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HEALTH CONSULTATION

DUANE MARINE
PERTH AMBOY, MIDDLESEX COUNTY, NEW JERSEY


STATEMENT OF ISSUES

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) requested assistance from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) in determining whether the DuaneMarine site, 26 Washington Street, Perth Amboy, Middlesex County, poses an immediate threat tothe public health. In response to this request and through a cooperative agreement with the ATSDR,the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services (NJDHSS) prepared the following HealthConsultation for the Duane Marine site. At the request of the USEPA, this Health Consultation islimited to potential exposures associated with analytical results of the most recent surface soil samples collected from the site.


BACKGROUND

In the 1970's, Duane Marine operated as a waste oil collection, blending, and recyclingfacility, but soon after expanded its operation to include hazardous waste collection, processing,storage, transportation, treatment, and disposal. The site was abandoned subsequent to a 1980 firewhich destroyed the facility; the site has now been condemned by the city of Perth Amboy. Presently, the city of Perth Amboy is considering the site and surrounding area for a large waterfrontredevelopment project as part of an ongoing urban renewal initiative referred to as FOCUS 2000(NJDEP 2001). The intent of the FOCUS 2000 redevelopment plan for the city of Perth Amboy isto transform hundreds of acres of abandoned, underused, and contaminated land into residentialhousing, commercial enterprises, and recreational facilities. FOCUS 2000 plans for the DuaneMarine site include apartments, townhouses, a marina, and commercial businesses, including arestaurant.

According to the USEPA, Potentially Responsible Parties (PRPs) are willing to remediatethe site to non-residential cleanup levels contingent upon the city and the developer financing theadditional costs necessary to remediate to more stringent residential cleanup levels. Negotiationsconcerning the cleanup of the site are ongoing, and the site may eventually be listed on the NationalPriorities List (NPL) of Superfund sites.

Geographic Information System (GIS) spatial analysis technology, in conjunction with 2000United States Census data, were used by the ATSDR to estimate that there are approximately 37,000individuals residing within a one mile radius of the Duane Marine site (Figure 1). The water supplyfor the city of Perth Amboy is obtained from groundwater in the Runyon Wellfields in Old Bridge,New Jersey, about nine miles south of Perth Amboy (Utility Service Affiliates 2001). Accordingto 1990 United States Census data, there are 59 reported private drinking water wells located in Perth Amboy.

Site Visit

On March 26, 2003, staff performed a site visit at the Duane Marine site. Present wereSteven Miller and Julie Petix of the NJDHSS; Leah Escobar of the ATSDR; Joseph Cosentino, On-Scene Coordinator, and Richard Salkie, USEPA; and Gary Rojek, Middlesex County Public HealthDepartment. The site visit commenced at 10:00 am. Weather conditions were sunny, some clouds,light breeze, with temperatures in the mid 60s. Odors were noticeable, described by those presentas "sulfur," "diesel," "gasoline," "sewage," and "salt air." Although the seven acre site is fenced andposted as "Private Property" and "No Trespassing," the fence is dilapidated, entry gates are open,and the site is easily accessible. The site is bordered to the east by the Arthur Kill, a tidal straitconnecting the Kill Van Kull and Newark Bay to the north with Raritan Bay and Raritan River tothe south; Tri-State Ship Repair and Drydock Company (formerly Perth Amboy Dry Dock) to thesouth, a vacant lot previously owned by General Cable Corporation to the west; Gregory MetalFabricators, Inc. to the northwest; and Vira Manufacturing, Inc. to the north. Several men wereobserved fishing in the Arthur Kill, and ducks were swimming along the coastline. Staten Island,New York and the Outer Bridge Crossing Bridge were observed across the Arthur Kill to the eastand northeast of the site, respectively. The area surrounding the site includes heavy industry,residences, and commercial properties. Residences and several schools (Perth Amboy CatholicIntermediate School, grades 3-5; Anthony V. Ceres Elementary School, grades K-4) are within a fewblocks of the site, and the new Middlesex County Vocational and Technical High School is currentlyunder construction on reclaimed brownfields two blocks from the site.

The majority of the site is paved with either concrete or asphalt, although it is in considerabledisrepair. There are gaping holes in the concrete and numerous physical hazards are present whichinclude broken glass, rubble, and mounds of household trash. A fire-damaged, broken windowed,three-story brick building and an adjoining one-story brick building located on the site are used bytrespassers for parties, as indicated by the numerous remaining alcoholic beverage cans and bottles. Along the unpaved shoreline, approximately six 5,000 gallon tanks, as well as one large 250,000gallon tank remain on the site. The tanks were recently crushed after it was observed that homelessadults were using them as shelters. According to the USEPA, the transients are an adult populationwith no children. Elementary and intermediate school-aged children, however, reportedly use thesite to ride bicycles on makeshift ramps; during the site visit, a youngster rode his bike onto the site,took what appeared to be a two-wheeled, upright cart out of a trash pile, and left. There are no handwashing or toilet facilities available at the site, and the USEPA has reportedly observed human excrement on the site.


ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION

Surface Soil

The surface soil sample data provided by the USEPA were collected from two discrete soilsample locations along the Duane Marine site's shoreline and are referred to by the NJDHSS as thenorth and south sample locations. Minimum, maximum, and average concentrations for the analyzedsubstances are provided in Tables 1 and 2. Health screening values and NJDEP Residential SoilCleanup Criteria are provided for comparison purposes. NJDEP Soil Cleanup Criteria are basedupon human health impacts but also take into consideration environmental impacts.

Maximum surface soil concentrations for the north sample location included: 94 parts permillion (ppm) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); 43.1 ppm arsenic; 1,080 ppm cadmium; 10,000ppm lead; and 53.1 ppm mercury (see Table 1). Maximum surface soil concentrations for the southsample location included: 75 ppm PCBs; 69.1 ppm arsenic; 41.9 ppm cadmium; 14,500 ppm lead; and 4.5 ppm mercury (see Table 2).


DISCUSSION

Assessment Methodology

The general method for determining whether a public health hazard exists to a communityis to evaluate the environmental and human components that lead to human exposure. An exposurepathway is the process by which an individual is exposed to contaminants from a source ofcontamination and consists of the following five elements:

  1. source of contamination;
  2. environmental media (e.g., air, groundwater, surface water, soil, sediment, biota);
  3. point of exposure (i.e., location of potential or actual human contact with a contaminated medium);
  4. route of exposure (e.g., inhalation, dermal contact/absorption, ingestion); and
  5. receptor population.

Exposure pathways are further classified into three groups: (1) "completed pathways," i.e., those inwhich exposure is reasonably likely to have occurred, to occur, or to occur in the future; (2)"potential pathways," i.e., those in which exposure might have occurred, may be occurring, or mayyet occur; and, (3) "eliminated pathways," i.e., those that can be eliminated from further analysisbecause one of the five elements is missing and will never be present, or in which no contaminantsof concern can be identified.

After an exposure pathway is designated as completed, potential, or eliminated, a two-stepmethodology is followed to evaluate public health issues related to exposure pathways at hazardouswaste sites. First, representative environmental monitoring data is obtained for the site of concernand a list is compiled of site-related contaminants. Contaminant levels are compared to establishedhealth screening values. For substances that exceed established health screening values, site-specificconditions are evaluated to determine likely exposure scenarios for a given exposure pathway. Giventhis exposure scenario, a dose is estimated and compared with scientific studies to determine whetherthe extent of exposure indicates a public health hazard.

Exposure Pathways

There is a completed exposure pathway from surface soil to homeless adults living on theDuane Marine site and elementary and intermediate school-aged children who trespass on the site. Other potential exposure pathways were not evaluated as part of the Health Consultation.

Contaminants of Concern

Health screening values are considered conservative because they include ample safetyfactors that account for most sensitive populations. If, however, a contaminant is found at levelsgreater than its health screening value, the pollutant is designated as a contaminant of concern to beexamined further in the assessment. Since health screening values are based on conservative (i.e.,protective) assumptions, the presence of contaminant concentrations greater than a health screeningvalue does not necessarily mean that adverse health effects will occur among the exposed population.

Contaminants selected for further evaluation of potential health effects at the Duane Marinesite included PCBs, arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury (see Tables 1 and 2). Using the followingequation for non-cancer health effects,

Exposure Dose equals C times IR times EF divided by BW

where:

C = milligrams of contaminant per kilogram of soil
IR = intake rate of soil (assumed ingestion rate for adults is 100 milligrams/day)
BW = body weight (in kilograms)
EF = exposure factor

exposure factor =

(number of days of exposure per year times the number of years of exposure) divided by (days per year times number of years exposed)

and the next equation for cancer health effects,

Exposure Dose equals C times IR times EF divided by BW

where:

C = milligrams of contaminant per kilogram of soil
IR = intake rate of soil (assumed ingestion rate for adults is 100 milligrams/day)
BW = body weight (in kilograms)
EF = exposure factor

exposure factor =

(number of days of exposure per year times the number of years of exposure) divided by (days per year times 70 years)

site-specific doses were calculated for a 70 kilogram (kg) adult using minimum, maximum, andaverage soil contaminant concentrations from the location with the higher set of values (seeAppendix A). Exposure dose assumptions are reiterated in Appendix A. Estimated exposure dosescalculated for non-cancer health effects for each substance were then compared to their respectiveMinimal Risk Level (MRL), when available. The MRL is an estimate of the exposure level at whichadverse (excluding cancer) health effects are not expected to occur in non-hypersensitive individuals. MRLs are based largely on toxicological studies in animals and on reports of human occupational(workplace) exposures. Exposure to a level above the MRL does not mean that adverse healtheffects will occur. The ATSDR derives MRLs using quantitative and qualitative information formany potential systemic, neurological, and developmental effects. MRLs are specific for the routeand the duration of exposure. Cancer risk methodology constitutes exposure dose (calculated forcancer health effects) multiplied by the cancer slope as determined by the USEPA. Cancer risk wasconsidered "excess" if it exceeded one in 10,000. Results are summarized as follows:

Non-Cancer and Cancer Risks Based Upon Estimated Exposure Doses

Substance MRL Exceeded for Non-Cancer Adverse Effects Lifetime Excess Cancer Risk
>1 in 10,000
PCBs yes (maximum concentration)
yes (average concentration)
no
Arsenicnono
Cadmium yes (maximum concentration)
yes (average concentration)
not applicable
Leadno MRL availablenot applicable
Mercurynonot applicable

For both PCBs and cadmium, the estimated exposure doses for non-cancer health effects is an orderof magnitude above the MRL at the maximum concentrations detected at the site (PCBs = 94 ppm;cadmium = 1,080 ppm). At the average concentration of PCBs (22.69 ppm) and cadmium (292.63ppm) detected at the site, the estimated exposure doses for non-cancer health effects is slightly abovethe MRL. At these levels near the MRL, health effects would not be expected to occur. The averagerather than the maximum concentration may be more representative of chronic (>365 days)exposures. No apparent non-cancer adverse effects or excess cancer risks were found at thecalculated exposure doses for arsenic and mercury.

Although there is no MRL available for lead, there are health guidelines and methods for evaluating body burdens based upon soil contaminant levels.

Lead

Environmental exposure to lead has long been recognized as a public health problemparticularly among children. Excessive concentration of lead in soil has been shown to increase leadlevels in children, and blood lead concentration has been generally accepted as the best measure ofthe external dose of lead in both children and adults (ATSDR 1999 and Madhavan et al 1988).

The ATSDR has developed an approach to estimate blood lead levels from environmentallead concentrations utilizing regression analysis with multi-route uptake parameters (ATSDR 1999). This approach applies slope values from selected studies to integrate total exposure from variouspathways (i.e., air, soil, dust, water, and food), providing a cumulative exposure estimate expressedas total blood lead. Using a modified version of this equation which focuses strictly on soilexposure, a blood lead increment was predicted for children (less than 18 years of age) playing onthe site and homeless adults living on the site (see Appendix B). For a child spending 25 percentof his or her play time on the site, a blood lead increment of 7 to 25 micrograms per deciliter (ug/dl)was estimated based upon the average (4,140 ppm) and maximum (14,500 ppm) soil leadconcentrations detected on the site; for homeless adults living on the site, a blood lead increment of4 to 14.5 ug/dl was estimated. No documentation exists on the percent of play time a child actuallyspends at the site, so there is uncertainty about the accuracy of the assumption and estimates. Because there are no hand washing or toilet facilities available at the site, the use of the assumed soilingestion rate of 100 mg/day may be an underestimate for the homeless adult population living onthe site.

Public Health Implications

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a blood lead level above10 ug/dl is of concern for children, and 50 ug/dl is the federal occupational standard for workerremoval from exposures (OSHA 1993). The blood lead increments predicted for children andhomeless adults at the Duane Marine site are cause for concern, particularly among the children. Some of the health effects of lead exposure on various organ systems are permanent or latent andmay appear after exposure has ceased. Signs and symptoms associated with lead toxicity includedecreased learning and memory, lowered Intelligence Quotient (IQ), speech and hearing impairment,fatigue, and lethargy.

Prominent physiologic effects and symptoms are neurologic, renal, hematologic, andcardiovascular (hypertension). Maternal blood lead can cross the placenta and put the fetus at risk (e.g., low birth weight, premature birth). Evidence for carcinogenicity of inorganic lead andelemental lead is insufficient to determine human carcinogenicity. The USEPA Science AdvisoryBoard has recommended that lead be considered a probable human carcinogen (ATSDR CaseStudies in Environmental Medicine 2000).

Children's Health Considerations

ATSDR's Child Health Initiative recognizes that the unique vulnerabilities of infants andchildren demand special emphasis in communities faced with contamination in their environment. Children are at greater risk than adults from certain kinds of exposures to hazardous substancesbecause they eat and breathe more than adults. They also play outdoors and often bring food intocontaminated areas. They are shorter than adults, which means they breathe dust, soil, and heavyvapors closer to the ground. Children are also smaller, resulting in higher doses of chemicalexposure per body weight. The developing body systems of children can sustain permanent damageif toxic exposures occur during critical growth stages. Most important, children depend completelyon adults for risk identification and management decisions, housing decisions, and access to medicalcare.

Children less than six years of age who are particularly vulnerable to the toxic effects of lead are not likely to have access to the Duane Marine site. Elementary and intermediate school-agedchildren (ages seven through 11 or 12), however, have been reported by the USEPA to access thesite to ride their bicycles. This is a health concern particularly at the high levels of lead detected in on-site surface soil.


CONCLUSIONS

The NJDHSS and the ATSDR categorize the Duane Marine site as a "Public HealthHazard." Surface soil samples obtained along the shoreline of the site were found to have highconcentrations of PCBs and metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury). There is a completedexposure pathway to homeless adults living on the site, and elementary and intermediate school-agedchildren who regularly trespass on the site to play. Using a modified statistical approach inestimating blood levels from environmental lead concentrations, it was estimated that childrenspending 25 percent of their play time on the site would add approximately 7 to 25 ug/dl of lead totheir blood; a blood lead increment of 4 to 14.5 ug/dl was estimated for homeless adults living onthe site. Some health problems associated with lead toxicity include decreased learning and memory,lowered Intelligence Quotient (IQ), speech and hearing impairment, hypertension, reproductivedisorders, fatigue, and lethargy.

This determination was based upon the analytical results of the most recent surface soilsamples collected from the site under current site conditions. These data are limited and may notcharacterize the full extent of contamination present at the site or the maximum potential forcontaminant exposures. Additionally, other exposure pathways associated with the site may exist.


RECOMMENDATIONS

1. Access to the site should be immediately restricted in order to disrupt the exposure pathwayassociated with contaminated soil.

2. Local social services organizations should be contacted and informed of the situation at the DuaneMarine site. Outreach to the homeless adult population living on the site should include explainingpotential health risks associated with living on the site and alternative housing programs that areavailable.

3. Although average concentrations of PCBs and cadmium detected at the site were slightly abovethe MRL, they were an order of magnitude above the MRL at the maximum concentrationsmeasured. Since only a small number of samples were considered for this Health Consultation, itis prudent to obtain additional samples in order to validate the assumption that the average rather than maximum concentrations are more representative of site conditions.

Public Health Action Plan

The Public Health Action Plan (PHAP) for the Duane Marine site contains a description ofthe actions to be taken by the NJDHSS and/or ATSDR at or in the vicinity of the site subsequent tothe completion of this Health Consultation. The purpose of the PHAP is to ensure that this HealthConsultation not only identifies public health hazards, but provides a plan of action designed tomitigate and prevent adverse human health effects resulting from exposure to hazardous substancesin the environment. Included is a commitment on the part of the NJDHSS and ATSDR to followup on this plan to ensure that it is implemented. The public health actions to be implemented by NJDHSS and ATSDR are as follows:

Public Health Actions Taken

  1. Current surface soil data for the Duane Marine site have been reviewed and evaluated to determine human exposure pathways and public health issues.

Public Health Actions Planned

  1. A copy of the Public Health Consultation will be provided to local health officials along with a request that issues relating to the homeless adult population living on the site be investigated.


  2. Educational outreach should be implemented to area physicians, particularly pediatricians and primary care physicians, regarding elevated blood lead levels. Topics should include common symptoms of lead toxicity. Findings of this report should also be made available to the local childhood lead poisoning prevention program.


  3. When results of recommended additional soil sampling are available, health implications associated with potential exposures to PCBs and cadmium will be reevaluated.


  4. The USEPA will request that the property owner for the Duane Marine site and the City of Perth Amboy coordinate efforts to restrict access to the site.

CERTIFICATION

This health consultation was prepared by the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services(NJDHSS) under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and DiseaseRegistry (ATSDR). It has been produced in accordance with approved methodology and procedures existing at the time the health consultation was begun.

Gregory V. Ulirsch
Technical Project Officer
Superfund Site Assessment Branch (SSAB)
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation (DHAC)
ATSDR


The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, ATSDR, has reviewed this health consultation and concurs with its findings.

Richard Gillig
for Roberta Erlwein
Chief, SPS, SSAB, DHAC
ATSDR


REFERENCES

ATSDR Case Studies in Environmental Medicine 2000. Atlanta, GA. US Department of Healthand Human Services, ATSDR, Division of Health Education and Promotion.

ATSDR. Toxicological Profile for Arsenic. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and HumanServices; 2000 August.

ATSDR. Toxicological Profile for Chromium. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health andHuman Services; 2000 September.

ATSDR. Toxicological Profile for Lead. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and HumanServices; 1999 July.

ATSDR. Toxicological Profile for Polychlorinated Biphenyls. Atlanta, GA: US Department ofHealth and Human Services; 2000 November.

Madhavan, S., Rosenman, K., and Shehata, T. 1988. New Jersey Department of Health,Division of Occupational and Environmental Health. Lead in Soil: Recommended MaximumPermissible Levels.

NJDEP 2001. Perth Amboy FOCUS 2000 Redevelopment Plan Includes Brownfield Componentto Revive Historic Waterfront, Improve Local Economy. Available from: URL:http://www.state.nj.us/dep/srp/publications/brownfields/2001/05_p_amboy.htm.

OSHA 1993. United States Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and HealthAdministration. Lead in Construction Standard. 29 CRF 1926.62.

Utility Service Affiliates (Perth Amboy) Inc. 2001. Water Quality Report 2001. Iselin, New Jersey


PREPARERS OF REPORT

Julie R. Petix, M.P.H., C.P.M., H.O.
Health Assessment Project Manager

Steven Miller, M.S., Ph.D.
Environmental Scientist

ATSDR Regional Representative:

Leah Escobar, R.S.
Associate Regional Representative

ATSDR Technical Project Officer:

Gregory V. Ulirsch, M.S.
Technical Project Officer
Superfund Site Assessment Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation

Any questions concerning this document should be directed to:

Julie R. Petix, M.P.H., C.P.M., H.O.
Health Assessment Project Manager
New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services
Division of Epidemiology, Environmental and Occupational Health
Consumer and Environmental Health Services
P.O. Box 369
Trenton, New Jersey 08625-0369


Intro Map
Figure 1. Intro Map


TABLES

Table 1. Duane Marine Site, Perth Amboy, Middlesex County
North Sample Location: Surface Soil (0 - 6 inches depth)

Substance # Samples Analyzed Minimum Concentration Detected
(ppm)
Maximum Concentration Detected
(ppm)
Average Concentration Detected
(ppm)
Health Screening Value
(ppm)
NJDEP Residential Cleanup Criteria
(ppm)
Selected for Further Evaluation of Potential Health Effects
PCBs 9 0.062 94 23 0.4 (CREG) 0.49 YES
Arsenic 9 11.6 43.1 22 0.5 (CREG)
0.43 RBC (C)
20 YES
Barium 9 86.2 J 502 J 218 5,500 RBC (N) 700 NO
Cadmium 9 15.1 1,080 293 39 RBC (N) 39 YES
Chromium
(total)
9 30.6 154 J 70 J 230 RBC (N) 2401 NO
Lead 9 1,000 10,000 2,660
(median = 1,700)
  400 YES
Mercury
(inorganic)
9 0.95 53.1 11.4 23 RBC (N)2 14 YES
Silver 9 1.3 B 12.5 5.5 390 RBC (N) 110 NO

1NJDEP Residential Clean-up Criteria for hexavalent chromium based on inhalation exposure pathway
2RBC provided is for the substance mercuric chloride
RBC = USEPA Region III Risk-based Concentration for residential soils; (C) = carcinogenic effects, (N) = non-carcinogenic effects
CREG = ATSDR Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide for 1E-06 (one in a million) excess cancer risk
J = estimated
B = above method detection limit but below required contract detection limit


Table 2. Duane Marine Site, Perth Amboy, Middlesex County
South Sample Location: Surface Soil (0 - 6 inches depth)

Substance # Samples Analyzed Minimum Concentration Detected
(ppm)
Maximum Concentration Detected
(ppm)
Average Concentration Detected
(ppm)
Health Screening Value
(ppm)
NJDEP Residential Cleanup Criteria
(ppm)
Selected for Further Evaluation of Potential Health Effects
PCBs 10 7.9 75 38 0.4 (CREG) 0.49 YES
Arsenic 10 7.2 69.1 29 0.5 (CREG)
0.43 RBC (C)
20 YES
Barium 10 117 J 1,710 J 563 J 5,500 RBC (N) 700 NO
Cadmium 10 0.94 41.9 6.3
(median = 2.05)
39 RBC (N) 39 YES
Chromium
(total)
10 17.6 J 138 J 62 J 230 RBC (N) 2401 NO
Lead 10 1,150 14,500 4,140
(median = 1,820)
  400 YES
Mercury
(inorganic)
10 0.59 4.5 1.7 23 RBC (N)2 14 YES
Silver 10 0.37 3.7 2.1 390 RBC (N) 110 NO

1NJDEP Residential Clean-up Criteria for hexavalent chromium based on inhalation exposure pathway
2RBC provided is for the substance mercuric chloride
RBC = USEPA Region III Risk-based Concentration for residential soils; (C) = carcinogenic effects, (N) = non-carcinogenic effects
CREG = ATSDR Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide for 1E-06 (one in a million) excess cancer risk
J = estimated
B = above method detection limit but below required contract detection limit


APPENDIX A: EXPOSURE DOSE CALCULATIONS

PCBs: Exposure Dose Calculations for Non-Cancer and Cancer Health Effects
North Sample Location: Duane Marine Site, Perth Amboy, Middlesex County

Assumption: north sample location, adult (70 kg), exposure duration (365 days per year for 10 years), exposure frequency (daily), soil ingestion (100 mg/day) for homeless adults, PCBs = Aroclor 1254
 
Substance Minimum
Concentration
mg/kg
Ingestion Rate
mg/day
Assumed Adult Body weight
kg
Exposure Dose
(Non-Cancer)
mg/kg/day
ATSDR Chronic Oral MRL
mg/kg/day
Duration
days/yr
Duration years USEPA Slope Factor
(mg/kg/day)-1
Exposure Dose (Cancer)
mg/kg/day
Excess Cancer Risk

PCBs 0.062 100 70 8.86E-08 2.00E-05 365 10 2 1.27E-08 2.53E-08
 
Substance Maximum
Concentration
mg/kg
Ingestion Rate
mg/day
Assumed Adult Body weight
kg
Exposure Dose
(Non-Cancer)
mg/kg/day
ATSDR Chronic Oral MRL
mg/kg/day
Duration
days/yr
Duration years USEPA Slope Factor
(mg/kg/day)-1
Exposure Dose (Cancer)
mg/kg/day
Excess Cancer Risk

PCBs 94 100 70 1.34E-04 2.00E-05 365 10 2 1.92E-05 3.84E-05
 
Substance Average
Concentration
mg/kg
Ingestion Rate
mg/day
Assumed Adult Body weight
kg
Exposure Dose
(Non-Cancer)
mg/kg/day
ATSDR Chronic Oral MRL
mg/kg/day
Duration
days/yr
Duration years USEPA Slope Factor
(mg/kg/day)-1
Exposure Dose (Cancer)
mg/kg/day
Excess Cancer Risk

PCBs 22.69 100 70 3.24E-05 2.00E-05 365 10 2 4.63E-06 9.26E-06


Arsenic: Exposure Dose Calculations for Non-Cancer and Cancer Health Effects
South Sample Location: Duane Marine Site, Perth Amboy, Middlesex County

Assumption: south sample location, adult (70 kg), exposure duration (365 days per year for 10 years), exposure frequency (daily), soil ingestion (100 mg/day) for homeless adults
 
Substance Minimum
Concentration
mg/kg
Ingestion Rate
mg/day
Assumed Adult Body weight
kg
Exposure Dose
(Non-Cancer)
mg/kg/day
ATSDR Chronic Oral MRL
mg/kg/day
Duration
days/yr
Duration years USEPA Slope Factor
(mg/kg/day)-1
Exposure Dose (Cancer)
mg/kg/day
Excess Cancer Risk

arsenic 7.2 100 70 1.03E-05 3.00E-04 365 10 1.5 1.47E-06 2.20E-06
 
Substance Maximum
Concentration
mg/kg
Ingestion Rate
mg/day
Assumed Adult Body weight
kg
Exposure Dose
(Non-Cancer)
mg/kg/day
ATSDR Chronic Oral MRL
mg/kg/day
Duration
days/yr
Duration years USEPA Slope Factor
(mg/kg/day)-1
Exposure Dose (Cancer)
mg/kg/day
Excess Cancer Risk

arsenic 69.1 100 70 9.87E-05 3.00E-04 365 10 1.5 1.41E-05 2.12E-05
 
Substance Average
Concentration
mg/kg
Ingestion Rate
mg/day
Assumed Adult Body weight
kg
Exposure Dose
(Non-Cancer)
mg/kg/day
ATSDR Chronic Oral MRL
mg/kg/day
Duration
days/yr
Duration years USEPA Slope Factor
(mg/kg/day)-1
Exposure Dose (Cancer)
mg/kg/day
Excess Cancer Risk

arsenic 28.88 100 70 4.13E-05 3.00E-04 365 10 1.5 5.89E-06 8.84E-06


Cadmium: Exposure Dose Calculations for Non-Cancer and Cancer Health Effects
North Sample Location: Duane Marine Site, Perth Amboy, Middlesex County

Assumption: north sample location, adult (70 kg), exposure duration (365 days per year for 10 years), exposure frequency (daily), soil ingestion (100 mg/day) for homeless adults
 
Substance Minimum
Concentration
mg/kg
Ingestion Rate
mg/day
Assumed Adult Body weight
kg
Exposure Dose
(Non-Cancer)
mg/kg/day
ATSDR Chronic Oral MRL
mg/kg/day
Duration
days/yr
Duration years USEPA Slope Factor
(mg/kg/day)-1
Exposure Dose (Cancer)
mg/kg/day
Excess Cancer Risk

cadmium 15.1 100 70 2.16E-05 2.00E-04 365 10   3.08E-06 0
 
Substance Maximum
Concentration
mg/kg
Ingestion Rate
mg/day
Assumed Adult Body weight
kg
Exposure Dose
(Non-Cancer)
mg/kg/day
ATSDR Chronic Oral MRL
mg/kg/day
Duration
days/yr
Duration years USEPA Slope Factor
(mg/kg/day)-1
Exposure Dose (Cancer)
mg/kg/day
Excess Cancer Risk

cadmium 1,080 100 70 1.54E-03 2.00E-04 365 10   2.20E-04 0
 
Substance Average
Concentration
mg/kg
Ingestion Rate
mg/day
Assumed Adult Body weight
kg
Exposure Dose
(Non-Cancer)
mg/kg/day
ATSDR Chronic Oral MRL
mg/kg/day
Duration
days/yr
Duration years USEPA Slope Factor
(mg/kg/day)-1
Exposure Dose (Cancer)
mg/kg/day
Excess Cancer Risk

cadmium 292.63 100 70 4.18E-04 2.00E-04 365 10   5.97E-05 0
note: USEPA Region III RBC table lists only cadmium water, cadmium food


Lead: Exposure Dose Calculations for Non-Cancer and Cancer Health Effects
South Sample Location: Duane Marine Site, Perth Amboy, Middlesex County

Assumption: south sample location, adult (70 kg), exposure duration (365 days per year for 10 years), exposure frequency (daily), soil ingestion (100 mg/day) for homeless adults
 
Substance Minimum
Concentration
mg/kg
Ingestion Rate
mg/day
Assumed Adult Body weight
kg
Exposure Dose
(Non-Cancer)
mg/kg/day
ATSDR Chronic Oral MRL
mg/kg/day
Duration
days/yr
Duration years USEPA Slope Factor
(mg/kg/day)-1
Exposure Dose (Cancer)
mg/kg/day
Excess Cancer Risk

lead 1,150 100 70 1.64E-03   365 10   2.35E-04 0
 
Substance Maximum
Concentration
mg/kg
Ingestion Rate
mg/day
Assumed Adult Body weight
kg
Exposure Dose
(Non-Cancer)
mg/kg/day
ATSDR Chronic Oral MRL
mg/kg/day
Duration
days/yr
Duration years USEPA Slope Factor
(mg/kg/day)-1
Exposure Dose (Cancer)
mg/kg/day
Excess Cancer Risk

lead 14,500 100 70 2.07E-02   365 10   2.96E-03 0
 
Substance Average
Concentration
mg/kg
Ingestion Rate
mg/day
Assumed Adult Body weight
kg
Exposure Dose
(Non-Cancer)
mg/kg/day
ATSDR Chronic Oral MRL
mg/kg/day
Duration
days/yr
Duration years USEPA Slope Factor
(mg/kg/day)-1
Exposure Dose (Cancer)
mg/kg/day
Excess Cancer Risk

lead 4,136 100 70 5.91E-03   365 10   8.44E-04 0


Mercury: Exposure Dose Calculations for Non-Cancer and Cancer Health Effects
North Sample Location: Duane Marine Site, Perth Amboy, Middlesex County

Assumption: north sample location, adult (70 kg), exposure duration (365 days per year for 10 years), exposure frequency (daily), soil ingestion (100 mg/day) for homeless adults
 
Substance Minimum
Concentration
mg/kg
Ingestion Rate
mg/day
Assumed Adult Body weight
kg
Exposure Dose
(Non-Cancer)
mg/kg/day
ATSDR Chronic Oral MRL
mg/kg/day
Duration
days/yr
Duration years USEPA Slope Factor
(mg/kg/day)-1
Exposure Dose (Cancer)
mg/kg/day
Excess Cancer Risk

mercury 0.95 100 70 1.36E-06 3.00E-04 365 10   1.94E-07 0
 
Substance Maximum
Concentration
mg/kg
Ingestion Rate
mg/day
Assumed Adult Body weight
kg
Exposure Dose
(Non-Cancer)
mg/kg/day
ATSDR Chronic Oral MRL
mg/kg/day
Duration
days/yr
Duration years USEPA Slope Factor
(mg/kg/day)-1
Exposure Dose (Cancer)
mg/kg/day
Excess Cancer Risk

mercury 53.1 100 70 7.59E-05 3.00E-04 365 10   1.08E-05 0
 
Substance Average
Concentration
mg/kg
Ingestion Rate
mg/day
Assumed Adult Body weight
kg
Exposure Dose
(Non-Cancer)
mg/kg/day
ATSDR Chronic Oral MRL
mg/kg/day
Duration
days/yr
Duration years USEPA Slope Factor
(mg/kg/day)-1
Exposure Dose (Cancer)
mg/kg/day
Excess Cancer Risk

mercury 11.37 100 70 1.62E-05 3.00E-04 365 10   2.32E-06 0


APPENDIX B: ESTIMATED BLOOD LEAD INCREMENT DUE TO SITE-SPECIFIC EXPOSURE PASED ON ATSDR LEAD TOX PROFILE, APPENDIX D, JULY 1999

south sample location, children <18 years of age; time equals % of play time spent on site as opposed to play time elsewhere
 

blood lead burden in ug/dl

soil slope factor (ug/dl per ppm soil Pb) % of play time soil Pb conc. (ppm)
max

24.65

0.0068 0.25 14500
min

1.955

0.0068 0.25 1150
average

7.0312

0.0068 0.25 4136

 

north sample location, children <18 years of age; time equals % of play time spent on site as opposed to play time elsewhere
max

17

0.0068 0.25 10000
min

1.7

0.0068 0.25 1000
average

4.518226

0.0068 0.25 2657.78
 
south sample location, adult homeless population; time equals 100% living time spent on the site
max

14.5

0.001 1 14500
min

1.15

0.001 1 1150
average

4.136

0.001 1 4136

 

north sample location, adult homeless population; time equals 100% living time spent on the site
max

10

0.001 1 10000
min

1

0.001 1 1000
average

2.65778

0.001 1 2657.78

Table of Contents

  
 
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