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HEALTH CONSULTATION

CORNELL DUBILIER ELECTRONICS INCORPORATED
SOUTH PLAINFIELD, MIDDLESEX COUNTY, NEW JERSEY


BACKGROUND

The Region II U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has requested that the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) evaluate analytical data from residential properties located across the street from the Cornell-Dubilier Electronic, Inc. site in South Plainfield, New Jersey, to determine if polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in indoor dust and surface soils are at levels of public health concern [1]. The Exposure Investigation and Consultation Branch (EICB) has completed several health consultations regarding on- and off-site PCB contamination and made public health recommendations [2-4].

The Cornell-Dubilier Electronics, Inc. site is located at 333 Hamilton Boulevard in South Plainfield, Middlesex County, New Jersey. The site is currently known as the Hamilton Industrial Park and is occupied by an estimated 15 commercial businesses. The site is approximately 25 acres in size and is bordered by commercial businesses and residences on the south, west and north, and on the southeast, east, and northeast by an unnamed tributary to Bound Brook [2]. It is estimated that 540 persons reside within 0.25 miles of the site; the nearest residence is approximately 200 feet from the site [2].

During the 1950s, the site facility manufactured electronic parts and components, and tested transformer oils. Discarded electronic components were landfilled on-site and transformer oils contaminated with PCBs were reportedly dumped directly onto site soils. The company vacated the site in the early 1960s [2].

On September 10, 1998, ATSDR and EPA held a conference call to discuss indoor dust and surface soil data collected and analyzed for PCBs from 44 residential properties. The indoor dust and surface soil sampling was conducted to evaluate potential health impacts to area residents from PCB contamination. The residential properties sampled by EPA were selected using site specific information, location of the residential property, and air modeling data.

A phased approach was used to characterize the nature and extent of PCB contamination off-site from the on-site source. The phases were designated as Tier I, Tier II, and Tier III. Tier I started with sampling properties located immediately across the street and down-wind of the site in October and November 1997. In April 1998, sampling continued with Tier II properties, progressively moving away from the site. In May 1998, sampling continued and was extended to Tier III properties. Samples were collected and analyzed in the Tier III phase (moving further from the site) until PCB levels were below screening criteria set by EPA. Only Tier I and Tier II residential properties will be evaluated in this health consultation. Tier III residential properties will be addressed in a separate health consultation when sampling data results are available.

In October 1997 (Tier I) and April 1998 (Tier II) , EPA collected surface soil samples from a total of 31 residential properties [5,6]. Approximately 20 surface soil samples were collected from each residential property. PCB levels in surface soil ranged from none detected to 22 parts per million (ppm) [5,6].

In November 1997 (Tier I) and April 1998 (Tier II), EPA Region II collected indoor dust samples from a total of 12 residential properties [7,8]. Approximately two to four indoor dust samples were collected from each of the 12 properties. PCB levels in indoor dust ranged from none detected to 0.044 milligrams (mg) per square meter (m2) [7,8].

In April 1998, EPA remediated/cleaned the indoor dust at properties where the PCB levels were previously determined to be of health concern [4]. After each home was remediated/cleaned, post remediation indoor dust samples were collected. EPA plans soil excavation activities at six residential properties based on Tier I sampling where the levels of PCBs were determined to be of health concern [4]. These residential properties are listed in the column "future removal and sampling activities" in Table 1. Confirmational soil sampling will be conducted at properties undergoing soil removal. Additional indoor dust sampling will be conducted at residences where initial indoor dust PCB levels indicated a health concern.


DISCUSSION

Because the properties sampled were residential, it is anticipated that populations potentially exposed to contamination will include children and adults.

PCBs can be absorbed into the body via ingestion, inhalation, or dermal exposure following ingestion of dust or soil, inhalation of PCB-laden dust, or direct dermal contact with PCBs in soil or dust. In humans, long-term exposure to sufficient concentrations of PCBs can affect the skin and liver; reproductive, endocrine, immunosuppressive, and carcinogenic effects have been observed in animal studies [9].

An immunosuppressant effect was observed in a study of rhesus monkeys exposed for two years to capsules containing 0.005 mg/kg/day of the PCB mixture Aroclor 1254. This effect level was the lowest observed to cause adverse health effects of the several hundred studies reviewed by ATSDR [9]. On the basis of this study of monkeys, ATSDR has derived a chronic oral Minimal Risk Level (MRL) for PCBs of 0.00002 mg/kg/day. An MRL is defined as an estimate of daily human exposure to a dose of a chemical that is likely to be without an appreciable risk of adverse noncancerous effects over a specified duration of exposure [9]. Screening level exposure-dose calculations indicate that children in some houses may receive doses that exceed the MRL, but are likely to be more than 100 times below the level that caused immunosuppression in the study of rhesus monkeys.

Since screening analysis identified a potential for health concern, soil and dust PCBs concentrations were evaluated using averaged daily doses estimated for both child and adult residential exposure scenarios and both cancer and non-cancer dose response relationships for PCBs [9,10]. The exposure dose equation and parameter assumptions used for soil ingestion assessment followed that found in EPA's Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS) [11] . Exposure equations used for indoor dust ingestion assessment were based on ongoing methods development by a combined ATSDR/EPA/Centers for Disease Control workgroup on residential dust pathway analysis. Evaluations of health concerns were made on a house-by-house basis using estimated excess individual cancer risk, a margin of exposure analysis relative to the study used to develop the MRL for immunosuppression, and qualitative consideration of uncertainty based on site specific data.


ATSDR CHILD HEALTH INITIATIVE

ATSDR considers children in the evaluation of all exposures. When ATSDR evaluated levels of PCBs from the data reported in this document, ATSDR used health guidelines that are protective for children. ATSDR did identify several residential properties where the levels of PCBs were a health concern or a potential health concern for children. EPA and ATSDR made home visits to these residential properties to provide information regarding indoor dust and soil remediation activities and health education (See Tables 1 and 2: Tier I and Tier II Residential Properties).


CONCLUSIONS

Based on available information and evaluation of the indoor dust and surface soil data for the residential properties located near and across the street and from the Cornell-Dubilier Electronics site, ATSDR concludes the following:

  1. Elevated levels of PCBs were detected in post remediation (cleaning of contaminated indoor dust) indoor dust, pre-remediation indoor dust, and surface soil samples at residential properties that may pose a health concern. Health evaluations, future removal, and sampling activities for Tier I residential properties are presented in Table 1, and follow up health activities for Tier II residential properties are presented in Table 2.

Table 1: Tier I Residential Properties Closest to Cornell-Dubilier Electronics Facility; Sampled Oct./Nov. 1997

Residential Properties Health Category Future removal activities & Follow up health activities for residents with elevated levels of PCBs in indoor dust and/or surface soils
500 Garibaldi Ave-C Indoor dust PCB levels: No current public health concern because no children are living at residence; however, a future potential public health concern exists due to levels of PCBs in indoor dust.

Surface Soil PCB levels: Potential health concern.

Reduce/stop potential exposure to indoor dust and surface soils contaminated with PCBs.

Soil removal is scheduled for this property in October 1998. Post excavation soil samples should be collected to ensure PCB levels are protective of public health.

Provide health education to residents on ways to reduce/stop potential exposure to indoor dust and surface soils contaminated with PCBs. Health education fact sheet has been provided to EPA.

501 Garibaldi Ave-B Indoor dust PCB levels: No public health concern.

Surface Soil PCB levels: Potential public health concern.

Reduce/stop potential exposure to surface soils contaminated with PCBs.

Soil removal is scheduled for this property in October 1998. Post excavation soil samples should be collected to ensure PCB levels are protective of public health.

Provide health education to residents on ways to reduce/stop potential exposure to surface soils contaminated with PCBs. Health education fact sheet has been provided to EPA.

501Hamilton Blvd-N Indoor dust PCB levels: No public health concern.

Surface Soil PCB levels: No public health concern.

None.
507Hamilton Blvd-D
Residence is Day Care Facility
Indoor dust PCB levels: Public health concern in dining room and living room.

Surface Soil PCB levels: No public health concern.

Reduce/stop potential exposure to indoor dust contaminated with PCBs. Child currently lives at residence. Residence is also a day care facility.

Provide health education to residents on ways to reduce/stop potential exposure to indoor dust contaminated with PCBs. Health education fact sheet has been provided to EPA.

108 Spicer Ave.- O Indoor dust PCB levels: No public health concern.

Surface Soil PCB levels: No public health concern.

None.
130 Spicer Ave. - A
1st Floor
Indoor dust PCB levels: No public health concern.

Surface Soil PCB levels: No public health concern.

None.
130 Spicer Ave. -A
2nd Floor
Indoor dust PCB levels: No public health concern.

Surface Soil PCB levels: No public health concern.

None.
204 Spicer Ave. - E Indoor dust PCB levels: No public health concern.

Surface Soil PCB levels: Potential public health concern.

Reduce/stop potential exposure to surface soils contaminated with PCBs.

Soil removal is scheduled for this property in October 1998. Post excavation soil samples should be collected to ensure PCB levels are protective of public health.

Provide health education to residents on ways to reduce/stop potential exposure to surface soils contaminated with PCBs. Health education fact sheet has been provided to EPA.

210 Spicer Ave.- F Indoor dust PCB levels: No public health concern.

Surface Soil PCB levels: No public health concern.

None.
214 Spicer Ave. - G Indoor dust PCB levels: No public health concern.

Surface Soil PCB levels: No public health concern.

None.
228 Spicer Ave. - L Indoor dust PCB levels: No public health concern.

Surface Soil PCB levels: No public health concern.

None.
305 Spicer Ave. - I Indoor dust PCB levels: No current public health concern because no children are living at residence; however, a future potential public health concern exists due to levels of PCBs in indoor dust.

Surface Soil PCB levels: Potential public health concern.

Reduce/stop potential exposure to indoor dust and surface soils contaminated with PCBs.

Soil removal is scheduled for this property in October 1998. Post excavation soil samples should be collected to ensure PCB levels are protective of public health.

Provide health education to residents on ways to reduce/stop potential exposure to indoor dust and surface soils contaminated with PCBs. Health education fact sheet has been provided to EPA.

320 Spicer Ave.- J Indoor dust PCB levels: No public health concern.

Surface Soil PCB levels: No public health concern.

None.
336 Spicer Ave. - H Indoor dust PCB levels: Indeterminate public health concern. EPA was denied access to sample indoor dust.

Surface Soil PCB levels: No public health concern.

None.
233 Delmore Ave.-M Indoor dust PCB levels: No public health concern.

Surface Soil PCB levels: No public health concern.

None.
311 Delmore Ave-K Indoor dust PCB levels: Indeterminate public health concern. EPA was denied access to sample indoor dust.

Surface Soil PCB levels: No public health concern.

None.
345 Metuchen - P Indoor dust PCB levels: Indeterminate public health concern. EPA was denied access to sample indoor dust.

Surface Soil PCB levels: No public health concern.

None.


Table 2: Tier II Residential Properties not directly adjacent to Cornell-Dubilier Electronics Facility; Sampled April/May 1998

Residential
Properties
Sampled
Health Category

 

Follow up health activities for residents with elevated levels of PCBs in indoor dust and/or surface soils
346 Hamilton Blvd. Indoor dust PCB levels: No public health concern.

Surface Soil PCB levels: Potential public health concern.

Reduce /stop potential exposure to surface soils contaminated with PCBs.

Provide health education to residents on ways to reduce/stop potential exposure to surface soils contaminated with PCBs. Health education fact sheet has been provided to EPA.

401 Hamilton Blvd.
2nd Apt.on Right
Indoor dust PCB levels: No current public health concern because no children are living at residence; however, a future potential public health concern exists due to levels of PCBs in indoor dust. No soil available for sampling near or adjacent to the apartment building.

Reduce/stop future potential exposure to indoor dust contaminated with PCBs.

Provide health education to residents on ways to reduce/stop potential exposure to indoor dust contaminated with PCBs. Health education fact sheet has been provided to EPA.

403 Hamilton Blvd. Indoor dust PCB levels: No public health concern.

Surface Soil PCB levels: Potential public health concern

Reduce /stop potential exposure to surface soils contaminated with PCBs.

Provide health education to residents on ways to reduce/stop potential exposure to surface soils contaminated with PCBs. Health education fact sheet has been provided to EPA.

405 Hamilton Blvd.
1st Floor LR composite
Indoor dust PCB levels: No public health concern. No soil available for sampling near or adjacent to the apartment building.

None.

405 Hamilton Blvd.
2nd Floor Composite
Indoor dust PCB levels: No public health concern. No soil available for sampling near or adjacent to the apartment building.

None.

409-1A Hamilton Blvd. Indoor dust PCB levels: No public health concern. No soil available for sampling near or adjacent to the apartment building.

None.

409-1B Hamilton Blvd. Indoor dust PCB levels: No public health concern. No soil available for sampling near or adjacent to the apartment building.

None.

409-2A Hamilton Blvd. Indoor dust PCB levels: No public health concern. No soil available for sampling near or adjacent to the apartment building.

None.

510-A Hamilton Blvd. Indoor dust PCB levels: No public health concern. No soil available for sampling near or adjacent to the apartment building.

None.

511 Hamilton Blvd. Indoor dust PCB levels: No public health concern.

Surface Soil PCB levels: No public health concern.

None.
115 Delmore
1st Floor Composite
Indoor dust PCB levels: No public health concern.

Surface Soil PCB levels: No health concern.

None.
115 Delmore Ave.
2nd Floor Composite
Indoor dust PCB levels: No public health concern.

Surface Soil PCB levels: No health concern.

None.
119 Delmore Ave. Indoor dust PCB levels: No current public health concern because no children are living at residence; however, a future potential public health concern exists due to levels of PCBs in indoor dust.

Surface Soil PCB levels: No public health concern.

Reduce/stop future potential exposure to indoor dust contaminated with PCBs.

Provide health education to residents on ways to reduce/stop potential exposure to indoor dust contaminated with PCBs. Health education fact sheet has been provided to EPA.

123 Delmore Ave.
1st Floor Composite
Indoor dust PCB levels: No public health concern.

Surface Soil PCB levels: No public health concern.

None.
123 Delmore Ave.
2nd Floor Composite
Indoor dust PCB levels: No public health concern.

Surface Soil PCB levels: No public health concern.

None.
127 Delmore Ave. Indoor dust PCB levels: No public health concern.

Surface Soil PCB levels: No public health concern.

None.
131 Delmore Ave.
1st Floor Nursery
Indoor dust PCB levels: No public health concern.

Surface Soil PCB levels: No public health concern.

None.
131 Delmore Ave.
2 nd Floor Composite
Indoor dust PCB levels: No public health concern.

Surface Soil PCB levels: No public health concern.

None.
135 Delmore Ave.
1st Floor Composite
Indoor dust PCB levels: No public health concern.

Surface Soil PCB levels: No public health concern.

None.
135 Delmore Ave.
2nd Floor Composite
Indoor dust PCB levels: No public health concern.

Surface Soil PCB levels: No public health concern.

None.
201 Delmore Ave.
composite

Indoor dust PCB levels: No public health concern.

Surface Soil PCB levels: No public health concern.

None.
207 Delmore Ave. Indoor dust PCB levels: No public health concern.

Surface Soil PCB levels: Potential public health concern.

Reduce /stop potential exposure to surface soils contaminated with PCBs.

Provide health education to residents on ways to reduce/stop potential exposure to surface soils contaminated with PCBs. Health education fact sheet has been provided to EPA.

215 Delmore Ave. Indoor dust PCB levels: No public health concern.

Surface Soil PCB levels: No public health concern.

None.
221 Delmore Ave.
1st Floor
Indoor dust PCB levels: No public health concern.

Surface Soil PCB levels: No public health concern.

None.
221 Delmore Ave.
2nd Floor
Indoor dust PCB levels: No public health concern.

Surface Soil PCB levels: No public health concern.

None.
229 Delmore Ave. Indoor dust PCB levels: No public health concern.

Surface Soil PCB levels: Public health concern.

Reduce /stop potential exposure to surface soils contaminated with PCBs.

Provide health education to residents on ways to reduce/stop potential exposure to surface soils contaminated with PCBs. Health education fact sheet has been provided to EPA.

One surface soil sample collected in the backyard detected PCBs at 60 ppm.

237 Delmore Ave. Indoor dust PCB levels: No public health concern.

Surface Soil PCB levels: No public health concern.

None.
BACKGROUND Indoor Dust Samples
408 Forest Haven; residence located in another NJ city.
Indoor dust PCB levels: No public health concern. Background indoor dust sample.


RECOMMENDATIONS

  1. Prevent potential exposure to PCBs in surface soils and indoor dust at levels of public health concern. ATSDR recommends that an interim measure or a permanent solution to the contaminated residential yards and/or indoor dust of the Tier II residents should be put in place within six months.


  2. Provide health education to Tier II residents on ways to reduce their potential exposure to PCBs present in residential yards and/or indoor dust. A health education fact sheet for PCBs is available and has been provided to EPA and ATSDR Region II for distribution to Tier II residential property owners (See Attachment 1: PCB Fact Sheet).


  3. Wet mop floors and damp dust hard surfaces using a cleaning solution such as Lestoil or Mr. Clean if the levels of PCBs in indoor dust were determine to be of health concern at residential properties. These products are mineral-oil-based cleaners that help cleanup the PCBs. Carpets should also be shampooed with these products. The use of a regular vacuum cleaner to remove dust is NOT recommended unless a HEPA (high efficiency particulate adsorption) filter is placed on the vacuum cleaner exhaust.


  4. Collect post excavation soil samples to verify that PCBs have been reduced to a safe level at properties where soil removal activities are planned.


  5. Implement dust suppression techniques as needed to prevent off-site migration of contaminated dust during soil removal activities at residential properties.


  6. Cover contaminated soil in the trucks and decontaminate the truck tires (if necessary) when transporting the contaminated soil through the neighborhood streets to prevent depositing contaminated soil on properties and streets.


ATSDR will be available to assist EPA in the evaluation of further data.

Tammie McRae, M.S.
Date: 11/20/98


REFERENCES

  1. Meeting with Tom Mignone, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Region 2 Representative in Atlanta, Georgia, on July 30, 1998 to request a health consultation for the Cornell-Dubilier Electronics Inc. Site from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region II.


  2. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Exposure Investigation and Consultation Branch Record of Activity, Cornell-Dubilier Electronics, South Plainfield, New Jersey. Log No. 97-1004. Steve Kinsler. October 7, 1997.


  3. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, Atlanta, Georgia, 30333. Health Consultation, Cornell-Dubilier Electronics Inc. Site (AKA: Hamilton Industrial Park), South Plainfield, New Jersey. May 27, 1997.


  4. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, Atlanta, Georgia, 30333. Health Consultation Cornell-Dubilier Electronics Inc. Site, South Plainfield, Middlesex County, New Jersey. May 26,1998.


  5. Tier I Residential Sampling and Analysis Summary Report. Cornell-Dubilier Electronics. South Plainfield, Middlesex County, New Jersey. Prepared by the Superfund Technical Assessment and Response Team, Roy F. Weston, Inc. Federal Programs Division, Edison, New Jersey, 08837. Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region II-Removal Action Branch, Edison, New Jersey, 08837. DCN#: START-02-F-01528. TDD#: 02-97-02-0015. EPA Contract No.: 68-W5-0019. June 1998.


  6. Tier II Residential Sampling and Analysis Summary Report. Cornell-Dubilier Electronics. South Plainfield, Middlesex County, New Jersey. Prepared by the Superfund Technical Assessment and Response Team, Roy F. Weston, Inc. Federal Programs Division, Edison, New Jersey, 08837. Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region II-Removal Action Branch, Edison, New Jersey, 08837. DCN#: START-02-F-01839. TDD#: 02-97-02-0015. EPA Contract No.: 68-W5-0019. July 1998.


  7. Final Report, Vacuum Dust Sampling, Cornell Dubilier Electronics, South Plainfield, New Jersey. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Work Assignment No.: 2-262. Weston Work Order No.: 03347-142-001-2262-01. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Contract No.: 68-C4-0022. February 1998.


  8. Final Report, Vacuum Dust Sampling, Cornell Dubilier Electronics, South Plainfield, New Jersey. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Work Assignment No.: 3-262. Weston Work Order No.: 03347-143-001-3262-01. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Contract No.: 68-C4-0022. July 1998.


  9. Toxicological Profile for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Update. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. September 1997.


  10. PCBs: Cancer Dose-Response Assessment and Application to Environmental Mixtures. National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. EPA/600/P-96/001F. September 1996.


  11. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS), Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part A). EPA/540/1-89/002. December 1989.

ATTACHMENT 1: PCB FACT SHEET

FACTS ABOUT
Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)

About PCBs:

PCBs commonly refer to a mixture of synthetic chemicals that have similar chemical structures and are often found together in varying amounts. You cannot taste or smell PCBs when they are present as contaminants in the environment. Although levels are beginning to decrease, small amounts of PCBs can be found almost anywhere in the world. PCBs can be found in the air, in soil, lakes, rivers, and ponds, and in fish and other aquatic animals that live in those bodies of water. Because of past disposal practices, almost everyone and every animal in the world has some PCBs in their body.

Commonly asked questions about PCBs

How might I be exposed to PCBs?

  • The most common and largest source of total PCB exposure is through the food we eat. Meat, fish, chicken, eggs and milk all contain small amounts of PCBs.


  • Other potential sources of PCB exposure may include activities where people come in contact with PCBs in contaminated soils and indoor dust.


  • Exposure may occur by breathing in or swallowing dust or soil with PCBs or getting soil or dust on your skin (e.g., when gardening or when children play on soils that have PCBs in them). Pets that play outdoors can carry soil with PCBs into the house on their fur.

How can I avoid exposure to PCBs from contaminated soils?

  • By washing your hands and face before eating, drinking or smoking.


  • By not tracking dirt into your home.

Ways to reduce indoor dust contamination

  • Wet mop and damp dust all floors and hard surfaces with a cleaning solution such as Lestoil or Mr. Clean (these products are mineral-oil-based cleaners that help to clean up the PCBs.)


  • Carpets should also be shampooed with these products.

Note: Vacuuming with a regular household vacuum is Not recommended because it can stir up dust in the home.

What are the short-term health effects of PCBs?

  • Irritation of the eyes, nose, and lungs, and adverse skin effects such as rashes and a condition called "chloracne" have occurred among workers exposed to high levels of PCBs. These effects were observed when PCB oils and mist were breathed in or came indirect contact with the skin, a situation that is NOT like that seen at your home.


  • Short-term adverse health effects are not expected from exposure to the levels of PCBs seen in the indoor dust and surface soils sampled at the homes across the street from the Cornell-Dubilier site

What are the long-term effects of PCBs?

  • Based on animal studies, there is concern that moderate to high levels of PCB exposure may cause immunological effects.


  • Based on animal studies, we believe that PCBs may cause cancer, but only if PCB exposures are to moderate to high levels and the exposure period is over many years.


  • In addition, some have argued that moderate levels of PCB exposure may cause learning deficits in children.

Is there a medical test to tell whether I have been exposed to PCBs?

  • PCBs can be tested for in blood, body fat and breast milk.


  • Blood tests are the best way for finding recent exposures to high levels of PCBs; however, these tests cannot determine the source of the PCBs, or whether individuals will have or develop adverse health effects.

Where can I get more information?

  • If you want more information about the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) activities, callEric Wilson, EPA Representative at 732/906-6991 or Pat Seppi, Community Relations at 212/637-3679


  • If you have questions or concerns about PCBs please contactArthur Block, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Senior Regional Representative at 212/637-4307 or 732/906-6931 or ATSDR Division of Toxicology at: 1-800-447-1544

"Healthy People in a Healthy Environment"

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