics
Figure 3. Demographics

ATSDR's Exposure Evaluation Process
Figure 4. ATSDR's Exposure Evaluation Process

BOMARC Missile Accident Site
Figure 5. BOMARC Missile Accident Site

Area of the TCE Plume
Figure 6. Area of the TCE Plume

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