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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT ADDENDUM

GARDEN STATE CLEANERS
AND
SOUTH JERSEY CLOTHING COMPANY
MINOTOLA, ATLANTIC COUNTY, NEW JERSEY

CONCLUSIONS

Refer to the Conclusions and Recommendations section of the Health Assessment documents. Additionally the following adjuvant information is addended:

From the data and information reviewed, the Garden State Cleaners/South Jersey Clothing Company site is judged to have constituted a public health hazard on the basis of past exposure of chronic duration, through the ingestion pathway, to hazardous substances present in the potable well water of residents downgradient of the site. However as a result of the availability of a public water supply in 1984, and the fact that no private wells are currently exhibiting site-related contamination, the GSC/SJCC site is currently judged to present no apparent public health hazard.

During the period when the GSC/SJCC facilities were discharging TCE and PCE concentrations of these VOCs in area groundwater exceeded New Jersey Maximum Contaminant Levels. Private well data are limited. For those private wells where data are not available describing past water quality, it is possible, based upon the nature and extent of the contamination plume, that VOCs were present at levels where exposure doses were toxicologically significant.

For the private well immediately adjacent to the SJCC site which exhibited TCE at 160 mg/l exposure doses may have exceeded levels where adverse hepatic and renal effects are possible. Similarly, lifetime excess cancer risk associated with these exposure doses were estimated to range from moderate (adult receptor) to high (child receptor). It should be noted that these estimations assume a worst case scenario which may not be indicative of actual exposures within the one affected residence.

For the private wells where data exist and/or are available, exposure doses were not at a level where adverse health effects would be expected. Additionally, lifetime excess cancer risk associated with ingestion of groundwater from these wells ranged from no apparent to no increased risk.

Concentrations of TCE modeled to be emanating from the SJCC site are not at a level where adverse non-cancer health effects would be expected. Lifetime excess cancer risks associated with calculated exposure doses ranged from low increased risk for a maximally exposed adult to no apparent increased risk for a maximally exposed child.

A comprehensive survey of domestic well usage in the area impacted by the sites, or which may be impacted by the site in the future, has been conducted by USEPA. The results of this investigation may be the basis for appropriate actions by local health authorities to minimize the risk posed by site related ground-water contamination.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Refer to the Conclusions and Recommendations section of the Health Assessment documents. Additionally, the following adjuvant information is addended:

A. Recommendations and the Health Activities Recommendations Panel (HARP) Statement.

Cease/Reduce Exposure Recommendations

Private domestic use of groundwater within the current plume or within areas threatened by contamination should continue to be prohibited.

Site and Exposure Characterization Recommendations

Should additional data become available regarding characterization of off-site groundwater contamination and domestic well usage, ATSDR and NJDOH should review the public health significance of this information.

Health Activities Recommendation Panel Statement

The data and information developed in the Public Health Assessment for the Garden State Cleaners/South Jersey Clothing Company site in Buena Borough, New Jersey, has been evaluated by ATSDR's Health Activities Recommendation Panel (HARP) for appropriate follow-up with respect to health activities. Community health education has been conducted by the USEPA; however, the panel determined that additional community health education should be considered if after an evaluation of, among other factors, comments received during the public comment period for this addendum indicate a need.

B. Public Health Actions

The Public Health Action Plan (PHAP) for the GSC/SJCC site contains a description of the actions to be taken by ATSDR and/or NJDOH at or in the vicinity of the site subsequent to the completion of this Public Health Assessment. The purpose of the PHAP is to ensure that this health assessment not only identifies public health hazards, but provides a plan of action designed to mitigate and prevent adverse human health effects resulting from exposure to hazardous substances in the environment. Included, is a commitment on the part of ATSDR/NJDOH to follow up on this plan to ensure that it is implemented. The public health actions to be implemented by ATSDR/NJDOH are as follows:

Public Health Actions Taken

  1. Environmental data and proposed remedial activities have been evaluated within the context of human exposure pathways and relevant public health issues.
  2. The NJDOH has reviewed data from the New Jersey Cancer Registry with regard to the Borough of Buena.

Public Health Actions Planned

  1. ATSDR and NJDOH did not receive public commentary indicating the need to perform additional community health education. Additional health education is not being considered for the GSC/SJCC site at this time.
  2. ATSDR and the NJDOH will coordinate with the appropriate environmental agencies to develop plans to implement the cease/reduce exposure and site characterization recommendations contained in this health assessment.
  3. ATSDR will provide an annual follow up to this PHAP, outlining the actions completed and those in progress. This report will be placed in repositories that contain copies of this health assessment, and will be provided to persons who request it.
  4. The ATSDR and/or the NJDOH will reevaluate and expand the Public Health Action Plan (PHAP) when needed. New environmental, toxicological, health outcome data, or the results of implementing the above proposed actions may determine the need for additional actions at this site.

CERTIFICATION

The Public Health Assessment Addendum for the Garden State Cleaners/South Jersey Clothing Company sites was prepared by the New Jersey Department of Health under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology and procedures existing at the time the public health assessment addendum was initiated.

Gregory V. Ulirsch
Technical Project Officer, SPS, SSAB, DHAC

The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation (DHAC), ATSDR, has reviewed this Preliminary Public Health Assessment and concurs with its findings.

Richard Gillig
for Division Director, DHAC, ATSDR

PREPARERS OF REPORT

Preparer of Report:

    James Pasqualo
    ATSDR Project Manager
    Environmental Health Service
    New Jersey Department of Health

ATSDR Regional Representative:

    Arthur Block, Senior Representative; Region 2
    Regional Operations
    Office of the Assistant Administrator, ATSDR

ATSDR Technical Project Officer:

    Gregory V. Ulirsch
    Environmental Health Engineer
    Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
    Superfund Site Assessment Branch

REFERENCES

      The following citations are added to the "References" section.
1) Clayton, George D. and Florence E. (Eds.). "Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology", 3rd. Edition. New York: Wiley and Sons, 1981.

2) Agency For Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. "Toxicological Profile for Trichloroethylene". Atlanta: U.S. Public Health Service. October 1989.

3) Agency For Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. "Toxicological Profile for Tetrachloroethylene". Atlanta: U.S. Public Health Service. January 1990.

4) Draft Remedial Investigation Report, South Jersey Clothing Company/Garden State Cleaners Sites. EBASCO Services Inc. USEPA Contract No.: 68-W8-0110. June 1991.

5) Final Draft Remedial Investigation Report, South Jersey Clothing Company/Garden State Cleaners Sites. EBASCO Services Inc. USEPA Contract No.: 68-W8-0110. August 1991.

6) Draft Record of Decision, South Jersey Clothing Company and Garden State Cleaners Sites. Atlantic County, New Jersey. USEPA Region 2; July 1991.

7) Final Draft Feasibility Study Report, South Jersey Clothing Company and Garden State Cleaners Sites. Ebasco Services Inc. USEPA Contract No.: 68-W8-0110. August 1991.

8) Predesign Engineering Report South Jersey Clothing Company/Garden State Cleaners, Buena Borough, New Jersey. Dames and Moore; September 17, 1993.


TABLE 1 - South Jersey Clothing, Surface and Subsurface Soil Contamination. All concentrations in mg/kg (ppm).

    PHASE 1 (43 Samples; 10 FBG Maximum depth)
Compound Frequency Of
Detection
Range
Methylene Chloride
Acetone
1,2-Dichloroethene
Chloroform
2-Butanone
1,1,1-Trichloroethane
Trichloroethylene
1,1,2-Trichloroethane
Benzene
Tetrachloroethylene
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane
Toluene
Chlorobenzene
14
4
7
1
3
1
28
2
2
19
1
1
3
0.011 - 0.520*
0.210 - 2.0
0.001 - 0.022
0.008
0.018 - 0.860
0.015
0.003 - 5.9
0.002
0.001
0.001 - 0.820
0.017*
0.002
0.001 - 0.002
      * = Possible Blank Contaminant
    PHASE 2 (28 Samples; 10 FBG maximum depth)
1,2-Dichloroethene
Trichloroethylene1
Tetrachloroethylene
Toluene
2
27
15
10
0.010 - 0.640
0.002 - 68.0
0.004 - 5.8
0.001 - 0.023
    1 = One phase 2 soil sample exhibited a concentration of trichloroethylene at 68.0 ppm which exceeded the ATSDR CREG of 60.0 ppm.

    Data from Final Draft Remedial Investigation Report; EBASCO Services Inc.; August 1991.

TABLE 2 - Garden State Cleaners, Surface and Subsurface Soil Samples. All concentrations in mg/kg (ppm).

    PHASE 1 (19 Samples; 10 FBG maximum depth)
Compound
Frequency Of
Detection
Range
Methylene Chloride
Acetone
Trichloroethylene
Tetrachloroethylene
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane
Toluene
1
10
1
14
3
1
0.018
0.080 - 8.1
0.084
0.002 - 1,300
0.011 - 0.073
0.002
    PHASE 2 (7 Samples; 10 FBG maximum depth)
Trichloroethylene
Tetrachloroethylene*
Toluene
6
5
3
0.003 - 6.1
0.025 - 1,100.0
0.001 - 0.003
    * = Two phase 2 soil samples exhibited a concentration of trichloroethylene at 1,100.0 ppm which exceeded the ATSDR CREG of 60.0 ppm.

    Data from Final Draft Remedial Investigation Report. EBASCO Services Inc., August 1991.

TABLE 3 - Garden State Cleaners/South Jersey Clothing Phase 1 Ground-water Contamination. All concentrations in ug/l (ppb).

    PHASE 1 (24 Samples)
Compound Frequency Of
Detection
Range Comparison
Value
Source
1,1-Dichloroethene
1,1-Dichloroethane
Cis-1,2-Dichloroethene
Bromodichloromethane
Chloroform
Carbon Tetrachloride
Trichloroethylene
Tetrachloroethylene
1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane
1
1
8
1
6
2
14
12
2
17
1
2 - 77
1
1 - 6
1 - 2
0.8 - 13,000
0.6 - 1,900
0.6 - 2
0.06
NA
10
0.06
6.0
0.3
1.0
0.7
1.0
CREG
NA
NJMCL
CREG
CREG
CREG
NJMCL
CREG
CREG
    US MCL = USEPA Maximum Contaminant Level.
    NJ MCL = NJDEP Maximum Contaminant Level.
    CREG = ATSDR Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide.

    Data from Final Draft Remedial Investigation report, EBASCO Services; August 1991.

TABLE 4 - Garden State Cleaners/South Jersey Clothing Phase 2 Ground-water Contamination; Contaminants Exceeding Screening Values. All Concentrations in ug/l (ppb).

    Phase 2 (33 Samples)
Compound Frequency
Of Detection
Range Value Comparison
Source
1,1-Dichloroethene
Cis-1,2-Dichloroethene
Chloroform
1,1,1-Trichloroethane
Carbon Tetrachloride
Trichloroethylene
1,1,2-Trichloroethane
Benzene
Tetrachloroethylene
1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane
6
15
4
5
2
11
2
2
12
1
0.2 - 2
0.2 - 51
0.8 - 8*
4 - 27
0.6 - 3
0.9 - 4,500
1 - 6
0.6 - 12
0.8 - 1,700
1
0.06
10
6
26
0.03
1
0.6
1
0.7
1
CREG
NJMCL
CREG
NJMCL
CREG
NJMCL
CREG
CREG
CREG
CREG
    * = Possible Blank Contamination

    US MCL = USEPA Maximum Contaminant Level.
    NJ MCL = NJDEP Maximum Contaminant Level.
    CREG = ATSDR Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide
    Data from Draft Remedial Investigation report, EBASCO Services; June 1991.

TABLE 5 - Air Concentrations of TCE and PCE Modeled from Soil Emission; Rates For a Receptor at 1.5 Meters Above Ground.

    Trichloroethylene - South Jersey Clothing Company
Distance From
Site (Meters)
&nbsp &nbsp &nbsp Concentration Comparison
Value ug/m3
Source**
ug/m3 (ppb)*
100
500
1,000
44.32
6.79
2.52
7.97
1.22
0.45
0.6 CREG
    * 1000 ug/m3 = 180 ppb @ 20 Degrees C.
    ** = CREG; ATSDR Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide
    Tetrachloroethylene - Garden State Cleaners
Distance From
Site (Meters)
&nbsp &nbsp &nbsp Concentration Comparison
Value ug/m3
&nbsp Source**
ug/m3 (ppb)*
100
500
1,000
0.0024
0.0010
0.00057
0.00036
0.00015
0.000086
2.0 &nbsp &nbsp &nbsp &nbsp &nbsp &nbsp &nbsp &nbsp CREG
    * 1000 ug/m3 = 150 ppb @ 20 Degrees C.
    ** = CREG; ATSDR Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide

    Data From Final Draft Remedial Investigation Report, SJCC/GSC Sites, EBASCO; August 1991. Based upon the Report: "Flux Chamber Measurement Survey for Garden State Cleaners and South Jersey Clothing, Buena, New Jersey.", USEPA: Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.

Table 6 - Completed Human Exposure Pathways; GSC/SJCC Site.

Contaminant Source Media Exposure
Point
Exposure
Route
Exposed
Population
Time
TCE PCE GSC/SJCC Groundwater Residences Ingestion
Inhalation
Residents Past
TCE SJCC Air Residences
Facility
Inhalation Workers
Residents
Trespassers
Past

Table 7 - Potential Human Exposure Pathways; GSC/SJCC Site

Contaminant Source Media Exposure
Point
Exposure
Route
Exposed
Population
Time
TCE SJCC Soils Facility Dermal Workers
Trespassers
Past
TCE PCE GSC/SJCC Groundwater Residences Ingestion
Inhalation
Residents Present
Future

Table 8 - Cancer Incidence; Buena Borough, Atlantic County, New Jersey.

Cancer Type Number of Cases
Male Female Total
Bladder
Brain C.N.S.
Breast
Cervix
Colon
Corpus Uteri
Esophagus
Hodgkin's Disease
Larynx
Leukemia
Liver
Lung/Pleura
Myeloma
Oro-pharynx
Other Digestive
Ovary
Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
Pancreas
Prostate
Rectal
Renal
Skin
Soft Tissue
Stomach
Testis
Other or Unknown Primary
8
0
0
-
5
-
3
0
5
5
1
16
1
3
1
-
6
3
6
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
4
1
21
2
15
5
0
1
0
1
0
8
0
1
0
4
5
3
-
8
0
1
0
2
-
4
12
1
21
2
20
5
3
1
5
6
1
24
1
4
1
4
11
6
6
9
2
2
1
3
1
5

Table 9 - Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIR) Comparison of Observed and Expected Cancer Incidence, All Cancers 1979 - 1988; Buena Borough, Atlantic County, New Jersey.

Sex Observed Expected SIR* 95% C.I. **
Lower Upper
Male 71.0 93.25 0.76@ 0.59 0.96
Female 86.0 88.08 0.98 0.78 1.21
    * = SIR: Standardized Incidence Ratio of Observed and Expected Number of Cancers (Age Standardized). Statistically elevated at the P<0.05 level.

    ** = 95% Confidence Level (C.I.).

    @ = Statistically Low at the P<0.05 Level.



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