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HEALTH CONSULTATION

Analysis of Cancer Incidence Near the

NJ NATURAL GAS COMPANY/LONG BRANCH GAS CONTAMINATION
LONG BRANCH, MONMOUTH COUNTY, NEW JERSEY


PURPOSE

At the request of concerned citizens living near the former Long Branch Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) in Long Branch, cancer incidence was evaluated for the entire city of Long Branch and the census tract where the facility was located. Total cancer incidence and 13 specific cancer types were evaluated in this investigation. The specific cancers types were selected because they represent cancer groupings that may be more sensitive to the effects of environmental exposure, though not necessarily related to the specific contaminants found at the Long Branch MGP. The results of this Health Consultation will be considered along with an evaluation of the exposure pathways, community health concerns, and other pertinent information in a future public health assessment of the site.


BACKGROUND AND STATEMENT OF ISSUES

The former Long Branch MGP is located within the city of Long Branch, approximately one-quarter mile west of the Atlantic Ocean, and consists of approximately 12 acres in a residential/commercial section of the city. The MGP facility operated from approximately 1870 through 1960 and involved the manufacture of water gas, carbureted water gas, and oil gases. Numerous structures, including retorts, gas holders, tar separators, storage tanks and repair shops were present on the property to support the coal-gas processes (NUS Corp, 1990). A portion of the former MGP property was redeveloped in the 1950's by the Long Branch Housing Authority into an apartment complex.

Characterization of the site, including areas that are currently residential, identified numerous chemical contaminants in the environment (ARCADIS, 2002). Evaluation of on-site soil samples detected a variety of chemical contaminants with concentrations above the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection's residential soil cleanup criteria including benzene, acenaphthylene, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, chrysene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, phenanthrene, antimony, arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. Many of these contaminants are part of a broad class of chemicals called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Potential past and possibly current human pathways of exposure include dermal contact with contaminated soil, inhalation of vapors emanating from the contaminated soil, and ingestion of contaminated soil.

Benzene is considered to be a human carcinogen and has been associated with the development of a particular type of leukemia called acute myeloid leukemia (ATSDR, 1997). Exposure to PAHs have been documented to cause tumors in laboratory animals (ATSDR, 1995). PAHs are considered a probable human carcinogen based on animal experiments (American Cancer Society, 2003a). Epidemiologic studies show that people exposed to PAHs by breathing or skin contact for long periods to mixtures of PAHs may also have increased risk of developing cancer, especially lung and skin cancers (ATSDR, 1995).


METHODS

Study Area and Population

The Long Branch MGP study area for the evaluation of cancer incidence consisted of the entire population residing in the town. In addition, the census tract where the facility was located (census tract 8056) was evaluated separately. The U.S. Census Bureau designates the boundaries for census tracts by the size of the population rather than the area of land encompassed by the census tract.

Cancer Case Ascertainment and Study Period

The New Jersey State Cancer Registry was used for the ascertainment of cancer cases. The Cancer Registry is a population-based cancer incidence registry covering the entire state of New Jersey. By law, all cases of newly diagnosed cancers are reportable to the Registry. In addition, the Registry has reporting agreements with the states of New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware and Florida. Information on New Jersey residents who are diagnosed in those states is supplied to the New Jersey State Cancer Registry. The Registry has been in operation since October 1, 1978.

The study period for this investigation was January 1, 1979, through December 31, 2000. A "case" was defined as an individual who was diagnosed with a new primary malignant cancer during the study period while residing in Long Branch. Registry cases identified only through search of death records were excluded from this evaluation. Information on risk factors, such as personal lifestyle habits, are not available from the Cancer Registry.

Data Analysis

Analyses were completed for all malignant cancer types combined and for select cancer types for the entire city of Long Branch and, separately, for the census tract where the facility was located. The select cancer types analyzed include: bladder, brain and central nervous system (CNS), female breast, colorectal, esophageal, pancreas, lung and pleura, leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, liver, bone, stomach, and kidney. These cancer types were evaluated because they represent cancer groupings that may be more sensitive to the effects of environmental exposures. Males and females were evaluated separately. Analyses were conducted for all races combined, Whites, and Blacks.

Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were used for the quantitative analysis of cancer incidence in the study areas (Kelsey, Thompson and Evans, 1986; Breslow and Day, 1987). The SIR is calculated by dividing the observed number of cases (from the Registry) by an expected number for the surveyed population over the time period reviewed.

The expected number was derived by multiplying a comparison population's age-sex-specific incidence rates and the study area age-sex-specific population figures. The comparison rates used to derive the expected number of cases were the New Jersey average annual incidence rates for 1979 to1999. The study area age-sex-specific population was determined from the 1980, 1990, and 2000 U.S. Census data (U.S. Census Bureau, 1980, 1990, 2000). Eighteen age-specific population groups were used in the analysis.

Evaluation of the observed and expected numbers is accomplished by interpreting the ratio of these numbers. If the observed number of cases equals the expected number of cases, the SIR will equal one (1.0). When the SIR is less than one, we conclude that fewer cases were observed than expected. Should the SIR be greater than one, more cases than expected were observed.

Random fluctuations may account for some SIR deviations from 1.0. Statistical significance of deviations from SIR equal to 1.0 was evaluated using a 95% confidence interval7 (C.I.). The 95% C.I. was used to evaluate the probability that the SIR may be greater or less than 1.0 due to chance alone, and was based on the Poisson distribution (Breslow and Day, 1987; Checkoway, Pearce, and Crawford-Brown, 1989). If the confidence interval includes 1.0, then the estimated SIR is not considered to be statistically significantly different than 1.0.


RESULTS

Table 1 presents the Long Branch population by age, race, and sex for the years 1980, 1990, and 2000. The citywide population, all races combined, dropped slightly from 1980 (29,819) to 1990 (28,658) and then rose in 2000 (31,340). The White and Black populations followed a similar pattern with Whites comprising from 68% to 74% of the total Long Branch population. The proportion of males increased slightly through the time period from 46% to 49% of the total population.

Census tract (CT) 8056 is one of nine census tracts in Long Branch (based on the 1990 census tracts, see Figure 1). The population in CT 8056, all races combined, dropped slightly throughout the study period from 2,747 in 1980 to 2,621 in 1990 and 2,298 in 2000 (Table 1). CT 8056, one of the least populated census tracts in Long Branch, had a decreasing percentage of the total citywide population through the study period, representing 9.2% in 1980 and falling to 7.3% in 2000. The percentage of Blacks in CT 8056 was substantially higher than the city as a whole, varying from 55% to 66% of the census tract between 1980 and 2000. From 22% to 30% of the citywide Black population resided in CT 8056 over the study period. The proportion of males in CT 8056 increased slightly through the time period from 42% to 47% of the total population.

Table 2 presents the number of malignant incident cases by race, sex, and age group for Long Branch and CT 8056. For the town as a whole, a total of 3,261 cases were diagnosed in city residents during the years 1979-2000. Of those cases, 309 were diagnosed in residents of CT 8056. Approximately half the cases in both the city and CT 8056 were males. The distribution of ages at time of diagnosis was similar for the city and CT 8056.

Tables 3 through 5 present cancer incidence by cancer type for all races combined, Whites, and Blacks. The most frequently diagnosed cancer types for both Long Branch and CT 8056 include colorectal, lung, breast, and prostate, representing between 50-56% of all incident cancers. The frequency of these cancer types is consistent with New Jersey statewide cancer incidence data.

Tables 6 through 8 present standardized incidence ratio (SIR) results for Long Branch by race (all races combined, White and Black) and sex. For all races combined (Table 6), brain and CNS cancer was statistically significantly elevated in females (SIR=1.62; 95% CI=1.12, 2.28) while stomach cancer in females was statistically significantly low (SIR=0.64; 95% CI=0.39, 0.98). For Whites (Table 7), statistically significantly elevated SIRs were seen for brain and CNS cancer in females (SIR=1.55; 95% CI=1.01, 2.27) and lung cancer in females (SIR=1.21; 95% CI=1.04, 1.40) while stomach cancer in females was statistically significantly low (SIR=0.55; 95% CI=0.30, 0.93). For Blacks (Table 8), brain and CNS cancer was statistically significantly elevated in females (SIR=3.17; 95% CI=1.27, 6.54) while a statistically significantly low SIR was found pancreatic cancer in males (SIR=0.18; 95% CI=0.00, 0.98).

Tables 9 through 11 present standardized incidence ratio (SIR) results for CT 8056 by race (all races combined, White and Black) and sex. For all races combined (Table 9), all cancers combined (SIR=1.34; 95% CI=1.14, 1.57) and lung cancer (SIR=1.59; 95% CI=1.08, 2.26) were statistically significantly elevated in males while esophageal cancer was statistically significantly elevated in females (SIR=5.74; 95% CI=1.85, 13.4). No SIRs for Whites in CT 8056 were statistically significantly high or low (Table 10). For Blacks in CT 8056 (Table 11), statistically significantly elevated SIRs were found for all cancers combined in males (SIR=1.35; 95% CI=1.11, 1.63) and for esophageal cancer in females (SIR=4.64; 95% CI=1.50, 10.8). While not statistically significantly high, SIRs were elevated in Black females for brain and CNS cancer (SIR=4.3).


DISCUSSION

The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate cancer incidence in a population living relatively near to areas contaminated by the Long Branch MGP. For the entire city of Long Branch, the occurrence of cancer (all sites combined) over the 22-year observation period was not higher than expected (based on average State rates) for any race-sex group evaluated. However, brain/CNS cancers in females citywide were statistically significantly elevated for all races combined (SIR=1.6), Whites (SIR=1.6), and Blacks (SIR=3.2). In contrast, stomach cancer tended to be lower than expected in most race-sex groups, and statistically significantly lower in some of the race-sex groups. Of the 81 SIRs calculated for Long Branch, four (5%) were statistically significantly high and four (5%) were statistically significantly low. Three SIRs (4%) were zero due to no observed cases.

For CT 8056, the census tract in which the Long Branch MGP facility was located, all cancers combined were statistically significantly higher in males when all races were combined (SIR=1.3) and in Black males (SIR=1.4). In addition, lung cancer was statistically significantly elevated in all males (SIR=1.6) while esophageal cancer was statistically significantly elevated for all females (SIR=5.7) and Black females (SIR=4.6). Brain/CNS cancers, while not statistically significant, were elevated for Black females (SIR=4.3). Of the 81 SIRs calculated for CT 8056, five (6%) were statistically significantly high and none were statistically significantly low. Nineteen SIRs (24%) were zero due to no observed cases.

Cancer is a group of more than 100 different diseases (i.e., cancer types and subtypes), each with their own set of risk factors. The multifactorial nature of cancer etiology, where a given disease may have more than one cause, complicates the evaluation of potential risk factors and specific disease outcomes. Benzene and PAHs, the primary contaminants at MGP site, have been identified as possible risk factors to exposed populations for certain cancer types, primarily leukemia (benzene) and lung cancer (PAHs). In the current analysis, the incidence of leukemia citywide and in CT 8056 was not statistically significantly higher than expected over the study time period. Lung cancer incidence, however, was statistically significantly higher in White females citywide and all males in CT 8056.

While there are multiple risk factors for lung cancer, tobacco smoking is considered the most important risk factor, estimated to account for more than 85% of all lung cancer cases (National Cancer Institute, 1996). Other known risk factors for lung cancer include indoor exposure to radon and environmental tobacco smoke, occupational exposure to asbestos and other cancer-causing agents in the workplace (including radioactive ores; chemicals such as arsenic, vinyl chloride, nickel, chromates, coal products, mustard gas, and chloromethyl ethers; fuels such as gasoline; and diesel exhaust), and exposure to air pollution (American Cancer Society, 2003b).

There is very limited evidence that exposure to environmental contamination is associated with esophageal or stomach cancer risk. Occupational exposure to tetrachloroethylene, the solvent used in dry cleaning, may lead to greater risk of esophageal cancer (American Cancer Society, 2003c). Dry cleaning workers have a higher rate of esophageal cancer. Also, exposure to other chemical fumes may lead to an increased risk of esophageal cancer. However, the most important known risk factors for esophageal cancer are consumption of alcohol and tobacco products, which account for over 80% of the risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (American Cancer Society, 2003c). A number of studies have shown an association between esophageal cancer and low socioeconomic status, independent of smoking or drinking, which may be associated with poor nutrition.

The causes of brain/CNS cancer are largely unknown, but a variety of genetic and environmental factors have been suggested (National Cancer Institute, 1996). The only established environmental risk factor for brain/CNS cancer is high dose ionizing radiation (American Cancer Society, 2003d). Certain occupations and industrial exposures have also been implicated as possible risk factors for brain/CNS cancer including chemists, embalmers, anatomists, precision metal workers, farmers, synthetic rubber and polyvinyl chloride manufacture, refining of crude oil and production of petroleum based chemicals, manufacture of pharmaceuticals, and the nuclear fuels and weapons industry (National Cancer Institute, 1996). Additionally, while there is no conclusive evidence, exposure to electromagnetic fields has also been suggested as a possible risk factor for brain/CNS cancer.

A limitation of cancer studies of this type is the inability to assess past exposure levels in the population. The critical piece of information required to assure a meaningful evaluation of these data is actual personal exposure to the contamination as well as other relevant risk factors over time; that is, who was exposed and who was not exposed and the magnitude of the exposure that did occur. Since personal exposure information does not exist, residential distance from the contaminated site was used as a surrogate measure for potential past exposure. This was accomplished by analyzing separately the population living in the census tract in which the Long Branch MGP was located. Although distance from the site may have been the best way to estimate past potential exposures at the time the study was designed, it is also unlikely that all of the residents in these areas were exposed to the contamination. Additionally, the length of residence of each case is unknown, thereby potentially adding to exposure misclassification. The consequence of exposure misclassification would be to bias the results toward not finding an association (i.e., no exposure-health outcome relationship).

Another interpretation problem is that cancer is a chronic disease that takes many years after exposure to manifest as clinical disease. The information supplied by the State Cancer Registry provides only an address at time of diagnosis for each case. No information is available on length of time an individual may have lived at the address before diagnosis. It is possible that some cases are new, short-term residents with little or no exposure to the site. Furthermore, former residents who have moved out of the study area just prior to diagnosis are not available for analysis. Population mobility cannot be accounted for in this study. The current study assumes that in and out migration of cases will offset each other.

Additionally, when researchers independently examine statistical associations for a large number of comparisons, it is likely that some number of statistically elevated or low SIRs will occur by chance alone. While it is possible to statistically correct for this concern, it is controversial whether such corrections are needed. Confidence intervals are presented without adjustment for multiple comparison.

The approach utilized for this descriptive cancer investigation was "census" based, where the entire population of Long Branch and the State of New Jersey were reviewed in order to calculate age, sex, and race standardized incidence rate ratios for the study area. This "census" approach (ecologic design) is a practical surveillance or screening method for cancer incidence. Although this approach is well suited for providing a picture of cancer incidence in the specific localities, cause-effect relationships cannot be evaluated. Important information on potential risk factors (such as genetics, environmental factors, parental occupation, etc.) that might explain the results, were not available for analysis using this type of study design.


CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Overall, cancer incidence (all cancers combined) was not elevated in Long Branch. However, brain/CNS cancer was elevated in all females citywide. Lung cancer in White females was higher than expected while stomach cancer was generally lower than expected. In CT 8056, the area of Long Branch which had the highest potential for exposure to benzene and PAHs from the site, excess levels of esophageal cancer in females, lung cancer in males, and all cancers combined in males was found. Leukemia incidence citywide and in CT 8056 was not higher than expected. While lung cancer incidence was higher in males living in CT 8056, lung cancer incidence was not higher than expected for females in CT 8056.

This analysis of cancer incidence in the City of Long Branch and CT 8056 provides little evidence that the rate of cancer in the study population has been affected by the potential exposure to MGP contamination. While no further cancer analyses appear to be warranted, the NJDHSS and ATSDR should continue to work with community representatives to determine the most appropriate health education and outreach strategies to inform the general population about environmental issues in the community. Additionally, the results of this Health Consultation will be considered along with an evaluation of the exposure pathways, community health concerns, and other pertinent information in a future public health assessment of the site.


CERTIFICATION

This Health Consultation was prepared by the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services (NJDHSS) under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It has been produced in accordance with approved methodology and procedures existing at the time the Health Consultation was begun.

Gregory V. Ulirsch
Technical Project Officer
Superfund Site Assessment Branch (SSAB)
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation (DHAC)
ATSDR


The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, ATSDR, has reviewed this Health Consultation and concurs with its findings.

Roberta Erlwein
Chief, SPS, SSAB, DHAC
ATSDR


REFERENCES

American Cancer Society: Cancer Facts and Figures 2003 Located on-line at www.cancer.org, 2003a.

American Cancer Society: What are the Risk Factors for Lung Cancer? Located on-line at www.cancer.org, 2003a.

American Cancer Society: What are the Risk Factors for Esophageal Cancer? Located on-line at www.cancer.org, 2003c.

American Cancer Society: What are the Risk Factors for Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors? Located on-line at www.cancer.org, 2003d.

ATSDR: Toxicological Profile for Benzene. Prepared by Research Triangle Institute. Atlanta, Ga, 1997.

ATSDR: Toxicological Profile for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Prepared by Research Triangle Institute. Atlanta, Ga, 1995.

ARCADIS: Baseline Ecological Evaluation for the Former Long Branch Manufactured Gas Plant. Portland, Maine, 2002.

Breslow, N.E. and Day, N.E.: Statistical Methods in Cancer Research: Vol II-The Design and Analysis of Cohort Studies, E. Heseltine, ed. IARC Scientific Publication No. 82, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, 1987.

Checkoway, H., Pearce, N.E., and Crawford-Brown, D.J.: Research Methods in Occupational Epidemiology, B. MacMahon, ed. Monographs in Epidemiology and Biostatistics Vol. 13, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1989.

Kelsey, J.L., Thompson, W.D., and Evans, A.S.: Methods in Observational Epidemiology, B. MacMahon, ed. Monographs in Epidemiology and Biostatistics Vol. 10, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1986.

National Cancer Institute: Cancer Rates and Risks. NIH Publication No. 96-691, 1996.

NUS Corporation Superfund: Field Investigation Team Activities at Uncontrolled Hazardous Substances Facilities - Zone I. Final Draft Site Inspection Report, New Jersey Natural Gas Company - Long Branch, New Jersey, 1990.

Pope CA 3rd, Burnett RT, Thun MJ, Calle EE, Krewski D, Ito K, Thurston GD: Lung Cancer, Cardiopulmonary Mortality, and Long-term Exposure to Fine Particulate Air Pollution.JAMA. Mar 6;287(9):1132-41, 2002.

U.S. Census Bureau: Population Census Report, General Population Characteristics, 1980.

U.S. Census Bureau: Population Census Report, General Population Characteristics, 1990.

U.S. Census Bureau: Population Census Report, General Population Characteristics, 2000.


AGENCY INFORMATION

Preparers of the Report:

Michael Berry
Patricia Haltmeier
New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services
Division of Epidemiology, Environmental and Occupational Health
Consumer and Environmental Health Services

ATSDR Regional Representatives:

Arthur Block
Leah Escobar
Region II, Regional Operations
Office of the Assistant Administrator

ATSDR Technical Project Officer:

Frank Bove
Technical Project Officer
Division of Health Studies

Any questions concerning this document should be directed to:

Site-specific Health Studies
New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services
Consumer and Environmental Health Services
P.O. Box 369
Trenton, New Jersey 08625-0369


FIGURE AND TABLES

City of Long Branch 1990 Census Tract Boundaries Manufactured Gas Plant
Figure 1. City of Long Branch 1990 Census Tract Boundaries Manufactured Gas Plant


Table 1. Long Branch and Census Tract (CT) 8056
Population Numbers by Select Demographic Characteristics
Census Years 1980, 1990, and 2000

Characteristic City of Long Branch CT 8056
1980 1990 2000 1980 1990 2000
Race:
   White
   Black
   Other
22,204
6,014
1,601
21,064
5,589
2,005
21,320
5,847
4,173
734
1,821
192
627
1,686
308
669
1,271
358

Total

29,819 28,658 31,340

2,747

2,621

2,298

Sex:
   Male
   Female
13,795
16,024
13,464
15,194
15,210
16,130
1,147
1,600
1,180
1,441
1,070
1,228
Age Distribution:

0-4
5-9
10-14
15-19
20-24
25-29
30-34
35-39
40-44
45-49
50-54
55-59
60-64
65-69
70-74
75-79
80-84
85+

2,128
1,920
2,178
2,304
2,976
2,670
2,631
1,542
1,201
1,563
1,329
1,471
1,698
1,311
1,200
784
504
409
2,051
1,777
1,653
1,643
2,170
2,871
2,831
2,307
1,791
1,411
1,188
1,194
1,366
1,292
1,183
905
572
453
2,183
2,155
2,013
1,880
2,419
2,489
2,682
2,592
2,384
2,143
1,803
1,469
1,092
1,034
1,042
831
634
495

235
259
278
296
230
168
149
131
111
123
129
116
130
120
90
73
62
47

236
257
214
230
189
212
189
162
138
118
121
102
116
109
82
58
49
39

226
220
219
161
148
155
150
155
134
120
119
92
101
89
79
59
39
32


Table 2. Long Branch and Census Tract (CT) 8056
Number of Cancer Cases by Select Demographic Characteristics
Malignant Cancer Incidence1 (1979-2000)

Demographic Characteristic Long Branch CT 8056
Race:
   White
   Black
   Other/Unknown
2,734
481
46
109
198
2

Total

3,261

309

Sex:
   Male
   Female
1,618
1,643
154
155
Age at Diagnosis:

0-4
5-9
10-14
15-19
20-24
25-29
30-34
35-39
40-44
45-49
50-54
55-59
60-64
65-69
70-74
75-79
80-84
85+

16
7
6
10
15
32
44
64
96
110
205
256
393
489
525
463
318
212

<5
<5
<5
<5
<5
<5
<5
6
10
13
23
27
46
38
50
32
30
17

1 Note: Number of cases between 0 and 5 are suppressed for confidentiality.

Data from the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services' State Cancer Registry with analysis by the Department's Consumer and Environmental Health Services (September 2003).


Table 3. Long Branch and Census Tract (CT) 8056
Number of Cases1 by Cancer Type (1979-2000): All Races Combined

Cancer Type Long Branch CT 8056
Oralpharynx
Esophagus
Stomach
Small Intestine
Colorectal
Liver
Pancreas
Other Digestive
Lung
Other Respiratory
Bones and Joints
Soft Tissue
Melanoma
Other Skin
Breast
Cervix
Uterus
Ovary
Other Female Genital
Prostate
Other Male Genital
Bladder
Kidney
Other Urinary
Eye
Brain and Central Nervous System
Thyroid
Other Endocrine
Hodgkin's Disease
Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
Myeloma
Leukemia
Miscellaneous
110
41
51
17
453
24
85
54
491
65
8
23
87
14
477
50
98
56
10
366
15
154
72
9
<5
54
16
10
35
126
32
76
78
19
7
<5
<5
35
<5
6
8
50
12
<5
<5
<5
<5
35
10
11
<5
<5
34
<5
12
7
0
0
<5
0
<5
<5
12
<5
9
8
Total 3,261 309

1 Note: Number of cases between 0 and 5 are suppressed for confidentiality.

Data from the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services' State Cancer Registry with analysis by the Department's Consumer and Environmental Health Services (September 2003).


Table 4. Long Branch and Census Tract (CT) 8056
Number of Cases1 by Cancer Type (1979-2000): White

Cancer Type Long Branch CT 8056
Oralpharynx
Esophagus
Stomach
Small Intestine
Colorectal
Liver
Pancreas
Other Digestive
Lung
Other Respiratory
Bones and Joints
Soft Tissue
Melanoma
Other Skin
Breast
Cervix
Uterus
Ovary
Other Female Genital
Prostate
Other Male Genital
Bladder
Kidney
Other Urinary
Eye
Brain and Central Nervous System
Thyroid
Other Endocrine
Hodgkin's Disease
Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
Myeloma
Leukemia
Miscellaneous
86
27
39
14
389
17
78
43
419
47
7
17
85
7
413
37
85
49
7
299
14
137
60
9
<5
44
16
<5
29
103
22
68
60
5
0
<5
0
11
0
<5
0
17
<5
<5
0
<5
<5
19
<5
<5
<5
0
13
<5
7
<5
0
0
0
0
0
0
<5
<5
<5
<5
Total 2,734 109

1 Note: Number of cases between 0 and 5 are suppressed for confidentiality.

Data from the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services' State Cancer Registry with analysis by the Department's Consumer and Environmental Health Services (September 2003).


Table 5. Long Branch and Census Tract (CT) 8056
Number of Cases1 by Cancer Type (1979-2000): Black

Cancer Type Long Branch CT 8056
Oralpharynx
Esophagus
Stomach
Small Intestine
Colorectal
Liver
Pancreas
Other Digestive
Lung
Other Respiratory
Bones and Joints
Soft Tissue
Melanoma
Other Skin
Breast
Cervix
Uterus
Ovary
Other Female Genital
Prostate
Other Male Genital
Bladder
Kidney
Other Urinary
Eye
Brain and Central Nervous System
Thyroid
Other Endocrine
Hodgkin's Disease
Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
Myeloma
Leukemia
Miscellaneous
23
14
12
<5
61
<5
7
10
70
17
0
6
0
5
59
12
10
6
<5
57
<5
14
11
0
<5
10
0
6
5
20
10
8
16
14
7
<5
<5
23
<5
<5
6
33
9
0
<5
0
<5
16
7
7
<5
<5
21
0
5
<5
0
0
<5
0
<5
<5
9
<5
5
6
Total 481 198

1 Note: Number of cases between 0 and 5 are suppressed for confidentiality.

Data from the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services' State Cancer Registry with analysis by the Department's Consumer and Environmental Health Services (September 2003).


Table 6. Long Branch Malignant Cancer Incidence (1979-2000)
SIR Analysis by Cancer Type and Sex: All Races Combined

Cancer Type Sex Observed Expected SIR1   95% CI
All Cancers Combined Male
Female
1,618
1,643
1,614.8
1,642.1
1.00
1.00
  0.95 - 1.05
0.95 - 1.05
Bladder Male
Female
111
43
123.7
48.1
0.90
0.89
  0.74 - 1.08
0.65 - 1.20
Bone/Joint Male
Female
<5
5
NR
3.0
0.87
1.65
  0.17 - 2.54
0.53 - 3.85
Brain/CNS Male
Female
21
33
22.9
20.4
0.92
1.62
* 0.57 - 1.40
1.12 - 2.28
Breast Male
Female
<5
473
NR
478.0
1.02
0.99
  0.27 - 2.62
0.90 - 1.08
Colorectal Male
Female
231
222
234.3
246.2
0.99
0.90
  0.86 - 1.12
0.79 - 1.03
Esophagus Male
Female
29
12
24.4
10.0
1.19
1.20
  0.80 - 1.71
0.62 - 2.10
Kidney Male
Female
47
25
42.5
29.0
1.11
0.86
  0.81 - 1.47
0.56 - 1.27
Leukemia Male
Female
44
32
41.8
35.0
1.05
0.92
  0.76 - 1.41
0.63 - 1.29
Liver Male
Female
16
8
12.5
6.5
1.28
1.23
  0.73 - 2.08
0.53 - 2.43
Lung Male
Female
284
207
275.6
182.4
1.03
1.13
  0.91 - 1.16
0.99 - 1.30
Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Male
Female
68
58
58.2
57.1
1.17
1.02
  0.91 - 1.48
0.77 - 1.31
Pancreas Male
Female
39
46
35.4
41.3
1.10
1.11
  0.78 - 1.50
0.82 - 1.49
Stomach Male
Female
31
20
43.9
31.4
0.71
0.64
** 0.48 - 1.00
0.39 - 0.98

1 Note: *=statistically high, **= statistically low, NR= not reported because observed <5.

Data from the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services' State Cancer Registry with analysis by the Department's Consumer and Environmental Health Services (September 2003).


Table 7. Long Branch Malignant Cancer Incidence (1979-2000)
SIR Analysis by Cancer Type and Sex: White

Cancer Type Sex Observed Expected SIR1   95% CI
All Cancers Combined Male
Female
1,334
1,400
1,342.7
1,369.8
0.99
1.02
  0.94 - 1.05
0.97 - 1.08
Bladder Male
Female
98
39
111.6
42.5
0.88
0.92
  0.71 - 1.07
0.65 - 1.26
Bone/Joint Male
Female
<5
<5
NR
NR
1.13
1.70
  0.23 - 3.30
0.46 - 4.36
Brain/CNS Male
Female
18
26
18.9
16.8
0.95
1.55
* 0.56 - 1.50
1.01 - 2.27
Breast Male
Female
<5
410
NR
397.7
0.91
1.03
  0.18 - 2.67
0.93 - 1.14
Colorectal Male
Female
198
191
202.1
212.0
0.98
0.90
  0.85 - 1.13
0.78 - 1.04
Esophagus Male
Female
20
7
17.5
7.4
1.14
0.94
  0.70 - 1.76
0.38 - 1.94
Kidney Male
Female
40
20
35.7
24.5
1.12
0.82
  0.80 - 1.53
0.50 - 1.26
Leukemia Male
Female
38
30
34.8
29.1
1.09
1.03
  0.77 - 1.50
0.70 - 1.47
Liver Male
Female
11
6
9.4
5.2
1.17
1.16
  0.58 - 2.09
0.43 - 2.53
Lung Male
Female
233
186
227.1
153.7
1.03
1.21
* 0.90 - 1.17
1.04 - 1.40
Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Male
Female
56
47
48.6
48.7
1.15
0.97
  0.87 - 1.50
0.71 - 1.28
Pancreas Male
Female
38
40
29.5
34.5
1.29
1.16
  0.91 - 1.77
0.83 - 1.58
Stomach Male
Female
25
14
35.6
25.2
0.70
0.55
** 0.45 - 1.04
0.30 - 0.93

1 Note: *=statistically high, **= statistically low, NR= not reported because observed <5.

Data from the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services' State Cancer Registry with analysis by the Department's Consumer and Environmental Health Services (September 2003).


Table 8. Long Branch Malignant Cancer Incidence (1979-2000)
SIR Analysis by Cancer Type and Sex: Black

Cancer Type Sex Observed Expected SIR1   95% CI
All Cancers Combined Male
Female
259
222
234.3
213.7
1.11
1.04
  0.97 - 1.25
0.91 - 1.18
Bladder Male
Female
11
<5
6.4
NR
1.73
0.74
  0.86 - 3.10
0.15 - 2.16
Bone/Joint Male
Female
0
0
0.5
0.4
0
0
  -
-
Brain/CNS Male
Female
<5
7
NR
2.2
1.34
3.17
* 0.27 - 3.91
1.27 - 6.54
Breast Male
Female
<5
58
NR
59.2
1.83
0.98
  0.02 - 10.2
0.74 - 1.27
Colorectal Male
Female
31
30
25.5
29.5
1.22
1.02
  0.83 - 1.73
0.69 - 1.45
Esophagus Male
Female
9
5
8.2
3.0
1.10
1.65
  0.50 - 2.09
0.53 - 3.85
Kidney Male
Female
7
<5
5.4
NR
1.30
1.05
  0.52 - 2.69
0.28 - 2.70
Leukemia Male
Female
6
<5
4.4
NR
1.36
0.48
  0.50 - 2.95
0.05 - 1.74
Liver Male
Female
<5
0
NR
1.1
1.72
0
  0.46 - 4.41
-
Lung Male
Female
50
20
47.9
25.5
1.04
0.78
  0.77 - 1.38
0.48 - 1.21
Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Male
Female
10
10
6.4
5.8
1.57
1.73
  0.75 - 2.88
0.83 - 3.18
Pancreas Male
Female
<5
6
NR
6.6
0.18
0.91
** 0.00 - 0.98
0.33 - 1.99
Stomach Male
Female
6
6
7.6
5.7
0.79
1.05
** 0.29 - 1.73
0.39 - 2.30

1 Note: *=statistically high, **= statistically low, NR= not reported because observed <5.

Data from the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services' State Cancer Registry with analysis by the Department's Consumer and Environmental Health Services (September 2003).


Table 9. Long Branch Census Tract 8056
Malignant Cancer Incidence (1979-2000)
SIR Analysis by Cancer Type and Sex: All Races Combined

Cancer Type Sex Observed Expected SIR1   95% CI
All Cancers Combined Male
Female
154
155
114.6
142.8
1.34
1.09
* 1.14 - 1.57
0.92 - 1.27
Bladder Male
Female
9
<5
8.8
NR
1.03
0.71
  0.47 - 1.95
0.14 - 2.08
Bone/Joint Male
Female
<5
0
NR
0.0
3.6
0
  0.05 - 19.9
-
Brain/CNS Male
Female
0
<5
1.7
NR
0
1.65
  -
0.33 - 4.83
Breast Female 35 41.4 0.85   0.59 - 1.18
Colorectal Male
Female
16
19
16.6
21.6
0.96
0.88
  0.55 - 1.56
0.53 - 1.38
Esophagus Male
Female
<5
5
NR
0.9
1.15
5.74
* 0.13 - 4.16
1.85 - 13.4
Kidney Male
Female
6
<5
3.0
NR
1.99
0.39
  0.73 - 4.33
0.01 - 2.19
Leukemia Male
Female
5
<5
3.1
NR
1.59
1.28
  0.51 - 3.72
0.34 - 3.27
Liver Male
Female
<5
0
NR
0.6
2.26
0
  0.25 - 8.15
-
Lung Male
Female
31
19
19.5
15.9
1.59
1.19
* 1.08 - 2.26
0.72 - 1.87
Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Male
Female
6
6
4.1
5.0
1.46
1.21
  0.53 - 3.18
0.44 - 2.63
Pancreas Male
Female
0
6
2.5
3.6
0
1.67
  -
0.61 - 3.62
Stomach Male
Female
<5
<5
NR
NR
0.32
0.73
  0.00 - 1.79
0.08 - 2.63

1 Note: *=statistically high, **= statistically low, NR= not reported because observed <5.

Data from the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services' State Cancer Registry with analysis by the Department's Consumer and Environmental Health Services (September 2003).


Table 10. Long Branch Census Tract 8056
Malignant Cancer Incidence (1979-2000)
SIR Analysis by Cancer Type and Sex: White

Cancer Type Sex Observed Expected SIR1   95% CI
All Cancers Combined Male
Female
48
61
38.6
54.5
1.24
1.12
  0.92 - 1.65
0.86 - 1.44
Bladder Male
Female
5
<5
3.3
NR
1.54
1.09
  0.50 - 3.59
0.12 - 3.95
Bone/Joint Male
Female
<5
0
NR
0.1
12.8
0
  0.17 - 71.0
-
Brain/CNS Male
Female
0
0
0.5
0.6
0
0
  -
-
Breast Female 19 15.1 1.26   0.76 - 1.97
Colorectal Male
Female
<5
8
NR
9.4
0.51
0.85
  0.10 - 1.49
0.37 - 1.68
Esophagus Male
Female
0
0
0.5
0.3
0
0
  -
-
Kidney Male
Female
<5
<5
NR
NR
2.98
1.01
  0.60 - 8.72
0.01 - 5.63
Leukemia Male
Female
<5
<5
NR
NR
0.98
2.47
  0.01 - 5.45
0.50 - 7.21
Liver Male
Female
0
0
0.3
0.2
-
-
  -
-
Lung Male
Female
8
9
6.5
6.1
1.24
1.48
  0.53 - 2.44
0.68 - 2.82
Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Male
Female
<5
<5
NR
NR
0.73
0.50
  0.01 - 4.05
0.01 - 2.80
Pancreas Male
Female
0
<5
0.9
NR
0
1.33
  -
0.15 - 4.79
Stomach Male
Female
<5
0
NR
1.2
0.97
0
  0.01 - 5.38
-

1 Note: *=statistically high, **= statistically low, NR= not reported because observed <5.

Data from the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services' State Cancer Registry with analysis by the Department's Consumer and Environmental Health Services (September 2003).


Table 11. Long Branch Census Tract 8056
Malignant Cancer Incidence (1979-2000)
SIR Analysis by Cancer Type and Sex: Black

Cancer Type Sex Observed Expected SIR1   95% CI
All Cancers Combined Male
Female
106
92
78.5
74.7
1.35
1.23
* 1.11 - 1.63
0.99 - 1.51
Bladder Male
Female
<5
<5
NR
NR
2.24
1.55
  0.48 - 4.57
0.01 - 3.59
Bone/Joint Male
Female
0
0
0.1
0.1
0
0
  -
-
Brain/CNS Male
Female
0
<5
0.7
NR
0
4.26
  -
0.86 - 12.5
Breast Female 16 19.8 0.81   0.46 - 1.31
Colorectal Male
Female
13
10
8.7
11.1
1.49
0.90
  0.79 - 2.55
0.43 - 1.66
Esophagus Male
Female
<5
5
NR
1.1
0.82
4.64
* 0.09 - 2.96
1.50 - 10.8
Kidney Male
Female
<5
0
NR
1.3
1.77
0
  0.35 - 5.16
-
Leukemia Male
Female
<5
<5
NR
NR
2.84
0.69
  0.76 - 7.27
0.01 - 3.86
Liver Male
Female
<5
0
NR
0.4
2.74
0
  0.31 - 9.89
-
Lung Male
Female
23
10
15.9
9.2
1.45
1.10
  0.92 - 2.17
0.52 - 2.02
Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Male
Female
5
<5
1.9
NR
2.70
2.03
  0.87 - 6.31
0.54 - 5.19
Pancreas Male
Female
0
<5
1.9
NR
0
1.61
  -
0.43 - 4.13
Stomach Male
Female
0
<5
2.6
NR
0
0.92
  -
0.10 - 3.31

1 Note: *=statistically high, **= statistically low, NR= not reported because observed <5.

Data from the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services' State Cancer Registry with analysis by the Department's Consumer and Environmental Health Services (September 2003).

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