PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT
MCGUIRE AIR FORCE BASE #1
WRIGHTSTOWN, BURLINGTON COUNTY, NEW JERSEY
The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepared this public health assessment to evaluate the potential for contamination from McGuire Air Force Base (McGuire AFB) to cause harm to people living at or near the base. McGuire AFB is an active U.S. Air Force Base in the borough of Wrightstown, Burlington County, New Jersey, approximately 30 miles east of Philadelphia. Officially established in 1948 as an Air Force base, the installation has supported large-scale airlifts to place military forces in combat situations. In September 1994, the 305th Air Mobility Wing assumed operations of the base.
Operations supporting the base's missions over the years, including aircraft maintenance and fueling, have resulted in inadvertent releases of chemicals to the surrounding soil. McGuire AFB began investigating areas suspected of soil contamination in 1982 through the Department of Defense's installation restoration program. Some contamination also migrated through the soil to the underlying shallow groundwater or drained into nearby surface water. Principal site contaminants are volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and metals. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) added McGuire AFB to its National Priorities List of sites to be investigated in 1999 because of concerns about contamination associated with on-base landfills.
As part of the public health assessment process, ATSDR conducted an initial site visit and met with representatives from McGuire AFB and the U.S. Air Force in December 1999. At the time of the visit, ATSDR did not identify any environmental health hazards posing immediate threats to the public. During the site visit, however, ATSDR identified ways in which people may have or could come in contact with environmental contamination associated with McGuire AFB, including contact with contaminants in (a) surface water and sediment of the North Run, (b) surface water and sediment of the South Run, Jack's Run, and Larkin's Run; and (c) on-site surface soil. Groundwater was eliminated as an exposure pathway because nearby private wells are either upgradient of the base or not used for drinking water. The upgradient wells will not be affected by contamination in the shallow aquifer on the base. Additionally, on-base supply wells draw from a deep aquifer that is unaffected by and protected from shallow contamination by an impermeable confining layer.
After conducting a thorough evaluation of environmental monitoring data and key potential exposures situations, ATSDR determined that potential exposures associated with surface water/sediment and surface soil at McGuire AFB did not pose past, current, or future public health hazards as follows:
Contamination in surface water and sediment of the North Run poses no apparent public health hazard. Relatively low concentrations of contaminants have been detected in surface water and sediment of the North Run on or near the base. These levels are expected to further decrease with natural processes and distance from the site. Although there is no evidence of people wading or playing in or near the North Run, any exposure of base personnel or nearby residents is likely to be infrequent and of short duration. Such limited exposure with areas of contamination is not expected to pose a health concern.
Contamination in surface water and sediment of the South Run, Jack's Run, and Larkin's Run poses no apparent public health hazard. The area immediately south of McGuire AFB, where the streams leave the base and enter the Fort Dix property, is not widely used for recreation. Limited exposure with the low level of contamination detected in these streams is not expected to pose a health concern. Additionally, the streams are not expected to carry elevated or harmful levels of contaminants to recreational areas located several miles downstream.
Contamination in surface soil poses no apparent public health hazard. Contamination in surface soil in certain areas of McGuire AFB is present infrequently and in low concentrations. Areas of soil contamination are not readily accessible to the public and any infrequent contact with these areas is not expected to pose a health concern.
ATSDR prepared two other public health assessments for sites in the vicinity of the McGuire AFB. In October 1999, ATSDR finalized the public health assessment for the U.S. Army Fort Dix Military Reservation, which adjoins McGuire AFB along the eastern, western, and southern boundaries. ATSDR also evaluated health concerns at the Boeing Michigan Aeronautical Research Center (BOMARC) Missile Facility, which is located on Fort Dix property but falls under the jurisdiction of McGuire AFB. ATSDR evaluated the BOMARC Missile Facility site in a separate public health assessment.
McGuire Air Force Base (McGuire AFB) is located on approximately 3,700 acres in the borough of Wrightstown, Burlington County, New Jersey, approximately 18 miles southeast of Trenton, New Jersey, and 30 miles east of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (Figures 1 and 2). Parts of McGuire AFB also fall within New Hanover Township. McGuire AFB is an active Air Force base. The central/southwest portion of the base contains an air field with active and inactive runs, taxiways, and parking aprons. The central-east portion of the base contains industrial areas used for maintenance, storage, and supply functions. Temporary and permanent housing are located along the perimeter of the base; miscellaneous administrative areas are located throughout the base. The base is bordered to the north by the borough of Wrightstown and to the east, south, and west by the U.S. Army Fort Dix Military Reservation, which is used for U.S. Army training. Four off-base areas also fall under the jurisdiction of McGuire AFB: the McGuire Middle Marker; the Boeing Michigan Aeronautical Research Center (BOMARC) Missile Facility; the Burlington petroleum, oil, and lubricants (POL) off-loading facility; and the McGuire AFB approach lights (USAF 1998).
In 1937, a single dirt runway and several associated buildings were constructed on a portion of Fort Dix and adjacent farmland. The airfield, called Rudd Field, served as an adjunct to Fort Dix and was operated by the U.S. Army Air Corps. During the early years of World War II, extensive improvements were made to meet wartime training needs, including paving and expanding landing strips. In 1948, the airfield and associated facilities were transferred to the U.S. Air Force, and the installation was designated McGuire AFB (USAF 1998).
A variety of commands oversaw the base from 1945 through 1954. In 1954, it was assigned for use by Air Force airlift-oriented operations and several tenant organizations, including the New Jersey Air National Guard. At that time, the command operating the facility was known as the Military Air Transport Service. It was renamed the Military Airlift Command in 1966. In 1992, the Air Mobility Command became the base's parent command, and McGuire AFB eventually became the Air Mobility Command's East Coast mobility base, with the capability of providing quick, large-scale airlifts to place military forces into combat situations. In September 1994, the 305th Air Mobility Wing assumed operation of the base (USAF 1998).
As a result of routine aircraft maintenance and fueling operations and other activities supporting McGuire AFB's mission over the years, contaminants have been accidentally released to the environment. The contaminants include petroleum, oil, lubricants, solvents, and constituents of protective coatings. Aircraft fueling and maintenance have occurred primarily in a broad area in and near a series of industrial facilities bordering the east end of the runway area, as well as in the 3300-series buildings in the northwest corner of the base (Figure 3). Historically, bulk fuel storage has been located just to the east of the industrial area at a bermed tank farm with eight aboveground storage tanks containing aircraft fuel or heating oil (USAF 1998).
In 1982, McGuire AFB began investigating areas of the base where hazardous materials might have been released to the environment. These investigations were conducted through the U.S. Department of Defense's (DOD) installation restoration program (IRP). DOD developed the program to address contamination associated with past waste management practices at DOD sites, including Air Force bases. McGuire AFB investigations conducted under IRP confirmed the presence of contamination in groundwater, soil, and surface water at the base. On October 22, 1999, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed McGuire AFB on the National Priorities List, primarily for contamination associated with several landfills used for base refuse (USAF 1998).
Through preliminary investigations and site assessments conducted during the 1980s, McGuire AFB identified 17 sites with evidence of contamination. These sites, which are summarized in Table 1, include
- Landfills (LF-02, LF-03, LF-04, LF-19, LF-20, and LF-23), where general base refuse, coal ash, drums of waste oil, and/or other miscellaneous chemicals were discarded
- Fire protection areas (FT-08, FT-11, and FT-13), where fire training practices often used waste oils and a variety of fuels
- Storage areas--the bulk storage area (ST-09) and the Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office (DRMO) storage facility (ST-07)--where petroleum products, out-of-service transformers, and/or other hazardous materials were stored
- Spill sites--the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) spill site (SS-18) and the aircraft apron fuel leak (ST-22)--where hazardous material and/or fuel were released
- A sludge disposal area (WP-21), where the base disposed of the wastewater treatment plant sludge
- Miscellaneous areas, including the pesticide wash area (OT-06), where pesticide application equipment was rinsed; a civil engineering compound (OT-10), where drums of waste solvents were stored; and a nondestructive inspection (NDI) shop drain field (OT-14), where waste containing emulsifiers, developers, and other chemicals was received.
Further investigations (USAF 1998; URS Consultants, Inc. 1998) are underway at other sites requiring additional study, including
- remedial investigations at ST-22 and OT-06(1)
- feasibility studies investigating cleanup options at LF-02, LF-03, LF-04, ST-07, ST-09, FT-11, FT-13, and OT-14
- long-term groundwater monitoring at sites LF-19 and LF-20
In addition to ongoing investigations, McGuire AFB has conducted interim removal actions (IRAs) to reduce and control the spread of contamination. IRAs completed to date include removal of contaminated soil from ST-07, SS-18, OT-06, and OT-10. McGuire AFB also completed a remedial design for site ST-09 in 1992, initiated a bioventing pilot test for the site the same year, and implemented pilot-scale studies of free product recovery systems. Also in 1992, McGuire AFB inventoried all transformers on base and found that 200 on-base transformers contained PCBs above the regulatory limit of 50 parts per million (ppm). Since 1995, McGuire AFB has replaced all PCB-containing transformers.
Through continued record review and a 1996 preliminary site investigation, McGuire AFB identified 11 areas of concern (AOCs). These areas were suspected or confirmed to have contaminated groundwater or soil levels above applicable standards. The investigations found no evidence of discharges or past releases that required further actions at several of the AOCs, including the off-base McGuire Middle Marker site and the Burlington POL off-loading facility. A more recent site investigation (USAF 1998) has been conducted at AOCs where the need for further environmental investigations was identified. Table 1 provides a description and status of environmental investigations at each AOC at McGuire AFB (USAF 1998). Table 1 also presents information on three additional sites where former USTs were housed.
As part of its environmental investigations, McGuire AFB examined conditions at the off-base BOMARC Missile Facility because of concerns about potential historical chemical releases. McGuire AFB is continuing to investigate the BOMARC Missile Facility site under IRP. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) evaluated potential public health hazards at the BOMARC Missile Facility site in a separate public health assessment (PHA).
Over the course of the environmental investigations, several chemicals have been identified at the McGuire AFB with no known source. To account for non-site related conditions at McGuire AFB, the Air Force completed a Basewide Background Study in March 2002 that documents concentrations of analytes in groundwater, surface soil, surface water, and sediment from areas that are not directly affected by current IRP sites or AOCs at the base (URS Corporation 2002).
ATSDR examines demographic (population) information to identify the presence of sensitive populations, such as young children and the elderly, in the vicinity of a site. Demographics also provide details on residential history in a particular area--information that helps ATSDR assess time frames of potential human exposure to contaminants. Based on 2000 census data, 13,235 people reside within a 1-mile buffer of the McGuire AFB site boundaries, including 1,518 children under the age of 7 and 316 adults age 65 years or older (Figure 2).
About 9,500 military personnel were stationed at McGuire AFB in 1998 (the most recent year for which McGuire AFB demographic information is available). Most individuals live off base; however, about 1,000 individuals live in on-base dormitories and another 1,750 individuals and their dependents live in base housing (including a trailer park in the northern portion of base property). In addition to the military personnel and their 6,000 dependents, the 1998 base population also included roughly 1,000 civilian employees. Four base elementary schools located in the residential area of the base provide schooling for approximately 1,060 students and two on-base facilities provide day care services for about 355 young children (McGuire AFB 2001a).
Most of the area around the base is rural. Land owned by the U.S. Army Fort Dix Military Reservation to the east, west, and south of the base is used for Army training and land to the north is primarily used for agriculture. Just along the northern boundary of the base is the borough of Wrightstown, a residential and commercial community of approximately 3,800 residents. Other nearby communities include the townships of North Hanover, Pemberton, and Plumsted (USAF 1997).
McGuire AFB is situated within the Pinelands National Reserve, an area subject to oversight by the New Jersey Pinelands Commission to protect its important natural and ecologic resources. The base is drained by overland flow to a series of on-site streams, including North Run, South Run, Jack's Run, and Larkin's Run (Figure 4). North Run flows east along the northern boundary of the base and South Run flows east through the southeastern portion of the base. Both North Run and South Run drain into Crosswicks Creek east of McGuire AFB that eventually empties into the Delaware River. Small areas of the base also drain into Jack's Run and Larkin's Run, tributaries of the Roncocas Creek. The on-base and off-base portions of the streams in the immediate area of the base are not used for drinking water, nor are they known to be used for recreation (URS Grenier Woodward-Clyde 1999). About 2 to 3 miles south of the base's southern boundary, the tributaries lead into Little Pine Lake, which feeds into Mirror Lake, both of which are recreational lakes located in the community of Brown Mills. Eventually the tributaries meet the Roncocas Creek before it drains into the Delaware River.
Groundwater beneath McGuire AFB exists in two principal aquifer systems: a shallow and deep aquifer system. The 75 foot shallow aquifer system beneath McGuire AFB consists of two connected layers, the Cohansey Sand/ Kirkwood Formation and Vincentown Formation (Figure 5). Depth to groundwater varies across the base, but it is typically encountered 5 to 20 feet below ground surface. Regional groundwater flow is toward the east-southeast at a rate of about 36 feet a year in the Vincentown Formation (a clayey sand matrix) to more than 200 feet a year in the Cohansey Sand/ Kirkwood Formation (fine and course sand). Local groundwater flow, however, is typically toward streams and drainage channels. As much as 90% of the shallow groundwater eventually discharges to surface water. A series of aquifers and confining layers separates the shallow aquifer system from the deeper aquifer system. The confining layers which contain clay and range in thickness from 75 to 175 feet prevent shallow groundwater from reaching the deeper aquifer system. The deeper aquifer system is made up of three hydrogeologically-connected formations (Potomoc/Raritan/Magothy). Water in this deeper system is generally obtained under confined or artesian conditions from 500 to 1,000 feet below ground surface. Groundwater flow in the deep aquifer system is toward the southeast (EA Engineering, Science and Technology 1998).
McGuire AFB, neighboring communities, and nearby private residents rely on groundwater as their source of drinking water. Four on-base deep aquifer wells, which draw from about 1,000 feet below ground surface, supply water for McGuire AFB and associated base housing areas. Well water is chlorinated, aerated, filtered, and fluoridated before entering the base's distribution system, where the water from each well is mixed before delivery to its users. As required by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP), McGuire AFB samples well water (before any treatment) for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and secondary contaminants once every 3 years. To date, monitoring indicates that the base water supply has met safe drinking water standards (McGuire AFB 1998a, 1999, 2000a, 2001b). Several other water supply wells are located in the area of the base. A drinking water inventory conducted by NJDEP in 1996 identified three public supply wells (two wells serving the borough of Wrightstown and one well serving Fort Dix) and 45 domestic wells within a 1-mile radius of McGuire AFB. Most private wells in the area range in depth from about 100 feet to 150 feet and are located in the borough of Wrightstown, west of the site and upgradient to the base (specifically, upgradient from the DRMO site) (NJDEP 1996).
Through the public health assessment process, ATSDR assesses site conditions from a public health perspective to determine whether potential exposures to site-related contaminants exist from contact with the groundwater/drinking water, surface water, soil, biota, or air. As part of the PHA process, ATSDR conducted a site visit of McGuire AFB, Wrightstown, New Jersey, from November 29 through December 2, 1999. The purpose of the visit was to tour the site, meet with site representatives, and gather the necessary information to prepare a PHA.
ATSDR also gathered information about health concerns voiced by members of the community. In gathering this information, ATSDR interviewed base public affairs personnel who address community questions and concerns about McGuire AFB; met with other base personnel (including the support group commander, civil engineers, the judge advocate, and the commander of public health) who also meet with the public; reviewed the results of the base's survey of community concerns (which is listed in the base's community relations plan); and reviewed concerns expressed by the community during the PHA process for the neighboring Fort Dix site. ATSDR finalized the PHA for the Fort Dix site in October 1999 (ATSDR 1999). In 2000, ATSDR released a health consultation that summarized pathways and issues identified for evaluation. A copy of the health consultation is included in the appendices of this document.
Community concerns about aircraft noise and water quality have arisen sporadically, but in general, concerns are minimal. ATSDR released the public comment version of this document on August 16, 2002. No comments were received by September 16, 2002, the closing of the public comment period.
Because of recent publicized clean-up activities at the BOMARC Missile Facility site, much of the community concern focuses on health and safety hazards stemming from the BOMARC missile accident in the 1960s. As mentioned, ATSDR evaluated the BOMARC Missile Facility site in a separate PHA.
In preparing this PHA, ATSDR reviewed and evaluated information provided in the referenced documents. Documents prepared for the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) programs must meet specific standards for adequate quality assurance and control measures for chain-of-custody procedures, laboratory procedures, and data reporting. The environmental data presented in this PHA are from site characterization, remedial investigation, and groundwater monitoring reports prepared by the Air Force under CERCLA and RCRA. Based on our evaluation, ATSDR determined that the quality of environmental data available in site-related documents is adequate to make public health decisions.
In this section of the PHA, ATSDR evaluates whether harmful health effects could result from the chemicals disposed in or released to the environment at McGuire AFB. Contaminants can only cause adverse health effects if people are exposed to or come in contact with the contaminants. When evaluating public health hazards, therefore, ATSDR scientists first try to establish whether human exposure to chemicals released at the McGuire site was or is possible. Exposure, for example, may occur by breathing, eating, or drinking a substance containing the contaminant, or by skin contact with a substance containing the contaminant.
ATSDR scientists carefully evaluate exposure by studying the elements of an exposure pathway that might lead to human exposure. These elements include (1) a source of site-related contamination, such as drums or waste pits; (2) an environmental medium in which the contaminants might be present or from which they might migrate, such as groundwater, surface water in streams or rivers, soil, air, and locally grown or raised foods (biota); (3) points of human exposure, such as drinking water wells or work areas; (4) routes of exposure, such as breathing, eating, or skin contact; and (5) a receptor population, such as nearby community members or visitors to the site. Figure 6 explains the exposure evaluation process in more detail.
ATSDR identifies exposure pathways as completed, potential, or eliminated. A completed exposure pathway exists in the past, present, or future if all elements of human exposure link the contaminant source to an exposed (receptor) population. Potential pathways are defined as situations in which at least one of the elements is missing, but could exist. ATSDR scientists also evaluate the elements of exposure pathways to determine if people could have been exposed (past), are exposed (current), or could be exposed (future) to site-related contaminants. ATSDR eliminates an exposure pathway when exposure to contaminants has not occurred, is not occurring, and is highly unlikely to occur in the future.
If a completed or potential exposure pathway exists, ATSDR then considers whether chemicals were or are present at levels that might be harmful to people. ATSDR does this by screening the concentrations of contaminants in an environmental medium, such as soil, water, or air, against health-based comparison values, such as ATSDR comparison values (CVs). CVs are chemical concentrations that health scientists have determined are not likely to cause harmful effects, even when assuming very conservative, or safe, exposure scenarios. Because CVs are set at levels much lower than levels at which we might observe health effects, environmental levels that exceed comparison values would not necessarily cause harm. If a chemical is found in the environment at levels greater than its corresponding CV, ATSDR examines potential exposure variables and the toxicology of the contaminant. It is important to realize that regardless of the level of contamination, a public health hazard exists only if people come in contact with, or are otherwise exposed to, harmful levels of contaminated media.
ATSDR analyzed available environmental data for and evaluated potential pathways of human exposure at McGuire AFB to determine if completed or potential exposure pathways have occurred in the past, are occurring, or could occur in the future. Table 2 summarizes completed and potential exposure scenarios associated with McGuire AFB. These exposure scenarios include skin contact with or incidental ingestion of surface water/sediment and surface soil. As noted in Table 2, ATSDR found no exposures associated with contaminated groundwater. Although shallow groundwater beneath certain portions of McGuire AFB is contaminated with VOCs and metals, exposure to contaminated groundwater has not occurred, nor is it likely to occur in the future for several reasons. First, groundwater in the shallow aquifer beneath McGuire AFB has not been used as a source of domestic water supplies, nor will it be used for domestic water supplies in the future. Second, McGuire AFB draws its water from four deep aquifer wells (about 1,000 feet below ground surface) and testing required by EPA and NJDEP indicates that the base's drinking water meets safe drinking water standards (McGuire AFB 2000b, 2001b). Furthermore, contamination in the shallow aquifer is not expected to migrate to the base water supply in the future because a confining layer separates the shallow aquifer from the deeper aquifer, thus preventing the transfer of contaminants to the groundwater from which the base wells draw water. There are no known private drinking water wells located near the base. Shallow groundwater discharges into local streams and thus exposure to groundwater contaminants may occur via surface water. Surface water exposure pathways have been considered in the following sections. ATSDR describes the completed and potential exposure pathways in greater detail in Table 3 and in the following sections.
In the discussion that follows, ATSDR states an exposure concern associated with a complete or potential exposure pathway identified above, presents a brief summary of our conclusions, and describes in more detail any identified exposure pathways and the basis for our conclusions. To acquaint the reader with terminology and methods used in this PHA, Appendix A provides a glossary of environmental and health terms presented in the discussion and Appendix B describes the CVs used to select environmental contaminants for further evaluation. Appendix C provides a copy of ATSDR's 2000 health consultation for the McGuire AFB site.
Have contaminants reached the North Run in areas accessible by the public? If so, has that contamination resulted, or will it result, in adverse human health effects?
After detailed review of available data, ATSDR drew the following conclusions regarding past, current, and future exposures to contaminated surface water/sediment at or near McGuire AFB:
- Relatively low concentrations of contaminants have been detected in surface water and sediment of the North Run on or near the base.
- No harmful effects are likely to occur from contact with North Run surface water or sediment. Contact, if any, with the low level of contaminants in surface water and sediment is expected to be infrequent and of short duration. Such limited exposure should not result in health effects, even for children wading or playing in the stream.
- Contaminant levels are expected to further decrease due to natural processes and with distance from the site.
North Run is a shallow, narrow stream that flows east along the northern limits of the base property (Figure 4). IRP sites LF-03 and LF-04, both landfills, and ST-07, a DRMO storage facility, are situated along the northwest boundary of the base and upgradient to North Run (Table 1 shows a description of each IRP site). McGuire AFB used the landfills in the 1950s for general base refuse and has used the DRMO storage facility since 1963 to store fuels. On the north side of North Run is an active trailer park used for base housing and another larger base housing area is located about a half mile to the northeast. A school is located about 1 to 2 miles away, but children attending the school are not allowed to approach the stream. Currently, North Run, in the area of LF-03, LF-04, and ST-07, lacks controls to prevent children who live at base housing from wading or playing in the stream.
Investigations conducted to date have confirmed that VOCs and metals from the landfills and the DRMO storage facility have entered the shallow groundwater beneath these sites. These contaminants are likely flowing with the shallow groundwater toward, and discharging into, the North Run. During the site visit, ATSDR and base personnel also found what appeared to be seeps (pools) of reddish-brown leachate forming below a storm water drain located downgradient of the landfill LF-03 and the DRMO storage facility, and beyond the base's perimeter fence.
McGuire AFB collected surface water and sediment samples from North Run during 1991/1992 field activities and as part of the 1996/1997 preliminary assessment/site investigation. These samples were analyzed for VOCs, SVOCs, metals, and pesticides. Tables 4 and 5 summarize the available surface water and sediment data, respectively.
As noted in Table 4, metals have been detected in surface water samples collected from North Run. The highest metal concentrations were found in samples collected near the midsection of LF-03, where arsenic (96.4 parts per billion [ppb]), chromium (478 ppb), and lead (327 ppb) were detected at levels above ATSDR CVs for drinking water(2) and local background concentrations for these contaminants in surface water. These metals likely originated from on-base sources such as nearby landfill LF-04 or the DMRO storage facility (URS Grenier Woodward-Clyde 1999).
The Air Force also sampled several seeps along North Run in 1991 and 1996 and analyzed the contents for similar parameters as groundwater. The 1991 and 1996 results indicated that the seeps contained contaminants such as VOCs and metals, similar to those in the groundwater beneath the landfills. Sampling was conducted again in 2000 and 2001. Results of the 2000 sampling indicated that the VOC TCE was present in the effluent at ATSDR's CV of 5 ppb. SVOCs, PCBs, pesticides, and all other VOCs were either not detected or detected at levels well below ATSDR's CVs. No contaminants were detected in the 2001 sampling round. ATSDR recommended, as a precautionary measure, that McGuire AFB post warning signs near North Run to keep people away from seeps that could contain contaminants related to Landfill 2 (LF-03). . The Air Force posted signs at all access paths within 15 feet of the leachate outfall at the North Run. The signs alert visitors to "Keep Out Unsafe Water." (McGuire AFB 2000c, 2001d).
Contaminants were present in sediment samples collected from the North Run. Some of the highest levels of contaminants were found in sediment samples taken near a former landfill (LF-03) and the DRMO (ST-07). Metals, including cadmium (up to an estimated concentration of 11.7 ppm) and lead (up to 149 ppm), were detected in these samples at concentrations generally above local background concentrations, but just slightly above or below ATSDR's CVs for soil. Detections of metal concentrations above the local background levels suggest that the contaminants may be originating from nearby sources such as the landfills or the DMRO storage facility. Concentrations of the pesticide chlordane (alpha and gamma at concentrations up to 0.019 ppm) were similar to background values reported in the March 2002 Basewide Background Study and below ATSDR's CV. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also detected in sediment from the LF-03/ST-07 area at levels up to 0.49 ppm (for pyrene), but generally below the ATSDR CV for the PAH pyrene. It is important to note that PAHs are ubiquitous in our environment and the detected concentrations are representative of background concentrations. VOCs were either not detected or were detected at levels below ATSDR CVs (ATSDR 1995).
Evaluation of Potential Public Health Hazards
Contaminants have been detected in surface water and sediment of on-base reaches of North Run at levels greater than ATSDR CVs and values typically seen in the environment. Seeps containing VOCs and metals, contaminants similar to those found in groundwater, have formed near North Run. ATSDR identified base workers and nearby residents, including children, as likely visitors to North Run. In evaluating whether these individuals were exposed to past, current, or future public health hazards associated with surface water and sediment contamination in North Run or contamination in seeps, ATSDR considered the level of contaminants and how often and how long contact may occur.
On the basis of a review of potential exposures and site data, ATSDR concluded that past, current, and future contact with North Run surface water or sediment poses no apparent public health hazard. The surface water is not used for drinking water or recreation. Base workers or nearby residents visiting the area might have contacted the seeps or surface water and sediment containing metals and pesticides at levels above ATSDR CVs and/or background concentrations. Contact with surface water, sediment, or seeps is expected to be infrequent and of short duration. Furthermore, metals found in the surface water and sediment are not absorbed thoroughly into the skin, so only small amounts, if any, can get into your body through skin contact. Such limited exposure to the surface water or sediment containing detected levels of contaminants is not expected to cause harmful health effects. Even if we were to consider hypothetically that a child wades in North Run daily for several months (for example, during warm weather seasons), we still would not expect any harmful effects to develop. The levels of contaminants in the surface water are expected to further decrease with mixing and dilution that occurs as the water flows downstream and away from the base. In effort to minimize public exposure to the leachate in seeps, the Air Force has posted signs at all access paths within 15 feet of the leachate outfall. The signs warn people to keep out due to unsafe water.
Have contaminants migrated with the South Run, Jack's Run, or Larkin's Run beyond McGuire AFB's southern boundary to areas accessible by the public; if so, has that contamination resulted, or will it result, in adverse human health effects?
After detailed review of available data, ATSDR drew the following conclusions regarding past, current, and future exposures to contaminated surface water/ sediment at or near McGuire AFB:
- Relatively low concentrations of contaminants were measured in the surface water and sediment of South Run, Jack's, Run, or Larkin's Run, where the streams exit the base's southern boundary.
- The area immediately south of McGuire AFB, where these streams leave the base, is not known to be used for drinking water or widely used for recreation.
- No public health hazards are expected from limited past, current, or future contact with the low levels of contaminants found in these streams.
- The already low contaminant concentrations are expected to further decrease before reaching downstream areas used for recreation or other military purposes.
Environmental investigations indicate that contaminants from base operations over time have entered South Run, Jack's Run, and Larkin's Run. The streams eventually leave the base along the southern boundary. ATSDR, however, is not aware of any known uses of the streams along the southern boundary of the base that would cause or encourage people to come into contact with stream contaminants. South Run eventually flows off-base to Fort Dix, and Larkin's Run and Jack's Run eventually flow to the recreational lakes, Little Pine Lake, Big Pine Lake, and Mirror Lake, 2 to 3 miles downstream.
South Run and its Tributaries
South Run is a shallow stream that runs past several IRP sites before exiting the site at its southern boundary. IRP sites along South Run include WP-21, LF-02, LF-19, LF-20, ST-09, and AOC 1. Sites along the tributaries that feed into South Run include SS-18, ST-22, FT-08, FT-13, LF-23, and AOC 2. The shallow groundwater beneath several of the IRP sites has become contaminated from former site activities. Groundwater flow from some contaminated areas is toward South Run or its tributaries, suggesting that contaminants could migrate with the groundwater and flow into these surface water bodies.
Between 1991 and 1997, McGuire AFB sampled surface water and sediment at on-base locations, primarily near IRP sites. South Run and its tributaries have been monitored for parameters similar to those collected for North Run. Table 4 presents surface water monitoring results of South Run and its tributaries. As noted in Table 4, pesticides, such as chlordane (alpha and gamma up to 0.74 ppb) and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) (up to 8.4 ppb), were found at levels above ATSDR CVs in a drainage ditch that is a tributary of the South Run. Over time, the ditch has received rinse water from the pesticide equipment wash area at OT-06. With the exception of arsenic in surface water samples collected near ST-09 and ST-22 (up to 4.5 ppb), metal concentrations were either below ATSDR CVs and local background concentrations or were not detected. The VOCs, trichloroethylene (5 ppb) and benzene (0.7 ppb), were found in samples collected from the South Run or its tributary in the vicinity of ST-09. Benzene (120 ppb) was also detected above ATSDR's CV for drinking water (0.6 ppb) in one storm water sample taken from the storm drain line leaving ST-22. The VOC-contaminated shallow groundwater near ST-22 discharges into the drain line, which eventually empties into a tributary of South Run. Benzene might be related to a 1988 jet propellant (JP-4) hydrant spill at the ST-22 site, leaks from hydrants, or leaks from sections of the fuel line. No benzene was found in samples collected further downstream in the storm drain line or in samples taken closer to the tributary of South Run. Portions of the South Run near LF-02 contained bis(2-Ethylhexyl)phthalate (BEHP) at estimated concentrations up to 7,000 ppb; the concentration exceeds ATSDR's most conservative CV for drinking water (CREG) of 3 ppb.
Contaminants were detected in sediment of the South Run and its tributaries. The highest concentrations of contaminants typically were found in sections of the stream or its tributaries closest to the IRP sites. Table 5 lists the maximum contaminant concentrations detected along South Run and its tributaries. As noted in Table 5, the sediment at ST-09 contained the PAH pyrene (up to 18 ppm)(3) and lead (up to 167 ppm), but at concentrations below ATSDR CV or EPA soil screening level. Several historical former fuel spills and leaks at ST-09 are the suspected source of some of the contamination found in the sediment. An interim action to remove contaminants (as free products) from the groundwater should reduce future impacts to the environment (URS Grenier Woodward-Clyde 1999).
Sediment in the drainage ditch at OT-6, the pesticide was area, contained elevated levels of pesticides (URS Consultants, Inc. 1999). Dieldrin (up to 0.52 ppm) and DDT (up to 13 ppm) in sediment samples collected from the ditch in 1991 exceeded ATSDR's CVs for soil. Sampling of the ditch in 1993 consistently detected dieldrin in 20 sediment samples. The concentrations of dieldrin ranged from 0.17 to 1.32 ppm, above ATSDR CVs for dieldrin in soil and background concentrations. The Air Force removed the contaminated sediment from the ditch later that year. Post-excavation sampling indicated that the levels of dieldrin in sediment along the ditch had been reduced, although isolated high concentrations of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDD) (up to 31 ppm) still remained (URS Consultants, Inc. 1999; URS Corporation 2002).
In October and December 1997, accidental releases of heating oil reached the South Run (Parsons 1999). The two releases came from a storm sewer outfall near the New Jersey Air National Guard 108th Air Refueling Wing, a tenant in the northeast quadrant of McGuire AFB. The releases however, occurred on Fort Dix property, west of McGuire. Most of the heating oil was recovered during containment and recovery operations. Although sediments in the headwaters of Crosswick Creek were contaminated by PAHs and total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel range organics, these contaminants were not found in surface water. Additionally, although a limited portion of South Run was affected by the spills, sediment in other upstream reaches of South Run, unaffected by the 1997 spills, also contained similar contaminants. This pattern of contamination suggests that other sources of these contaminants existed in this watershed on the base (Parsons 1999).
Jack's Run and Larkin's Run
Jack's Run and Larkin's Run originate in the south-central portion of the site, flow through the taxi area, and exit through the southern base boundary. Existing monitoring data for these streams are limited, consisting of one surface water and sediment sample from each stream where the stream crosses the McGuire AFB southern boundary. VOCs, pesticides, PCBs, and petroleum hydrocarbons were either not detected or were detected below available background concentrations in the samples. BEHP was detected in a water sample from Jack's Run, but it was not detected in the sediment. Certain metals, primarily magnesium and potassium, were found in surface water collected from both streams at concentrations above background, but below ATSDR's CVs. Metals were also found in the sediment samples collected at each stream.
Evaluation of Potential Public Health Hazards
Contaminants have been detected infrequently and in low concentrations in surface water and sediment of the South Run. Limited available data for Larkin's Run and Jack's Run suggest similar findings. As a conservative measure, ATSDR considered exposure of base workers at on-site locations and exposure of recreational users at locations downstream of the base. However, ATSDR is not aware of any known uses of surface water immediately south of the site, where these streams exit the southern base boundary. South Run eventually flows to Fort Dix and Larkin's and Jack's Runs flow 2 to 3 miles downstream to recreational lakes; therefore, ATSDR also considered possible exposures to Fort Dix personnel engaged in military maneuvers or people swimming, wading, or boating at downstream lakes.
After a review of potential exposures and site data, ATSDR concluded that past, current, and future uses of surface water and sediment pose no apparent public health hazard. No exposure to contaminants in surface water occurs routinely through ingestion, because surface water from South Run, Larkin's Run, and Jack's Run is not used for drinking water. McGuire AFB workers may have contacted the surface water and sediment containing metals, PAHs, and pesticides at levels just above ATSDR CVs in the on-base portion of the streams. Although the area just south of the base is not widely used for recreation, visitors to the property also may have come in contact with the low levels of contaminants in surface water and sediment of Larkin's Run and Jack's Run. ATSDR determined that any infrequent and brief contact with contaminants at the detected levels is not expected to pose a public health hazard.
South Run eventually flows to Fort Dix and Larkin's Run and Jack's Run eventually flow to Little Pine Lake and Mirror Lake; however, the already low concentrations of contaminants are expected to further decrease with mixing and dilution that naturally occur as the water flows further downstream. Therefore, ATSDR does not expect that contaminants will accumulate in stream beds, Little Pine Lake, Mirror Lake, or water bodies at Fort Dix to levels that could pose a health hazard from infrequent and short-term contact possibly associated with recreation or military maneuvers.
Have contaminants been accessible by the public in surface soil in areas near base housing and the trailer park, such as at landfills LF-03 and LF-04 and the DRMO storage facility (ST-07); if so, was or is contamination present at levels that could result in adverse human health effects?
After detailed review of available data, ATSDR drew these conclusions regarding past, current, and future exposures to contaminated surface soil at LF-03, LF-04, and ST-07 at McGuire AFB:
- PCBs, pesticides, and metals have been detected in surface soil at LF-03, LF04, and/or at ST-07 in the past.
- Workers or trespassers may have come in contact with contaminated soil at LF-03, ST-07, and LF-04 in the past. Contact with contaminated soil, if any, would have been infrequent and of short duration, thus limiting the amount of exposure and making the potential for health effects unlikely.
- Today, no harmful exposures should occur. Previous removal actions and current vegetative covers greatly reduce the opportunity for people to come into contact with contaminated surface soil at LF-03 and ST-07. Also, LF-04 is now largely covered by sections of the Defense Access Road and vegetative growth, thus reducing current or future opportunities for contact with exposed soil.
The IRP sites LF-03, LF-04, and ST-07 (DRMO storage facility) are situated along the northwest boundary of the base and near base housing. A trailer park used by the base for housing abuts LF-04 and stands less than 1 mile from LF-03 and ST-07. Access restrictions, such as fences, to limit or prevent unauthorized access are lacking. Because of the proximity of these sites to base housing and because of the absence of restrictions, certain individuals might have entered the IRP sites and subsequently come in contact with contaminated surface soil. The following discussion describes each site and the nature and extent of surface soil contamination present.
LF-03 is a 12.7-acre landfill used during the 1950s for disposal of general base refuse, coal, and miscellaneous chemicals. In 1974 and 1975, the Air Force removed exposed material and leveled the landfill with a sandy soil cover. Since then, the landfill has become overgrown with vegetation. Composite surface soil samples taken in 1991/1992 showed relatively low levels of PAHs, dieldrin (estimated at 0.043 ppm), and most metals, whereas discrete surface soil samples showed cadmium (up to 14 ppm) at levels above its ATSDR CV and local background concentration (URS Greiner 1997; URS Grenier Woodward-Clyde 1999).
LF-04 covers 2.5 acres along the northwest edge of the base boundary, about 1,500 feet east of LF-03 and adjacent to the trailer park. The landfill was used between 1956 and 1957 for disposal of general base refuse and drums of miscellaneous chemicals. Five surface soil samples (four collected in 1991 and one sample in 1996) were analyzed for metals, VOCs, SVOCs, and pesticides/PCBs. Only cadmium (1.4 ppm) slightly exceeded its New Jersey residential direct contact criterion (1 ppm) and natural background concentration for the area (0.41 ppm). Concentrations of all tested analytes were, however, below ATSDR's CVs (EA Engineering, Science and Technology 1998; URS Grenier Woodward-Clyde 1999). The Defense Access Road runs through landfill and other sections are overgrown with vegetation (URS Grenier Woodward-Clyde 1999).
ST-07 (DRMO Storage Facility)
ST-07, the DRMO storage facility, covers 4 acres in the northwest portion of the site. The Air Force stored, repaired, and sold surplus equipment or material at this site. Parts of the DRMO were fenced in the past. The Air Force used an open unpaved area in the northwestern portion of the site to store drums containing chemicals and petroleum waste, some of which reportedly leaked. Liquid waste was also stored at the site in a 10,000-gallon underground storage tank (UST). The Air Force removed the tank from service in 1979 and then removed the tank along with associated contaminated soil from the site in 1994 (URS Grenier Woodward-Clyde 1999). Residual subsurface soil contamination, primarily petroleum hydrocarbons, was still observed in the pit following the removal action. The Air Force plans to determine the extent of residual subsurface soil contamination associated with the former UST. A plan for remediation of the residual contamination soil will be developed based on the results of the Air Force's investigation.
About 40 to 50 out-of-service transformers were also kept at the site until 1978. Surface soil samples were collected in 1996 and 1997 to characterize residual contamination associated with the former transformers. No surface soil samples were, however, taken near the former UST. Still, results of the monitoring showed that most surface soil samples collected from the site were contaminated with PCBs. In 1999, the Air Force removed the PCB-contaminated soil, graded the DRMO area with clean fill, and then seeded the area (McGuire AFB 2000d).
Evaluation of Potential Public Health Hazards
Contaminants have been detected in surface soil at LF-03 and ST-07. Because these areas contained contaminated surface soil, but generally lack institutional controls to limit or prevent access, ATSDR considered whether base workers or trespassers could have been exposed to harmful levels of surface soil contaminants.
Based on a review of potential exposures and site data, ATSDR concluded that past, current, and future site use poses no apparent public health hazard. McGuire AFB workers or trespassers, perhaps from nearby base housing areas, may have contacted contaminants in exposed surface soil at LF-03, LF-04, and ST-07 in the past. Any infrequent and brief contact with contaminants at the levels detected in LF-03, LF-04, and ST-07 is not, however, expected to pose a public health hazard. No evidence suggests that people routinely engaged in digging or other disturbances of the surface soil at these areas in the past; therefore, we expect that people who entered these area contacted exposed surface soil infrequently and over short durations. Furthermore, no harmful exposures are expected now, or in the future. Today, exposure to surface soil is limited because LF-03 is overgrown with vegetation; LF-04 is covered by the Defense Access Road and overgrown vegetation; and ST-07 is graded with clean fill and overgrown with vegetation.
Through the PHA process, ATSDR has gathered information about health concerns voiced by members of the community. In gathering this information, ATSDR interviewed base public affairs personnel who address community questions and concerns about McGuire AFB; met with other base personnel (including the support group commander, civil engineers, the judge advocate, and the commander of public health) who also meet with the public; reviewed the results of the base's survey of community concerns, and reviewed concerns offered during the PHA process for the neighboring Fort Dix site.
McGuire AFB has a community relations plan (CRP) that provides guidance for involving the community and other interested parties in the remediation decision-making process and for distributing information to these parties (USAF 1997). As part of its community relations activities, McGuire AFB formed a restoration advisory board (RAB). The RAB, which is represented largely by local community members, meets to periodically review site documents and comment on actions and proposed actions taken by McGuire AFB.
No specific health concerns have been brought to ATSDR's attention, although general concerns about potential health hazards associated with the site and off-site migration of contaminants have been identified in the McGuire AFB CRP. ATSDR tried to address these concerns in the Evaluation of Environmental Contamination and Potential Exposure Pathways section of this PHA. ATSDR released the public comment version of this document on August 16, 2002. No comments were received by September 16, 2002, the closing of the public comment period.
Because of recent publicized cleanup activities at the BOMARC Missile Facility site, much of the community concern focuses on health and safety hazards stemming from the BOMARC missile accident in the 1960s. ATSDR evaluated the BOMARC Missile Facility site in a separate PHA.
ATSDR recognizes that infants and children may be more sensitive to environmental exposure than adults in communities faced with contamination of their water, soil, air, or food. This sensitivity is a result of three factors. First, children are more likely to be exposed to certain media (e.g., soil or surface water) because they play outdoors. Second, children are shorter than adults, which means that they can breathe dust, soil, and vapors close to the ground. Third, children are smaller; therefore, childhood exposure results in higher doses of chemical exposure per body weight. Children can sustain permanent damage if these factors lead to toxic exposure during critical growth stages. ATSDR is committed to evaluating children's sensitivities at sites such as McGuire AFB as part of its Child Health Initiative.
ATSDR has attempted to identify (a) populations of children at and in the vicinity of McGuire AFB and (b) any public health hazards threatening these children. Approximately 3,500 dependents live in on-base housing. Four schools are in the northern portion of McGuire AFB and day care centers (and after school programs) are located at on-site buildings. Together, these facilities serve approximately 1,400 children. Additionally, children participate in scouting activities on base property. Scout troops meet at Building 3412, which the base has appropriately screened for lead-based paint and asbestos (McGuire AFB 2000c).
ATSDR determined that exposure of children to the highest levels of contaminants is unlikely because children who live at the base are not typically present in AOCs or locations of contamination at McGuire AFB. However, ATSDR also considered the presence of children in unrestricted areas near schools, day cares, and housing areas where they might contact contaminants leaving the site (such as at off-site reaches of North Run). These potential exposure pathways are discussed in the Evaluation of Contamination and Potential Exposure Pathways section of this PHA. Based on our evaluation, ATSDR identified no situations in which children are likely to be exposed to harmful levels of contaminants associated with McGuire AFB.
Conclusions regarding potential past, current, and future exposure situations on and in the vicinity of McGuire AFB are based on a thorough evaluation of remedial site investigation data and observations made during site visits. Conclusions about exposures are described below. (A description of this public health hazard conclusion category is included in the glossary.)
- No apparent public health hazards are associated with surface water or sediment in North Run, South Run, Larkin's Run, or Jack's Run. Contaminants have been detected infrequently and in low concentrations in surface water and sediment of these streams. Occasional contact with contamination is unlikely to pose a health concern for adults and children. Contaminant concentrations should decrease with natural mixing and dilution that occurs as the water flows downstream. We do not expect harmful levels of contaminants to accumulate in downstream lakes, such as Little Pine Lake and Mirror Lake or lakes at Fort Dix.
- No apparent public health hazards are associated with contact with surface soil at McGuire AFB. Relatively low concentrations of contaminants have been found in surface soil from on-base locations, including ST-07 (DRMO storage facility) and LF-03, located near base housing and a trailer park. Occasional contact with even the highest levels of contaminants reported is unlikely to pose a health concern for any adults or children in the area. Vegetative cover in these areas further restricts direct contact with contaminants in soil.
- No public health hazards are associated with groundwater which was eliminated as an exposure pathway. Groundwater in the shallow aquifer beneath McGuire AFB has not been used as a source of domestic water supplies, nor will it be used for domestic water supplies in the future. McGuire AFB draws its water from four deep aquifer wells and testing required by EPA and NJDEP indicates that the base's drinking water meets safe drinking water standards. Contamination in the shallow aquifer is not expected to migrate to the base water supply in the future because a confining layer separates the shallow aquifer from the deeper aquifer, thus preventing the transfer of contaminants to the groundwater from which the base draws its water. Nearby private wells are either upgradient of the base or not used for drinking water. The upgradient wells will not be affected by contamination in the shallow aquifer on the base.
ATSDR recommends the following actions to ensure that residents near or visitors to the area near McGuire AFB are not exposed to unhealthy levels of contaminants that may have originated from the base.
- ATSDR supports the Air Force's ongoing measures (e.g., signs and fencing) intended to prevent human contact with the leachate that has collected in the seeps along North Run.
- ATSDR supports the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) sampling requirements for McGuire AFB well water.
The Public Health Action Plan (PHAP) for the McGuire AFB site contains a description of actions taken and those to be taken by ATSDR, the Air Force, EPA, and NJDEP at and in the vicinity of the site after the completion of this PHA. The PHAP purpose is to ensure that this PHA not only identifies public health hazards, but also provides a plan of action designed to mitigate and prevent adverse human health effects resulting from exposure to hazardous substances in the environment. The public health actions that are completed, being implemented, or planned are as follows:
- McGuire AFB conducted environmental investigations at 17 IRP sites, 11 AOCs (including the off-base McGuire Middle Marker site and the Burlington POL off-loading facility), and the BOMARC Missile Facility. ATSDR evaluated the BOMARC site in a separate PHA.
- McGuire AFB inventoried all PCB-containing transformers at the base in 1992 and subsequently removed all PCB transformers by 1995.
- McGuire AFB conducted interim remedial actions at several IRP sites, including removing PCB-contaminated soil at SS-18; removing contaminated soil from OT-06, OT-10, and ST-07; and piloting a free product recovery system at ST-09.
- McGuire AFB completed a CRP designed to inform the public of activities and cleanup at the base.
- McGuire AFB repaired or constructed new replacement wells for deteriorating groundwater wells in the monitoring network.
- Documents have been prepared for no further response actions for 7 of the 17 sites: OT-10, SS-18, LF-19, LF-20, WP-21, FT-08, and LF-23. The state of New Jersey has requested either additional information on these sites or a long-term monitoring alternative. No further actions have been recommended for AOC 2 and the two off-base AOCs, AOC 10 (the Middle Marker site) and 11 (the Burlington POL off-loading facility).
- EPA listed McGuire AFB on the National Priorities List on October 22, 1999. EPA and the Air Force are in the process of negotiating a federal facilities agreement for future investigations and clean-up work.
- ATSDR recommended, as a precautionary measure, that McGuire AFB post warning signs near North Run to keep people away from seeps that could contain contaminants related to Landfill 2 (LF-03). McGuire AFB posted signs, which advise "Keep Out Unsafe Water," along access paths east, north, and west of the landfill.
- McGuire AFB has conducted a basewide environmental study to establish background concentrations of inorganic compounds in groundwater and to evaluate the extent of pesticide and metal contamination in soil.
- The Air Force installed a collection/containment system to remove a portion of the 400,000 to 500,000 gallons of petroleum products lying on top of the groundwater at ST-09. A year long pilot program was started in April 2002 to evaluate the effectiveness of the collection system.
- Future investigations include RI activities, remedial designs, risk assessments, and long-term monitoring at LF-02, LF-03, LF-04, ST-07, FT-08, and FT-11. Additional investigations are necessary or have been recommended for AOCs 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, and 9.
- The Air Force will conduct long-term groundwater monitoring at OT-14; soil removal at FT-13 and AOC 2; and source identification at OT-06.
- The Air Force is planning to remediate contaminated subsurface soil associated with the former UST. They are currently exploring three options: removal of all contaminated soil; a partial removal and cap in conjunction with LF-04; and in situ bioremediation.
- McGuire AFB will continue to monitor the quality of its drinking water supply to ensure that the water is safe to drink per requirements of EPA's Safe Drinking Water Act.
- McGuire AFB will continue to monitor groundwater at LF-19 and LF-20 through a long-term monitoring program. This system will ensure that the migration of contaminants from the landfills will be carefully tracked.
- ATSDR will review new information on exposure pathways that may be identified during site investigation activities. Of special significance to ATSDR will be any information that might indicate the potential for off-site pathways of human exposure to contaminated surface water or groundwater.
- If land use changes occur that alter our evaluation of exposure pathways or new data become available that change our conclusions, ATSDR will reevaluate any public health hazards associated with McGuire Air Force Base.
Environmental Health Scientist
Federal Facilities Assessment Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Gary Campbell, PhD
Environmental Health Scientist
Federal Facilities Assessment Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Regional Representative
New York, NY
ABB Environmental Services, Inc. 1996. Final background constituents concentration statistical report for Fort Dix.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 1995. Toxicological profile on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (update). Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 1999. Public health assessment for Fort Dix (landfill site), Wrightstown, Burlington County, New Jersey. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services.
EA Engineering, Science and Technology. 1998a. Final site remedial investigation/site characterization summary (RI/SCS) report. McGuire Air Force Base. January 1998.
EA Engineering, Science and Technology. 1998b. Draft site inspection report. Background concentrations for sediment. McGuire Air Force Base. December 1998.
McGuire Air Force Base (AFB). 1998a. Annual consumer report on the quality of tap water. Wrightstown (NJ): McGuire Air Force Base.
McGuire AFB. 1998b. United States Air Force Installation Restoration Program Technical Meeting For McGuire Air Force Base. Status of RI Sites and Recommended Disposition. May 13, 1998.
McGuire Air Force Base. 1999. Annual consumer report on the quality of tap water. Wrightstown (NJ): McGuire Air Force Base.
McGuire Air Force Base. 2000a. Drinking water quality report. Wrightstown (NJ): McGuire Air Force Base.
McGuire Air Force Base. 2000b. Letter to Danielle DeVoney from Major Daniel Kamieniecki concerning 1999 McGuire AFB water supply analytical results. Wrightstown, New Jersey. June 26, 2000.
McGuire Air Force Base. 2000c. Memorandum to ATSDR from Major Daniel Kamieniecki concerning McGuire Air Force Base Document and Data Delivery. McGuire AFB, Wrightstown, New Jersey. April 19, 2000.
McGuire Air Force Base. 2000d. E-mail to Gary Campbell from Major Brian D. Smith concerning comments on the draft public health assessment for McGuire AFB. Wrightstown, New Jersey. November 22, 2000.
McGuire Air Force Base. 2001a. Personal communications with Major D. Kamieniecki, Bioenvironmental Flight, McGuire AFB. Wrightstown (NJ). McGuire Air Force Base. January 23, 2001.
McGuire Air Force Base. 2001b. Draft. Annual consumer report on the quality of tap water. Wrightstown (NJ): McGuire Air Force Base.
McGuire Air Force Base. 2001c. Minutes of Restoration Advisory Board Meeting February 22, 2001. McGuire Air Force Base, Wrightstown, New Jersey. February 22, 2001.
McGuire Air Force Base. 2001d. Memorandum to ATSDR from Major Daniel Kamieniecki concerning updates to activities at McGuire Air Force Base. McGuire AFB, Wrightstown, New Jersey. July 20, 2001.
McGuire Air Force Base. 2002. Update to the status of installation restoration program sites and areas of concern provided by Major Daniel Kamieniecki. McGuire Air Force Base, Wrightstown, New Jersey. April 2002.
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection [NJDEP]. 1996. NJDEP well records and water supply maps. Results of ABB's October 1996 NJDEP records search. Trenton (NJ): New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection.
Parsons Engineering Science, Inc. (Parsons). 1999. Draft report - Site assessment/baseline ecological evaluation, New Jersey Air National Guard, Fuel Oil Spill Site, McGuire AFB, New Jersey prepared for the New Jersey Air National Guard. November 1999.
URS Consultants, Inc. 1998. Draft final results of long-term monitoring and well maintenance. McGuire Air Force Base.
URS Consultants, Inc. 1999. Draft final remedial investigation. Pesticide wash area (OT-06). McGuire Air Force Base. January 1999.
URS Corporation. 2002 Final report. Basewide background study for McGuire Air Force Base. January 1999. March 2002.
URS Greiner. 1997. Draft final site characterization summary informal technical information report. Volume 1 of 2. Focused feasibility studies and treatability studies at five sites. McGuire Air Force Base.
URS Grenier Woodward-Clyde. 1999. Final work plan: basewide background study and ecological assessment for McGuire Air Force Base, Wrightstown, New Jersey. September 1999.
US Air Force. 1997. Community relations plan: McGuire AFB, New Jersey.
US Air Force. 1998. Management Action Plan: McGuire AFB, Wrightstown, New Jersey.
1. Data collected through the remedial investigation will be used to support a no-further-action decision at OT-06.
2. ATSDR has not established CVs for surface water or sediment. As a conservative measure, ATSDR compares surface water and sediment contaminant concentrations against established CVs for drinking water and soil, respectively.
3. The concentrations of pyrene exceed the calibration range.