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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

LIGHTMAN DRUM COMPANY SITE
WINSLOW TOWNSHIP, CAMDEN COUNTY, NEW JERSEY


SUMMARY

The Lightman Drum Company (LDC) site is located at 139 Route 73 North, Winslow Township, Camden County, New Jersey. The LDC site is situated on approximately 15 acres located in a semi-rural area. Over years of operation, the LDC has been cited by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) for numerous environmental violations. These violations have included the storing of illegal wastes and unlawful discharges of hazardous chemicals. The LDC site is currently an active drum brokerage facility, selling used and reconditioned drums. However, from 1974 through the mid to late 1980's, LDC operated an industrial waste hauling and drum reclamation business where empty drums and drums filled with wastes were stored. Due to the activities at the site, both the on-site soil and groundwater at LDC were contaminated. The site was proposed for inclusion to the National Priorities List (NPL, a.k.a. Superfund) on July 26, 1999.

The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) and the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services (NJDHSS) have not identified completed human exposure pathways associated with the LDC site. However, on-site soil and groundwater contamination has been found during past site investigations at levels that could pose a potential public health concern. The potential for migration of contaminated groundwater requires further investigation. At this time, off-site groundwater is considered a potential pathway.

Because there is insufficient information to confirm or dismiss the existence of off-site exposure pathways, the ATSDR/NJDHSS have evaluated the LDC site to currently represent an indeterminate public health hazard.

USEPA has taken the lead on the LDC site from the NJDEP as of October 22, 1999. Ongoing remedial investigation at the LDC site is planned by USEPA to begin in late 2001. As new data and information become available, the ATSDR/NJDHSS will reconsider the public health implications of the LDC site as necessary. The NJDHSS and the ATSDR believe that conditions warrant ongoing environmental investigation of the LDC site to fully characterize the nature and extent of contaminated environmental media, and to determine the extent of off-site migration of contaminants.


PURPOSE AND HEALTH ISSUES

This Public Health Assessment evaluates the public health issues associated with the Lightman Drum Company site which was proposed for inclusion on the National Priorities List (NPL) on July 26, 1999. NPL or "Superfund" sites represent those sites which are associated with significant public health concern in terms of the nature and magnitude of contamination present and the potential to adversely impact the health of populations in their vicinity.

This document will, where possible, evaluate human exposure pathways associated with known contaminated environmental media within or associated with the Lightman Drum Company site and recommend actions consistent with protection of public health. At the Lightman Drum Company site, the known contaminated media include on-site soils and groundwater.


BACKGROUND

Site Description and History

The Lightman Drum Company LocationThe Lightman Drum Company (LDC) site is located at 139 Route 73 North, Winslow Township, Camden County, New Jersey (inset). The LDC site is situated on approximately 15 acres located in a semi-rural area. The site is bounded by: Route 73 (Cedarbrook Road) to the east; the right-of-way of the Camden-Winslow branch of the Conrail railroad, and an area of wetlands which flows into the Pump Branch to the west; farmland to the northwest and southwest; and residential homes and commercial businesses to the north and south along Route 73 (Figure 1).

The LDC site is currently an active drum brokerage facility for selling used and reconditioned drums. Approximately one-third of the eastern portion of the property is used for this operation. The remainder of the 15 acres is unused forested land with the far western edge containing a wetlands area.

From 1974 through 1979, the LDC operated an industrial waste hauling and drum reclamation business where empty drums and drums filled with wastes were stored. Drums containing unknown quantities of contaminants were brought onto the LDC site. The drums were sorted and shipped to other facilities for reclamation. Reportedly, drums containing paint thinners, paints, inks, solvents, undercoatings, acids, waste oil, pesticides and glues were brought to the LDC site. After 1979 the LDC site was only permitted to handle RCRA empty drums.

According to available information, during the first six months of operation, the LDC dumped materials found in the drums either directly onto the ground or into an unlined pit. This pit (5' X 7' X 5' deep) was located on the western portion of the property. In 1977, LDC installed two 5,000 gallon underground storage tanks on the property. These tanks were used to store the consolidated chemical residues from the drums. These underground storage tanks were removed in early 1984.

Chemical residues from drums were also consolidated into over-the-road tanker trailers or in other 55 gallon drums, and stored until disposal. For a limited time (1978 to 1979) the facility was permitted by NJDEP to accept hazardous waste.

Over the years of its operation, the LDC has been cited by NJDEP for numerous environmental violations. These violations have included storing illegal wastes, unlawful discharges of hazardous chemicals to the environment, and other violations of environmental regulations. In 1985, the LDC's warehouse building burned down. The cause of the warehouse fire was found to be "undetermined" by the Camden County Fire Marshal.

In 1987, the NJDEP's monitoring and legal actions led to the discovery and investigation of volatile organic chemical and heavy metal contamination in the soils at the site. The NJDEP's investigations also documented, in 1989, that the groundwater underlying the site was contaminated as a result of the company's operations.

The NJDEP issued an Administrative Order on April 12, 1988, which required LDC to prepare a Remedial Investigation (RI) at the site. In 1989, the Lightman Drum Company hired an environmental contractor, International Exploration, Inc., to perform a RI. The RI included the installation of six monitoring wells and sampling of groundwater to help characterize the site. The RI noted that both the on-site soil and groundwater at the LDC were contaminated.(1)

In 1990, International Exploration, Inc., performed a Phase II RI for the LDC. The Phase II RI was intended to delineate the groundwater and soil contamination found during the original RI. The work included the installation of six additional on-site monitoring wells, additional soil and groundwater sampling, a door-to-door well search within one-mile of the site, and an electromagnetic survey to locate buried drums.(2)

The LDC site was added by the USEPA for inclusion to the National Priorities List (NPL, a.k.a. Superfund) on October 22, 1999.(3)

Demography and Land Use

The LDC site is located in a mixed residential and rural area. There are no school or day care facilities on or within 200 feet of the property.

There are both public and private potable water supply wells within a mile of the site which utilize the Kirkwood-Cohansey Aquifer (the aquifer underlying the site) as a source of drinking water. The Winslow Township Water and Sewer Company (WTWSC) has eight of its nine supply wells located within a 4-mile radius of the LDC site. The closest WTWSC public water supply is located approximately one mile south of the site.(4) Groundwater from each individual well house pumping station is blended into a common distribution line, serving a total population of about 39,025 people. The WTWSC also sells bulk water to the Waterford Township Municipal Utilities Authority, which supplies drinking water for about 1,329 people in that Township. WTWSC also is interconnected with the Berlin Public Works.

Residents near the LDC site who are not connected to the WTWSC water supply use private wells for their source of potable water. According to the USEPA(4), there are approximately 334 dug wells and 3,714 drilled wells supplying potable water to 11,801 residents within a 4-mile radius of the site. About 53 of these private wells are within 0.25 miles of the site. The closest private well is located approximately 100 feet south-southeast and downgradient of the LDC property line.

Population demographics based upon the 1990 census have been prepared by the ATSDR using area-proportion spatial analysis, and are presented in Figure 3. Within a one mile radius there are approximately 356 homes with as many as 1,126 people.

There is a wetlands area on the western end of the site. The wetland area contributes to the flow in a small stream known as the Pump Branch. Water that discharges to the Pump Branch flows southeast to the Albertson Brook.

Past ATSDR/NJDHSS Involvement

There have been no ATSDR/NJDHSS activities at the Lightman Drum Company site prior to the April 11, 2000 site visit.

Site Visit

On April 11, 2000, S. Kubiak, J. Pasqualo, S. Tsai and J. Winegar of the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services (NJDHSS) visited the Lightman Drum Company (LDC) site. The NJDHSS was accompanied by C. Agnew of the ATSDR Regional Office. In addition, present at the site visit were representatives of the USEPA, NJDEP and the Camden County Health Department (CCHD). The site tour was conducted by the owner of the property, Mr. Jerome Lightman. The following observations were made during the site visit:

  • The LDC site is a long, narrow rectangular area of about 15 acres. The site is located in a rural area with a mix of light industrial and residential properties.


  • LDC is an active recycling facility with an office located in a small one-story building, and a concrete pad. The site currently operates under the name "United Cooperage." The business receives used, empty (<1" of residue) chemical and food product drums and containers. The drums and containers are either crushed and sold as scrap, or they are sold to others as reusable containers.


  • Almost half of the property appeared to be covered with thousands of empty chemical and food drums and containers of many sizes and shapes. There were numerous truck trailers located on the property. The trailers appeared to be at various stages of being filled or emptied of drums. Also observed was a drum crushing area.


  • Although a perimeter fence borders a portion of the LDC site, the LDC site is not totally protected from access by trespassers. Lack of a continuous fence around the LDC site could make trespassing on the LDC site possible. In fact, the following items were found in the wooded area on the western side of the property; a liquor bottle, empty milk crate, and boards nailed to a tree. Trash items were also found on the wooded area on the northern side of the property. During the summer months there is considerable overgrowth on the western and northern sides of the property hindering access. The property owner did not complain of any problems with trespassers.


  • There were numerous hummocks noted in the wooded area on the western side of the property.


  • The CCHD reported that there are numerous residences in other areas of Winslow Township that are known to have contaminated private wells. It is not known at this time, however, if this contamination has any relation to the LDC site. According to the CCHD, there are other potential sources of groundwater contamination in the region.

DISCUSSION

On-Site Contamination

On-Site Soils

The latest data available for review by ATSDR/NJDHSS was ten years old and generated as part of the Phase II RI in 1990. A total of 43 surface and sub-surface soil samples were collected by a contractor for Lightman Drum Inc., International Exploration, Inc. These soil samples were taken from various drum storage areas, monitoring wells, wooded areas, trailer parking areas, and in the areas of the excavated underground waste storage tanks. The depth of soil samples ranged from 6 inches to 50 feet. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), heavy metals and pesticides were detected on-site. Significant levels of trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), toluene, xylenes and ethylbenzene were detected in soil borings from monitoring well MW8B and at the west side of underground diesel fuel tank excavation (Figure 2). Table 1 reports the list of contaminants found at levels approaching or exceeding comparison values, and the maximum concentrations detected from on-site soils including VOCs, SVOCs, metals and pesticides.(2) Compounds that are without comparison values are also listed on this table. The USEPA has taken the lead on the LDC site from the NJDEP as of October 22, 1999. A Remedial Investigation (RI) will be conducted by the USEPA to determine the nature and extent of contamination and the potential public health implications, USEPA expects to initiate RI field activities in late 2001.

On-Site Groundwater

During the Phase II RI in 1990, a total of 12 monitoring wells were sampled by International Exploration, Inc. (Figure 2). Table 2 reports the contaminants and the maximum concentrations detected from on-site monitoring wells detected at levels in excess of New Jersey drinking water standards (NJMCL), including VOCs, SVOCs, total phenolics and metals. Compounds that are without comparison values are also listed on this table. Monitoring wells MW2 and MW8A yielded high levels of VOCs and SVOCs from this initial investigation period. High levels of TCE, PCE, benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzene and methylene chloride were detected in these wells. The groundwater flow direction is southeast on-site. (1) MW8A was placed in a downgradient direction from the excavated underground storage tank area. This well was intended to monitor the water quality and the possibility of a contaminant plume traversing the site boundary. The high concentrations of organic compounds detected in samples from MW8A suggest that the downgradient extent of groundwater contamination may have migrated off-site.(2) The USEPA will be delineating the groundwater contamination as part of their future LDC investigations.

The Responsible Party (RP) hired RT Environmental Services, Inc. to perform on-site groundwater sampling on November 5, 1999. RT Environmental conducted groundwater sampling from five of the 12 on-site monitoring wells. These wells were installed in 1989 and 1990 during the Phase I and Phase II RI under the NJDEP 1988 order. Table 3 reports the contaminants and their concentrations detected in monitoring wells MW2, MW3, MW5, MW9 and MW10. TCE, PCE, benzene, toluene, xylenes and ethylbenzene were detected in MW2 (near the tank excavation area) and MW10 (near the southern drum area).(6) Well MW8A was not sampled during this round of investigation.

In July 2000, the USEPA conducted sampling of 10 on-site monitoring wells (MW-01, MW-02, MW-02B, MW-03, MW-06, MW-07, MW-08A, MW-08B, MW-09 and MW-10). High levels of VOCs were detected in MW-02 and MW-08A. Elevated metal levels were detected in most wells. Compounds found in excess of the New Jersey Maximum Contaminant Levels (NJMCL) are given in Table 4.(7)

Other On-Site Media

No surface water, air, or sediment samples were collected in either the Phase I or the Phase II RI. The nearest surface water is the Pump Branch, the upper reach of which is adjacent to the western property line of the site. However, the start-of-flow of the Pump Branch is generally south of the site.

Off- Site Contamination

The extent of on-site groundwater contamination is presently unknown. However, based on the 1989 and 1990 Phase I and Phase II RI data, the possibility of off-site groundwater contamination is a concern in the context of potential exposure pathways. The Remedial Investigation to be performed by the USEPA will determine the nature and extent of the contamination.

A study of the potential effects of the LDC on off-site groundwater was recently conducted by USEPA. A total of 16 private wells, both upgradient and downgradient, close to the Lightman Drum Site, were tested in July 2000 for VOCs and metals. Some wells were re-sampled for thallium analysis in January 2001.(7,8) The results from these two rounds of sampling do not indicate site-related contamination in residential wells. Elevated levels of lead are a concern in two residential wells. The sampling locations are shown in Figure 4 (provided by Churchill Consulting Engineers).

There are no data or other information presently available to the NJDHSS and the ATSDR describing contamination in other off-site environmental media (surface water, air or sediment/soil).

Pathways Analysis

This section contains discussion of the exposure pathways at the site and their public health implications, if applicable. An exposure pathway is the process by which an individual is exposed to contaminants that originate from some source of contamination. ATSDR/NJDHSS classifies exposure pathways into three groups: (1) "completed pathways," that is, those in which exposure has occurred, is occurring, or will occur; (2) "potential pathways," that is, those in which exposure might have occurred, may be occurring, or may yet occur; and (3) "eliminated pathways," that is, those that can be eliminated from further analysis because one of the five elements is missing and will never be present, or in which no contaminants of concern can be identified.(5) A completed exposure pathway must include each of five elements that link a contaminant source to a receptor population. The five elements of a completed exposure pathway are the following: (1) source of contamination; (2) environmental media and transport mechanisms; (3) point of exposure; (4) route of exposure; and (5) receptor population.

Based upon current site conditions and information available to the ATSDR and the NJDHSS, there are no documented completed human exposures to site-related contamination in the following media: on-site groundwater, sediments, surface water, and air. A potential pathway to on-site soils may exist through unauthorized access; however trespassing is not likely to occur at a frequency which constitutes a public health concern.

The primary potential off-site exposure pathway pertains to groundwater contamination and its impact on the Kirkwood-Cohansey Aquifer, which is a significant source for public and private potable water supplies in the area. The LDC site has not, at this time, been identified as a source of off-site groundwater contamination. Thus, elements 1 and 2 listed above have not been determined.

In other areas of Winslow Township exposures to contaminated groundwater in residential wells has occurred in the past. However, because the contamination source has not been determined, no completed potential pathway related to the LDC site can be established. Residents with contaminated wells in these areas of Winslow Township, presently under investigation by the NJDEP and the CCHD, have had exposure minimized or eliminated with the installation of point of entry treatment (POET) systems.

Public Health Implications

Based on currently available data, there were no identified completed exposure pathways associated with the site to be evaluated at this time.

Health Outcome Data

Based on currently available data, there were no identified completed exposure pathways associated with the site, therefore no health outcome data was evaluated at this time.

ATSDR Child Health Initiative

ATSDR's Child Health Initiative recognizes that the unique vulnerabilities of infants and children demand special emphasis in communities faced with contamination in their environment. Children are at greater risk than adults from certain kinds of exposures to hazardous substances emitted from a waste site. They are more likely to be exposed because they play outdoors and they often bring food into contaminated areas. They are shorter than adults, which means they breathe dust, soil, and heavy vapors closer to the ground. Children are also smaller, resulting in higher doses of chemical exposure per body weight. The developing body systems of children can sustain permanent damage if toxic exposures occur during critical growth stages. Most important, children depend completely on adults for risk identification and management decisions, housing decisions, and access to medical care.

Under current conditions, there were no identified completed exposure pathways associated with the LDC site. If site conditions change that result in potential exposures to children or pregnant women, the NJDHSS/ATSDR will reexamine childhood health issues at the LDC site.

Community Health Concerns

In order to gather information on community health concerns at the Lightman Drum Company (LDC) site, NJDHSS spoke with the Camden County Health Department (CCHD) and its Division of Environmental Health. According to conversations with a local official (4/11/00), current community concerns have been centered on residents' potable wells located in other areas of Winslow Township. Although not presently associated with the LDC site, these concerns are being addressed by the NJDEP and CCHD through a well testing program.

There have been community concerns and citizen complaints concerning the LDC site since it began operations in 1974. Complaints about the site to the CCHD and NJDEP have included: chemical odors, excessive noise, airborne particulates (from the dirt driveway), and the dumping and spilling of chemicals from drums onto the ground or into a pit. These complaints have been addressed by these two agencies. The ATSDR and the NJDHSS will review and evaluate any community health concerns which may arise as a result of ongoing remedial activity at the LDC site.

Public Comment and Availability Session

A Public Comment release of the Lightman Drum Public Health Assessment was made available from March 26 through May 11, 2001. Comments were received from a contractor for LDC (Golder Associates Inc.) and from the USEPA. All of their comments have been addressed in this document. No comments were received from the general public.

In addition, an Availability Session was held on April 26, 2001 at the Winslow Township Municipal Building. An Availability Session is held during the Public Comment period for any NPL site when the NJDHSS or the ATSDR believe there are community concerns or questions regarding the site. These sessions provide citizens the opportunity to meet with representatives of the NJDHSS and the ATSDR privately to discuss site or health matters. Several local government officials attended the session with concerns about residential private wells that have exhibited contamination and are presently being treated with POET systems. However, the contamination of these wells have not been associated with the Lightman Drum Co. site. Therefore, to address this issue the NJDHSS, and ATSDR held a joint availability session and public meeting with interested citizens on June 28, 2001.


CONCLUSIONS

Hazard Category: Lightman Drum Company Site

Because there is insufficient information to confirm or dismiss the existence of off-site exposure pathways, the ATSDR/NJDHSS have evaluated the LDC site to currently represent an indeterminate public health hazard.

Although the ATSDR and the NJDHSS have not identified completed human exposure pathways associated with the LDC site, 1989 and 1990 Phase I and Phase II data indicate that on-site soil and groundwater contamination was present at levels of potential public health concern. Groundwater contaminants are present at levels above ATSDR Comparison Values and/or NJMCLs and thus represent a potential public health concern.

Additional study of the potential effects of the LDC on off-site groundwater was recently conducted by USEPA. The results from these two rounds of sampling do not indicate site-related contamination in residential wells.

A Remedial Investigation (RI) will be conducted by the USEPA to determine the nature and extent of contamination and the potential public health implications. USEPA expects to initiate RI field activities in late 2001.


RECOMMENDATIONS

Cease/Reduce Exposure Recommendations

  1. It is prudent to continue the restriction of public access to contaminated areas of the site.


  2. Residents utilizing private potable wells should take appropriate measures to insure water quality including periodic testing and maintenance of filtration systems as necessary.


  3. As new site data and information are available, the ATSDR and NJDHSS will review the potential public health implications of the site as warranted.

Site Characterization

The NJDHSS and the ATSDR believe that conditions warrant ongoing environmental investigation of the LDC site to fully characterize the nature and extent of contaminated environmental media, and to determine the extent of off-site migration of contaminants.


PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION PLAN

The Public Health Action Plan (PHAP) for the Lightman Drum Company (LDC) site contains a description of the actions to be taken by ATSDR and/or NJDHSS at or in the vicinity of the site subsequent to the completion of this Public Health Assessment. The purpose of the PHAP is to ensure that this health assessment not only identifies public health hazards, but provides a plan of action designed to mitigate and prevent adverse human health effects resulting from exposure to hazardous substances in the environment. Included is a commitment on the part of ATSDR/NJDHSS to follow up on this plan to ensure that it is implemented. The public health actions to be implemented by ATSDR/NJDHSS are as follows:

Public Health Actions Taken

  1. Available environmental data and other relevant information for the LDC site have been evaluated to determine human exposure pathways and public health issues.


  2. The ATSDR/NJDHSS held a public availability session to complement the Public Comment Release of this document. The public availability session was on April 26, 2001.

Public Health Actions Planned

  1. ATSDR and the NJDHSS will coordinate with the appropriate environmental agencies to develop plans to implement the cease/reduce exposure and site characterization recommendations and will evaluate new site data when it becomes available.


  2. The NJDHSS will prepare a site specific public health fact sheet for the LDC site which will be made available to local health agencies and other interested parties.


  3. This Public Health Assessment will be placed in a local repository, and will be provided to persons who request it.


  4. The ATSDR and the NJDHSS will reevaluate and expand the Public Health Action Plan (PHAP) as warranted. New environmental, toxicological, or health outcome data, or the results of implementing the above proposed actions, may determine the need for additional actions at this site.

CERTIFICATION

The Public Health Assessment for the Lightman Drum Company site was prepared by the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology and procedures existing at the time the public health assessment was initiated.

 

Gregory V. Ulirsch
Technical Project Officer, SPS, SSAB, DHAC

The Superfund Site Assessment Branch (SSAB), Division of Health Assessment and Consultation (DHAC), ATSDR, has reviewed this public health assessment and concurs with its findings.

 

Lisa C. Hayes
for Chief, SSAB, DHAC, ATSDR


PREPARERS OF REPORT

Preparers of Report:

Jeffrey J. Winegar
Research Scientist; ATSDR Health Assessment Project
Consumer and Environmental Health Services
New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services

Stella Man-Chun Tsai
Research Scientist; ATSDR Health Assessment Project
Consumer and Environmental Health Services
New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services

Steven M. Miller
Environmental Scientist; ATSDR Health Assessment Project
Consumer and Environmental Health Services
New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services

Sharon Kubiak
Program Specialist; ATSDR Health Assessment Project
Consumer and Environmental Health Services
New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services

ATSDR Regional Representative:

Arthur Block
Senior Regional Representative; ATSDR Region II
Regional Operations
Office of the Assistant Administrator

ATSDR Technical Project Officer:

Gregory V. Ulirsch
Environmental Health Engineer
Superfund Site Assessment Branch (SSAB)
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation

Any questions concerning this document should be directed to:

James Pasqualo
ATSDR Project Manager
New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services
Consumer and Environmental Health Service
210 South Broad Street
PO Box 360
Trenton, NJ 08625-0360


REFERENCES

  1. International Exploration, Inc., Remedial Investigation, Lightman Drum Company, Berlin, NJ, September 1989.


  2. International Exploration, Inc., Phase II Remedial Investigation, Lightman Drum Co., Winslow Township, NJ, October 1990.


  3. US Environmental Protection Agency, NPL Site Narrative at Listing, Lightman Drum Company Site, Winslow Township, NJ, December 20, 1999.


  4. Foster Wheeler Environmental Corporation, Draft Site Inspection Prioritization (SIP), Lightman Drum Company Site, Winslow Township, Camden County, New Jersey, September 1997.


  5. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Health Assessment Guidance Manual. Chelsea, Michigan: Lewis Publishers, 1992.


  6. RT Environmental Services, Groundwater Analytical Data Summary, Lightman Drum Company, November 5, 1999.


  7. US Environmental Protection Agency, Superfund Contract Support Team Sampling Report for the Lightman Drum Company Site (LDC), Winslow Township, Camden County, New Jersey, July 24-26, 2000.


  8. US Environmental Protection Agency, Superfund Contract Support Team Sampling Report for the Lightman Drum Company Site (LDC), Winslow Township, Camden County, New Jersey, January 4, 2001.

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