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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT ADDENDUM

GARDEN STATE CLEANERS
AND
SOUTH JERSEY CLOTHING COMPANY
MINOTOLA, ATLANTIC COUNTY, NEW JERSEY

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND OTHER HAZARDS

The tables in this section list the contaminants of concern for the GSC/SJCC site. These contaminants are evaluated in subsequent sections of the Public Health Assessment to determine whether exposure to them has public health significance. ATSDR selects and discusses these contaminants based upon the following factors:

1) Concentrations of contaminants on and off site.
2) Field data quality, laboratory data quality, and sample design.
3) Comparison of on-site and off-site concentrations with background concentrations, if available.
4) Comparison of on-site and off-site concentrations with health assessment comparison values for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic endpoints.
5) Community Health concerns.

In the data tables that follow under the On-site Contamination subsection and the Off-site Contamination subsection, the listed contaminant does not mean that it will cause adverse health effects from exposures. Instead, the list indicates which contaminants will be evaluated further in the Public Health Assessment. When selected as a contaminant of concern in one medium, that contaminant will be reported in all media.

The data table may include one or more of the following acronyms:

    * CREG = ATSDR Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide
    * EMEG = ATSDR Environmental Media Evaluation Guide
    * MCLG = EPA Maximum Contaminant Level Goal
    * MCL = EPA Maximum Contaminant Level
    * PMCLG = EPA Proposed Maximum Contaminant Level Goal
    * ppm = Parts per million
    * ppb = Parts per billion
    * RfD = EPA Reference Dose
    * RfC = EPA Reference Concentration

Comparison values for public health assessments are contaminant concentrations in specific media that are used to select contaminants for further evaluation. These values include Environmental Media Evaluation Guides (EMEGs), Cancer Risk Evaluation Guides (CREGs), and other relevant guidelines. CREGs are estimated contaminant concentrations based on a one excess cancer in a million persons exposed over a lifetime. CREGs are calculated from USEPA's cancer slope factors. USEPA's Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) ia a drinking water health goal. USEPA believes that the MCLG represents a level that no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons should occur which allows an adequate margin of safety. Proposed Maximum Contaminant Level Goals (PMCLGs) are MCLGs which are being proposed. Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) represent contaminant concentrations that USEPA deems protective of public health (considering the availability and economics of water treatment technology) over a lifetime of 70 years at an exposure rate of 2 liters of water per day. While MCLs are regulatory concentrations, PMCLGs and MCLGs are not. USEPA's reference dose (RfD) and Reference Concentration (RfC) are estimates of the daily exposure to a contaminant that is unlikely to cause health effects.

To identify possible facilities that could contribute to the groundwater contamination near the Garden State Cleaners and South Jersey Clothing Company site(s), ATSDR and NJDOH searched the 1987, 1988, and 1989 Toxic Release Inventory (TRI). TRI is developed by the USEPA from the chemical release (air, water, and soil) information provided by certain industries. Upon review and evaluation, TRI was not found to contain information on toxic chemical release in the vicinity of the Garden State Cleaners/South Jersey Clothing Company which was pertinent to the contaminants and pathways of concern at the site.

A. On-site Contamination

On-site disposal of process wastes was the source of soil contamination at the GSC and SJCC site(s). Although soil contamination has ceased (GSC in 1985, and SJCC in 1981), desorbtion of TCE and PCE from the soil remains as a source of groundwater contamination. Based upon the nature and extent of the contamination associated with the site(s) the remedial investigation focused upon soil and groundwater.

    Surface and Subsurface Soils

Soil sampling conducted during Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the remedial investigation identified two areas of soil contamination:

The first is located at the SJCC, and is an area between the northwest corner of the building and a nearby railroad bed where SJCC disposed of process wastes and sludges (see Appendix 2). The predominant contaminant in this area is TCE. Table 1 summarizes the results of surface and sub-surface soil sampling associated with the SJCC.

The second area of soil contamination is located at the GSC, and is an area adjacent to the north wall of the facility underneath steam condensate and boiler blowdown pipes where contaminated steam and water had been discharged in the past (see Appendix 3). The predominant contaminant in this area is PCE. Table 2 summarizes the results of surface and sub-surface soil sampling associated with the GSC.

A soil gas survey of the vicinity of the sites was conducted by USEPA in January 1989 to provide information regarding sources of contamination and the extent of the ground-water contamination plume (see Appendix 4). TCE, the primary solvent used at the SJCC, was detected near that facility, while PCE was detected near the GSC. The results of the soil gas survey exhibited a high degree of correlation with historical information regarding contaminant source locations.

    Groundwater

The GSC/SJCC site is situated over the Cohansey Sand aquifer, a component of the Kirkwood Cohansey formation which underlies approximately 3,000 square miles of New Jersey coastal plain. This aquifer sits atop a clay bed within the Kirkwood formation approximately 250 feet below grade (fbg). Groundwater flows to the south/southwest in the vicinity of the site(s). A permeable clay formation exists below the site at approximately 120 fbg., which does not restrict the downward flow of groundwater.

Desorbtion of TCE and PCE from the soil has been identified as the source of groundwater contamination. Predominant contaminants of concern in groundwater are TCE and PCE. Other VOCs (degradation products of TCE and PCE) are also present in groundwater.

Groundwater data have been collected from numerous monitoring wells. Twelve (12) shallow wells (< 50ft.) were installed by the SJCC in the early 1980s, while an additional 13 wells (4 shallow < 50 ft., 7 intermediate 50 - 150 ft., and 2 deep > 200 ft.) were installed during field activities of the RI/FS. Appendix 5 and Appendix 6 illustrate the TCE contamination plume associated with the SJCC in 1982 and in 1989 respectively, prior to the RI/FS. Table 3 summarizes the compounds detected in the Phase 1 ground-water investigation. Table 4 summarizes the compounds detected at concentrations greater than 1 ppb during the Phase 2 groundwater investigation. Appendix 7 illustrates Phase 2 TCE concentration contours, while Appendix 8 illustrates PCE contours.

    Air

The USEPA conducted a flux chamber measurement survey in May 1990 to determine the levels of TCE and PCE which were being released from contaminated soils and groundwater. Flux chamber data were used to generate an area emission profile and a model of emission concentrations. Expected air concentrations of TCE and PCE modeled from soil emission rates are presented in Table 5.

    Surface Water and Sediments

There are no on-site surface water features associated with the GSC or SJCC sites.

B. Off-site Contamination

    Surface and Sub-surface Soils

Soil sampling of areas adjacent to and downgradient (to the south) of the site(s) did not indicate areas of off-site soil contamination. The soil gas investigation indicated areas of TCE and PCE associated with the estimated location of the plume of groundwater contamination (see Appendix 4).

    Groundwater

Beginning in May 1981, NJDEP sampled potable wells in the vicinity of the SJCC and discovered TCE in concentrations exceeding levels recommended for drinking or consumptive purposes (up to 16,000 ppb for an immediately adjacent well). Further testing conducted by Buena Borough in 1982 identified 87 wells which failed to meet USEPA standards for VOCs. As a result, a municipal water supply was installed in late 1984.

In 1989, USEPA sampled seven domestic potable wells (50 - 71 feet deep) and an irrigation well (208 ft.), all located down gradient of the site (see Appendix 9). Residential well #1 (71 ft.) contained PCE at 13 ppb., while shallower (50 ft) adjacent wells exhibited no contamination. The deep irrigation well exhibited concentrations of 1,2,3 and 1,2,4 trichlorobenzene (0.9 ppb. total), and naphthalene (0.8 ppb.) which are evidently not site-related.

All residences in the area have a municipal potable water supply available. However, significant costs to residents were associated with utilization of this system. Additionally, use of public water and sealing or capping of the private wells was not mandatory. USEPA has conducted a groundwater usage survey of the area to identify potable wells threatened by the site, and is confident that residents are not currently using private wells for potable water supply within the study area.

    Air

Levels of TCE in ambient air were modeled from soil emission rates of the SJCC facility (see Table 5). Levels of 7.97 ppb. were projected for a 1.5 meter high receptor located 100 meters downwind from the site, and 1.22 ppb at 500 meters.

Levels of PCE in ambient air were likewise modeled from emission rates associated with the GSC facility (see Table 5). Levels of 0.00036 ppb. were projected for a 1.5 meter high receptor located 100 meters downwind from the site. and 0.00015 at 500 meters.

    Surfacewater and Sediments

There are no off-site surface water features associated with the SJCC or GSC sites.

C. Quality assurance and Quality Control

In preparing this addenda, the ATSDR and the NJDOH rely on the information provided in the referenced documents, and assume that adequate quality assurance and quality control measures were followed with regard to chain-of-custody, laboratory procedures, and data reporting. The validity of the analysis and conclusions drawn for this addenda is determined by the availability and reliability of the referenced information.

D. Physical and Other Hazards

The Garden State Cleaners and South Jersey Clothing Company sites contain no discernible or suspected physical, radiological, or biological hazards.

PATHWAYS ANALYSIS

To determine whether nearby residents are exposed to contaminants associated with the site, ATSDR evaluates the environmental and human components that lead to human exposure. This pathways analysis consists of five elements: A source of contamination, transport through an environmental medium, a point of exposure, a route of human exposure, and an exposed population.

ATSDR categorizes an exposure pathway as a completed or potential exposure pathway if the exposure pathway cannot be eliminated. Completed pathways require that the five elements exist and indicate that exposure to a contaminant has occurred in the past, is currently occurring, or will occur in the future. Potential pathways, however, require that at least one of the five elements is missing, but could exist. Potential pathways indicate that exposure to a contaminant could have occurred in the past, could be occurring now, or could occur in the future. An exposure pathway can be eliminated if at least one of the five elements is missing and will never be present.

Based upon current site conditions and review of information describing the nature and extent of on-site and off-site contamination, completed and potential human exposure pathways may be identified. Tables 6 and 7 provide a summary of completed and potential human exposure pathways regarding the GSC/SJCC site.

A. Completed Exposure Pathways

Completed human exposure pathways at the GSC/SJCC site were associated with contaminated groundwater (both sites) and VOC's in the air (SJCC).

    Groundwater

In the past, it is probable that area residents were exposed to TCE and PCE at the GSC/SJCC site through the domestic and potable use of contaminated groundwater. This exposure likely occurred through direct ingestion of contaminants in domestic wells, and inhalation of volatilized compounds. The availability of a public water supply to those residents whose wells were contaminated or threatened by the GSC/SJCC site has interrupted this exposure pathway. Presently there is no evidence or information indicating the use of private potable wells.

Contamination of the Cleary School well prompted the installation of point source charcoal filters to reduce VOC's. In addition, the school was the first to receive installation of a municipal water supply.

    Air

Environmental data and modeling has shown that the inhalation of significant concentrations of TCE in ambient air by residents and trespassers at the SJCC was possible in the past. This pathway may have had maximum significance during the period when SJCC was an active facility and practiced on-site waste disposal. Removal of on-site sludges and the cessation of on-site disposal of VOCs has significantly reduced the public health concern regarding this exposure pathway.

B. Potential Exposure Pathways

    Groundwater

Significant concentrations of contaminants remain in area groundwater. There is a potential for area residents to be exposed to TCE and PCE from the GSC/SJCC site through domestic and potable use of contaminated groundwater. It is implausible, however, that new private potable wells would be installed in an area where a public water supply is available. The probability that humans will be exposed to groundwater contaminants in the future is unlikely and improbable.

It is likely that in the past, on-site workers and trespassers at the SJCC were exposed to significant levels of TCE in the soils, especially during the period of on-site disposal of wastes. However there are no data or information from which an estimate of such past exposure may be made.

    Eliminated Pathways

Although the GSC remains an active facility, and significant concentrations of tetrachloroethylene were detected in on site soils beneath the boiler blow-down pipe, this area is covered by grass and is not readily accessible by employees and/or trespassers. it is unlikely that anyone would linger in or frequent this area for a sufficient duration of time to be exposed at levels of public health concern. The USEPA is currently implementing a soil vapor extraction system at the GSC site. When operational, this system will serve to minimize and/or eliminate potential exposures to VOCs from on-site soils.

PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

This section discusses the potential for health effects in persons exposed to specific contaminants, evaluate state and local databases, and address specific community health concerns. Health effects evaluations are accomplished by estimating the amount (or dose) of those contaminants that a person might come in contact with on a daily basis. This estimated exposure dose is than compared to established health guidelines. People who are exposed for some crucial length of time to contaminants of concern at levels above established guidelines are more likely to have associated illnesses or disease.

Health guidelines are developed for contaminants commonly found at hazardous waste sites. Examples of health guidelines are the ATSDRs Minimum Risk Level (MRL) and the USEPAs Reference Dose (RfD). When exposure (or dose) is below the MRL or RfD than non-cancer, adverse health effects are unlikely to occur.

MRLs are developed for each route of exposure, such as acute (less than 14 days), intermediate (15 to 364 days), and chronic (365 days and greater). ATSDR presents these MRLs in Toxicological Profiles. These chemical-specific profiles provide information on health effects, environmental transport, human exposure, and regulatory status.

A. Toxicological Evaluation

The contaminants of toxicological significance at the GSC/SJCC site are trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE).

    Trichloroethylene (TCE)

Trichloroethylene is a compound commonly used as a cleaning solvent or a degreasing agent. It is listed as a B2 agent (probable human carcinogen) by the USEPA. Target organs in humans are the liver and kidneys. TCE is metabolized by the liver and excreted in the urine. Animal studies indicate TCE, at levels higher than those associated with the GSC/SJCC site, causes liver and kidney damage in mice and rats, and hepatocellular carcinoma in mice exposed through ingestion and inhalation; human data is limited. TCE is not considered to be teratogenic or mutagenic. TCE is primarily absorbed by the body through inhalation (37-75 %), or through ingestion (91 - 98 %). Dermal absorption is not as great, but TCE is lipophilic and will act to defat skin tissue, thus increasing its absorption rate. Oral reference doses (RfD) and inhalation reference concentrations (RfC) have not been established for TCE. TCE has an oral cancer slope factor of 1.1 E-2 (mg/kg/day)-1, and an inhalation cancer slope factor of 1.7 E-2 (mg/kg/day)-1.

TCE was found in a private well immediately adjacent to the SJCC site at a maximum concentration of 16,000 ppb (160 mg/l). Calculated exposure doses for adult (body weight 70 kg.) and child (body weight 16 kg) receptors exceeded the oral intermediate duration minimal risk level for effects other than cancer cited in the ATSDR Toxicological Profile for Trichloroethylene. At such concentrations adverse effects to the hepatic and renal systems are possible.

Lifetime excess cancer risk may be estimated for TCE ingestion based upon calculated exposure doses. For the private potable well cited above, an exposure duration of ten years was assumed, representing the operational period SJCC disposed of TCE onsite. For an adult resident ingesting groundwater containing TCE at a concentration of 160 mg/l, a moderate increased risk of cancer existed. This risk may be interpreted as follows: If 1000 adults ingested well water containing the concentration of TCE cited above for ten years approximately five additional cases of cancer may occur in 70 years. Similarly, LECRs for children who may have ingested TCE in well water may be estimated based upon calculated exposure doses. This estimate includes the assumption that a 16 kg child resident was exposed for a duration of ten years. For a child resident, a high increased risk of cancer existed. This risk may be interpreted as follows: If 100 children were exposed for ten years to the concentration of TCE present in the well cited above, approximately one additional case of cancer may occur in 70 years.

Trichloroethylene concentrations volatilizing from the soils at SJCC were modeled during the remedial investigation and presented in Table 5. Projected concentrations ranged from a maximum of 7.97 ppb (44.32 ug/m3) at 100 meters from the site, to a projected minimum of 0.45 ppb (2.52 ug/m3) at 1000 meters from the site (for a receptor 1.5 meters above the ground). These concentrations were below the lowest NOAEL (no observed adverse effect level) for animals and the LOAEL (lowest observed adverse effect level) for humans cited in the ATSDR Toxicological Profile for Trichloroethylene. At such concentrations it is not likely that adverse non-carcinogenic health effects would occur.

Lifetime Excess Cancer Risk (LECR) may be estimated for TCE inhalation exposure based upon calculated exposure doses derived from modeled concentrations. A residency/exposure duration of 30 years was employed for this estimate to represent a maximum worst case exposure scenario. For adults residents living near the SJCC site, a low increased risk of cancer existed for residents at 100 meters, and an insignificant or no increased risk of cancer existed for residents at 1000 meters. This risk may be interpreted as follows: If 10,000 persons were exposed for 30 years to the maximum concentration of TCE modeled to be present in the air at a distance of 100 meters from the site, one additional case of cancer may occur in 70 years. Thus, for the adult residents in the vicinity of the SJCC site, most or all of whom live more than 100 meters from the site, it is unlikely that they would develop cancer as a result of their exposure.

Similarly, LECRs for children living in the vicinity of the SJCC site may be estimated based upon calculated exposure doses derived from modeled concentrations. This estimate includes the assumption that a 30 kg child was exposed for a duration of 10 years. For children living near the SJCC site, no apparent increased risk existed for residents at 100 meters, and insignificant or no increased risk existed for residents at 1000 meters. This risk may be interpreted as follows: If 100,000 children of grade school age were exposed for ten years to the maximum concentration of TCE modeled to be present at a distance of 100 meters from the site, five additional cases of cancer may occur in 70 years. Thus, for child residents in the vicinity of the SJCC site, most or all of whom live more than 100 meters from the site, it is unlikely that they would develop cancer as a result of their exposure.

    Tetrachloroethylene (PCE)

Tetrachloroethylene is a compound employed widely in the dry cleaning and apparel industries. It is listed as a B2 agent (probable human carcinogen) by the USEPA. Target organs in humans are the liver and kidneys. PCE is metabolized by the liver and excreted in the urine. Animal studies utilizing concentrations much higher than those found at the GSC site indicate PCE causes liver and kidney damage in mice and rats, and hepatocellular carcinoma in mice and rats exposed through ingestion and inhalation; human data is limited. PCE is not considered to be teratogenic or mutagenic. PCE is absorbed by the body primarily through ingestion and inhalation, and has a comparatively low dermal absorption rate. The oral RfD for PCE is 1.0 E-2 (mg/kg/day), an inhalation reference concentration (RfC) has not been established. PCE has an oral cancer slope factor of 5.2 E-2 (mg/kg/day)-1, and an inhalation cancer slope factor of 1.8 E-3 (mg/kg/day)-1.

A tetrachloroethylene plume emanating from the GSC facility has been found to have contaminated private potable wells downgradient of the site (appendix 8 & 9). The toxicological significance of groundwater contamination was evaluated for a private well showing 13 ppb of PCE, and for the Cleary School Well which exhibited approximately 100 ppb or more total VOCs in six of 11 samples taken in May of 1982. For the purposes of this evaluation, it will be assumed that the concentration in the Cleary School well is entirely PCE as specific compounds detected in the sampling event were not available.

Exposure doses calculated for the maximum concentrations of PCE detected in both the private potable well cited above and the Cleary School well were at least two orders of magnitude below the minimal risk level for effects other than cancer cited in the ATSDR Toxicological Profile for Tetrachloroethylene. At such concentrations it is unlikely that adverse non-carcinogenic health effects would occur.

Lifetime Excess Cancer Risk may be estimated for PCE ingestion exposure based upon calculated exposure doses. For the private potable well cited above a residency/exposure duration of 30 years was employed for this estimate to represent a worst case exposure scenario. For an adult resident ingesting groundwater containing PCE at 13 ppm, an insignificant or no increased risk of cancer existed. This risk may be interpreted as follows: If 1,000,000 adults ingested well water containing the concentration of PCE cited above for 30 years, approximately eight additional cases of cancer may occur in 70 years. Thus for adult residents who experienced potable well contamination to a similar degree, it is unlikely that they would develop cancer as a result of their exposure.

Similarly, LECRs for children who may have ingested PCE in well water may be estimated based upon calculated exposure doses. This estimate includes the assumption that a 30 kg child was exposed for a duration of 10 years. For a child resident, an insignificant or no increased risk of cancer existed. This risk may be interpreted as follows: If 1,000,000 children of grade school age were exposed for ten years to the concentration of PCE present in the well cited above, three additional cases of cancer may occur in 70 years. Thus for child residents who may have ingested contaminated groundwater, it is unlikely that they would develop cancer as a result of their exposure.

For those children who may have been exposed to tetrachloroethylene through ingestion of groundwater from the Cleary School well, the LECR may be estimated with the following assumptions: exposure occurred for a maximum of three years (5 days per week), each child ingested 1 liter of water per day, and an average body weight of 40 kg. Based upon calculated exposure doses an insignificant or no increased risk of cancer existed for students in the school. This risk may be interpreted as follows: If 1,000,000 junior high school students were exposed every schoolday for three years to 100 ppb of PCE in drinking water, approximately three additional cases of cancer may occur in 70 years. Thus, for those children who may have ingested contaminated groundwater at the Cleary School, it is unlikely that they would develop cancer as a result of their exposure.

B. Health Outcome Data Evaluation

Because of the completed exposure pathways which existed at the site, and the community concern regarding the possibility of adverse health outcomes among households which experienced well contamination, review of appropriate health outcome data for this site was initiated.

The New Jersey Cancer Registry (NJCR) was used for the ascertainment of cancer cases in Buena Borough, New Jersey. The Cancer Registry, operated by the New Jersey Department of Health, is a population based cancer incidence registry including the entire State of New Jersey. By law, all individuals with newly diagnosed cancers are reportable to the Registry. In addition, the Registry has reporting agreements with neighboring states, (New York, Pennsylvania, and Delaware) where information on New Jersey residents which is diagnosed in those states will be supplied to the NJCR. The NJCR has been operational since October 1, 1978.

The study period for this investigation was January 1 1979 through December 31, 1988. A "case" was defined as an individual who resided in Buena Borough, New Jersey, and was diagnosed with a new primary malignant cancer during the study period. The information for each newly diagnosed case available from the NJCR is limited. The basic source is documented information from the patient's medical record. The collected information includes demographic data regarding each patient and medical data on each cancer. Variables used to analyze the incidence of cancer in the study area include: name, address at time of diagnosis, state municipality code, census tract code, primary cancer site, histology type, date of diagnosis, age at diagnosis, date of birth, race, sex, and NJDOH registry identification number.

Information on other risk factors such as occupational exposures or personal lifestyle habits are not available in the abstracted medical information used in this evaluation. The potential risk factors that cannot be accounted for in the study design may vary significantly within the study area, or relative to the State as a whole.

Cancer analysis was completed for select cancer types within the study area. These types included bladder, brain and CNS, colon, pancreatic, lung, leukemia, lymphoma, rectal, stomach, kidney, female breast, and prostate. These cancer types were selected for review since State age-specific rates were available and published by the NJCR. Males and females were evaluated separately. All races were combined in the analysis.

Analysis of the cancer incidence was completed using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). The SIR is calculated by dividing the observed number of cancer cases by the number of cases expected. The expected number of cases are determined on the presumption that the incidence rates for the entire state of New Jersey would prevail in the population surveyed. The study area age/sex specific population data was determined from the 1980 U.S. Census.

Evaluation of the observed and expected numbers is accomplished by interpreting the ratio of these numbers. If the observed number of cases equals the expected number of cases, the SIR will equal one (1.0). When the SIR is less than one it is concluded that fewer cases were observed than expected. Should the SIR be greater than one, it is concluded that more cases than expected were observed. Statistical significance in this investigation was evaluated using a 95% confidence interval (CI).

Table 7 presents the findings of the health outcome data (SIR) analysis. The observed number of total cancer cases in Buena Borough was not found to be elevated in comparison to the number of cases expected for this population based upon average incidence rates for the State. In addition 3 cases of childhood cancer were diagnosed during the study period. This incidence of childhood cancer is less than what would be expected based upon State rates.

C. Community Health Concerns Evaluation

The concerns of the community regarding the GSC/SJCC sites focus upon utilization of the public water supply made available in 1984, and the possible health effects of the domestic and potable use of contaminated groundwater.

Although use of the public water supply was mandated in 1984, utilization by some residents was complicated by the associated "hook-up" fees. Additionally, closure and sealing of domestic wells affected or threatened by the site was not mandatory. While the RI/FS indicates that a well use survey was conducted, response to the survey was voluntary.

Longtime residents of the community have expressed a belief that the groundwater in the area has been contaminated for many years before the problems associated with the GSC/SJCC site(s) were identified. The community was entirely dependant upon private potable wells prior to 1984 when public water became available. Environmental data do not conflict with a general community suspicion that other threats to the quality of groundwater existed in the past and may continue to exist. As a result the community has expressed concern as to the possible long-term health effects which may result. This concern will be directly addressed by the review of health outcome data for the community associated with the site. Exposure doses calculated from maximum contaminant levels detected in potable wells were not at levels where adverse health effects would be expected, except for the exposure doses calculated for the residential well located immediately adjacent to the site (see Toxicological Evaluation Section above).

    Public Comment Period

The New Jersey Department of Health (NJDOH) conducted a public comment period for the Public Health Assessment Addendum for the GSC/SJCC site from September 23, 1994 to October 28, 1994. The Public Health Assessment was placed in local repositories to facilitate commentary and reaction from the public at large. Additionally, the Public Health Assessment was circulated to the Atlantic County Health Department for the purpose of soliciting commentary by local health officials.

The NJDOH did not receive any comments regarding the GSC/SJCC site during this public comment period.

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