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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

M & T DELISA LANDFILL
OCEAN TOWNSHIP, MONMOUTH COUNTY, NEW JERSEY


ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND OTHER HAZARDS

To identify facilities that could possibly contribute to the contamination of environmental media near the M & T Delisa Landfill site, ATSDR and NJDOH searched the 1987 and 1988 Toxic Release Inventory (TRI). USEPA develops the TRI from information that certain industries provide about their estimates of their yearly releases of toxic chemicals in the environment (air, water, soil, or underground injection). Three facilities near the site reported aerial emissions of toxic substances that are similar to site contaminants shown in the TRI for 1987 and 1988. The facilities are United Telecontrol Electronics (UTE), North American Paint Corporation (NAPC), and Anglo-American Varnish Company (AAVC).

UTE reported the following air emissions of 1,1,1-trichloroethane in 1987: 1,500 pounds from non-point (fugitive) sources, and 500-999 pounds from point (stack) sources. NAPC reported air emissions of toluene and xylene from point sources at 1 pound each in 1987, and at 1 pound - 499 pounds each in 1988. AAVC reported the following air emissions from non-point sources: 25 pounds of xylene, 5 pounds of lead, 5 pounds of chromium and 2 pounds of ammonia in 1987; and 10 pounds of xylene in 1988. AAVC reported the following air emissions from point sources: 30 pounds of xylene, 20 pounds of lead, 20 pounds of chromium and 4 pounds of ammonia in 1987; and 50 pounds of xylene in 1988. Those facilities did not report emissions into other environmental media.

The following sections present ground water, air, surface water and sediment, and leachate collection-tank sampling data collected as part of the 1989 supplemental RI program. Storm drain and soil samples collected during the 1984 initial RI program are also presented in the following sections. All liquid and solid environmental samples were analyzed for the complete USEPA Target Compound List (TCL), excluding dioxin, and for 7 additional parameters from the Priority Pollutant List. Air samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

Tables 1-5 (Appendix B) list contaminants of concern. Contaminants of concern are selected by comparing contaminant concentrations to public health assessment comparison values. These values include Environmental Media Evaluation Guides (EMEGs), Cancer Risk Evaluation Guides (CREGs), and other relevant guidelines. Selected contaminants are further evaluated in the following sections of this public health assessment to determine whether exposure to them are likely to result in harmful health effects in humans. When selected as a contaminant of concern in one medium (i.e., water, soil, air), that contaminant will be reported in all media.

A. On-Site Contamination

Ground Water - Monitoring Wells

Groundwater samples were collected from five on-site shallow monitoring wells on August 16 and 17, 1988 to obtain water quality data. Three downgradient wells were sampled. Two upgradient wells were sampled to provide background groundwater quality information.

Limited metal contamination exists in the shallow aquifer at the site. Several metals were detected in samples collected from on-site groundwater monitoring wells screened within the shallow aquifer. Of those metals detected, arsenic, chromium, lead, and nickel were detected at levels above comparison values. Arsenic was detected in one unfiltered downgradient well sample. Chromium and lead were both found in one unfiltered upgradient (background) and one unfiltered downgradient monitoring well sample. Nickel was detected in one (unfiltered and filtered) upgradient monitoring well sample. Table 1 (Appendix B) summarizes contaminants detected in on-site groundwater monitoring well samples.

Air

Air samples were collected at outdoor gas vents and inside the Mall buildings in August 1988, January 1989, and on October 11 and 13, 1989. A total of 20 air samples was taken at all gas vents. Twenty indoor air samples were collected in all accessible areas of the lower levels of the Mall buildings.

Results indicate that VOCs are being liberated by the gas vents. Methane concentrations (10.2-79.4 percent) were also detected in gas vents during the October 1989 sampling round. Slightly elevated levels of VOCs were detected along the unventilated northern edge of the Mall. However, those concentrations were only slightly higher than background levels and were similar to what would normally be expected in most buildings. There was no consistent pattern of VOC concentrations found between outdoor gas vent samples and samples collected inside the Mall. Table 2 (Appendix B) summarizes contaminants detected in on-site air samples.

Surface Water and Sediment

Surface water and sediment samples were taken at four locations along Deal Lake Brook on August 16 and 17, 1988 to determine the potential impact of hazardous contaminants from the site on nearby surface water bodies. Two surface water samples were collected at one upstream location and one downstream location. Three sediment samples were collected at one upstream location and two downstream locations.

Several metals were detected in sediment samples. Of those, arsenic was found at a level above comparison values in one sediment sample. Table 3 (Appendix B) summarizes contaminants detected in on-site surface water samples. Table 4 (Appendix B) summarizes contaminants detected in on-site sediment samples.

Monmouth County Health Department (MCHD) collected 9 surface water samples to the south of the Mall on March 29 and April 11, 1988. Samples were analyzed for ammonia (0.45-97.6 parts per million). Several other locations to the south of Route 66 were also sampled for ammonia (0.26-9.3 parts per million).

Storm Drains

On-site storm drain samples were collected on February 9, 1984, during the initial RI program. Liquid samples were collected from eight locations at two detention basins to the south of the Mall. Storm drains receive storm water runoff from the Mall parking lot. Storm-drain sampling was not included in the supplemental RI program.

Arsenic (5 ug/l) and lead (600 ug/l) were found in one downgradient sample at levels above the comparison values of 0.02 ug/l (CREG) and 15 ug/l (MCL-A) respectively. Methylene chloride (50 ug/l), a common laboratory contaminant, was detected in the background sample at a level above the comparison value of 4.7 ug/l (CREG). Several other metals, including chromium (45 ug/l) and nickel (12 ug/l), were detected in storm-drain samples collected downgradient of the site at levels below comparison values.

Leachate-Collection Tank

One liquid leachate sample was taken from the collection tank on August 18, 1988. Sludge was not present within the collection tank during that sampling period; therefore, samples could not be collected. However, a sludge sample was collected from the leachate-collection tank on June 7, 1984, as part of an initial RI program.

Arsenic (2.5 mg/kg) was found at a level above the comparison value of 0.4 mg/kg (CREG) in the sludge sample. Several other metals, including chromium (7.0 mg/kg) and lead (19 mg/kg), were detected in the sludge sample at low concentrations. Methylene chloride (11.8 mg/kg), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (0.648 mg/kg) and di-n-octyl phthalate (0.835 mg/kg), common laboratory contaminants, were found in the sludge sample at low concentrations. Several metals were detected in liquid leachate samples; however, levels were below comparison values.

Soil

Although the collection of leachate seep samples were planned, seep samples could not be collected since seeps were not observed during the initial RI program. Consequently, on-site soil samples were collected on February 9, 1984, at locations where staining occurred on the parking lot pavement indicating a possible area where leachate had previously flowed (or seeped) up from the ground. Soil samples were not collected from those locations during the supplemental RI program.

Several metals were detected in soil samples at levels similar to natural background concentrations. However, arsenic (3.3 mg/kg) was found in one soil sample at a level above the comparison value of 0.4 mg/kg (CREG). Chromium (20 mg/kg), lead (37 mg/kg), and nickel (14 mg/kg) were found in soil samples at levels typical of natural soils. Methylene chloride (0.2 mg/kg) was the only VOC detected in soil samples; however, levels found were below comparison values.

B. Off-Site Contamination

Ground Water - Private Wells

Three off-site potable water wells were sampled on August 16 and 18, 1988. All three wells are upgradient of the site. Only one of the wells is screened within the shallow aquifer.

Several metals were detected in potable groundwater samples; however, these metals were at levels below comparison values. The contaminants found in the shallow upgradient potable well were similar to those found in on-site upgradient (background) monitoring wells. Table 5 (Appendix B) summarizes contaminants detected in off-site private well samples.

C. Quality Assurance and Quality Control

In preparing this public health assessment, ATSDR relies on the information provided in the referenced documents and assumes that adequate quality assurance and quality control measures were followed with regard to chain-of-custody, laboratory procedures, and data reporting. The validity of the analysis and conclusions drawn for this public health assessment is determined by the comprehensiveness and reliability of the referenced information.

Quality assurance/quality control measures were followed with regard to sample collection. USEPA performed a systematic data validation review of the data package.

D. Physical and Other Hazards

No physical hazards have been reported at the site nor were any observed during the NJDOH site visit.


PATHWAYS ANALYSES

To determine whether nearby residents are exposed to contaminants migrating from the site, NJDOH evaluates the environmental and human components that lead to human exposure. This pathways analysis consists of five elements: (1) a source of contamination; (2) transport through an environmental medium; (3) a point of human exposure; (4) route of human exposure; and (5) an exposed population.

NJDOH classifies exposure pathways into three groups: (1) "completed pathways", that is, those in which exposure has occurred, is occurring, or will occur; (2) "potential pathways", that is, those in which exposure might have occurred, may be occurring, or may yet occur; and (3) "eliminated pathways", that is, those that can be eliminated from further analysis because one of the five elements is missing and will never be present, or in which no contaminants of concern can be identified. A summary of all the pathways for the M&T Delisa site is summarized below.

As discussed in the Site Description and History subsection, the former landfill activities at the site have resulted in slight contamination of the shallow groundwater aquifer below the site, and in landfill gas generation. There are no complete exposure pathways associated with the site. The potential exposure pathways that were identified are discussed in the following subsection.

A. Potential Exposure Pathways

Private Well Pathway

The potential exposure of potable well users to inorganic contaminants exists through ingestion and direct contact if the shallow aquifer is used downgradient of the site. Metals were detected in on-site monitoring wells screened within the shallow aquifer. Arsenic, chromium and lead were found in one (unfiltered) downgradient monitoring well sample at a level above comparison values. Nickel levels were found to exceed comparison values in one (unfiltered and filtered) upgradient well sample. Shallow groundwater sampling data suggest that these metals are generally immobile within the groundwater system below the site. Since the groundwater yield from the shallow Kirkwood Formation is limited, it is not considered to be a major source of potable water. There are at present no shallow on-site wells used for drinking water. There are four upgradient potable water wells within 1 mile of the site that receive ground water from the shallow aquifer. Arsenic, chromium, and nickel were not detected in shallow off-site potable water wells; lead was found at levels below comparison values. The leachate collection system and the parking lot pavement appear to be effective in minimizing the migration of these contaminants in the shallow aquifer. Past and present exposure of shallow potable well users to metals through ingestion is unlikely since no shallow potable wells are located downgradient of the site and the likelihood of off-site migration is low. Since chromium, lead and nickel were detected in upgradient (background) samples at levels above comparison values, additional data are needed to identify potential sources of metal contamination that may be unrelated to the site.

Past, present and future exposure of deep potable well users to metals through ingestion is unlikely. The shallow Kirkwood Formation contains increasing amounts of clay with increasing depth, until contact is made with the Shark River Marl, the uppermost section of the Manasquan Formation. The Marl forms an effective confining layer between the Kirkwood and Vincentown Formations in the area of the site. Thus, it is unlikely that contaminants detected in the shallow aquifer will infiltrate the Vincentown aquifer below. The Vincentown Formation is a major source of potable water for local residences. Of the nine potable wells that receive ground water from the deep Vincentown aquifer within 1 mile of the site, only one well is located downgradient near the southern boundary of the site. There were no metals found above comparison values in groundwater samples collected from those wells.

Air Pathway

It is possible that people have been exposed to VOCs in the air inside the Seaview Square Mall via inhalation. Likewise, the potential exists for further human exposure to VOCs in the air at the Mall through inhalation. VOCs typically found in landfills are being generated at the site. Based on indoor air monitoring data, VOCs were detected inside the northern corridor of the Mall at levels slightly above background levels. VOC concentrations were similar to what would normally be expected in indoor spaces. Furthermore, the source of VOCs within the Mall does not appear to be landfill gas infiltration. The potentially exposed population includes primarily Mall employees and visitors. A child care center is located on the upper floor at the northern side of the Mall. An impermeable side wall liner and a gas venting system were installed during construction to minimize landfill gas migration to the Mall buildings. Although the construction of the Mall complex extension outside the liner may have reduced the ability of the liner to reduce contaminant migration, the extension is located on the southern side of the Mall where the potential for landfill gas generation is minimal.

Soil Pathway

Mall visitors and employees may have been or may yet be exposed to metals through ingestion and direct contact. Metals were detected in soil samples collected from the parking area at concentrations typical of natural soils (Adapted from: Hazardous Waste Land Treatment, USEPA SW 874, April 1983). However, arsenic (3.3 mg/kg) was found in one soil sample at a level above comparison values.

Several unpaved areas covered with grass and soil are immediately behind the northern boundary of the Mall building. A child care center operates an unpaved, outdoor playground for children, including a sandbox, that is immediately north of the Mall. During the Mall construction, refuse was removed from the areas adjacent to the northern section of the Mall and was replaced with clean fill of up to 4 feet in thickness. The clean fill acts as a barrier to reduce the likelihood of exposure to landfill materials.

During the site visit, two persons were observed walking along unpaved footpaths north of the Mall and Ring Road in areas reported to contain landfill materials. Refuse relocated during Mall construction to the north of the Mall contain a soil cap of up to 4 feet thick. In addition, most of the landfill area was paved and it serves as a parking lot for the Mall. The paved parking area functions as a cap that minimizes direct contact with refuse materials. However, the presence of numerous cracks and red stains observed throughout the parking area during the site visit may increase the likelihood of exposure to landfill materials.

Surface Water and Sediment Pathway

Exposure of local residents to site contaminants through the ingestion of or direct contact with surface water and sediments of Deal Lake Brook is unlikely to have occurred or to occur. The shallow groundwater flow within the Kirkwood Formation in the immediate vicinity of the site is towards the south-southeast and discharges primarily into Deal Lake Brook and/or the leachate collection system. Data analysis of surface water and sediment samples did not reveal any significant metal contamination of Deal Lake Brook. Surface water does not appear to provide a transport medium for the migration of metals into Deal Lake.

Fish Pathway

People who eat fish from Deal Lake are unlikely to be exposed to metals or to have been exposed to metals emanating from the site. Data analysis of surface water and sediment samples did not reveal any significant metal contamination of Deal Lake Brook. Since metals have been immobilized within the sediment, the Brook does not appear to provide a transport medium for the migration of metals into Deal Lake.


PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

As discussed in the Environmental Contamination and Other Hazards section, and in the Pathways Analyses section, ground water contamination appears to have been confined to the shallow aquifer in the vicinity of the site. At present, there are no on-site potable water wells. Furthermore, as previously indicated, there are no identified completed exposure pathways related to the M&T Delisa site.

A. Toxicological Evaluation

Potential Private Water Pathway

Several metals (arsenic, chromium, lead and nickel) were detected in samples collected from on-site monitoring wells screened within the shallow aquifer at levels above comparison values. However, human exposure to these metals are unlikely since no shallow potable wells are located downgradient of the site.

Potential Air Pathway

VOCs concentrations in the Mall buildings were within the range of typical indoor levels found in many other buildings. Long-term exposure to VOCs is unlikely due to the transient nature of visitors to the Mall.

B. Health Outcome Data Evaluation

Health outcome data were not evaluated since there are no completed exposure pathways associated with this site, and since no specific adverse health outcomes have been expressed by the community.

C. Community Health Concerns Evaluation

Community health concerns were addressed as follows:

    * Is it safe for people to eat fish caught in Deal Lake?

    Data analysis of surface water and sediment samples did not reveal any significant metal contamination of Deal Lake Brook. The Brook does not appear to provide a transport medium for the migration of metals into Deal Lake. Since the metals that were detected in Deal Lake Brook were primarily found immobilized within the sediment, it is unlikely that those metals will affect the fish in Deal Lake.

    Public Comment Period

The New Jersey Department of Health (NJDOH) conducted a comment period for the Public Health Assessment for the M & T Delisa Landfill from July 6, 1993 to August 6, 1993. The Public Health Assessment was placed in local repositories to facilitate commentary and reaction from the public at large. Additionally, the Public Health Assessment was circulated to the Monmouth County Regional Health Commission for the purpose of soliciting commentary by local health officials.

The NJDOH did not received any commentary regarding the M & T Delisa Landfill during this period.

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