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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

Plutonium 239 in Sewage Sludge
Used as a Soil or Soil Amendment in the Livermore Community

LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY, MAIN SITE (U.S. DOE)
LIVERMORE, ALAMEDA COUNTY, CALIFORNIA


APPENDIX 4: OUTPUT FROM RESRAD DOSE ASSESSMENT

Click here to view Appendix 4 in PDF format (PDF, 159KB)

RESRAD output showing soil guideline for Pu 239 based on all pathways/exposure routes (ingestion, inhalation, and external exposure) and a 100 mrem/year dose. The soil guideline is the Pu 239 concentration that is required to produce an annual dose of mrem/year. The initial concentration is 2.5 pCi/g. Exposure factors and model parameters are as described in the text.
Figure A-1. RESRAD output showing soil guideline for Pu 239 based on all pathways/exposure routes (ingestion, inhalation, and external exposure) and a 100 mrem/year dose. The soil guideline is the Pu 239 concentration that is required to produce an annual dose of mrem/year. The initial concentration is 2.5 pCi/g. Exposure factors and model parameters are as described in the text.

RESRAD output showing dose contributions from different exposure pathways or routes. These doses are based on an average soil concentration of 2.5 pCi/g Pu 239 and Pu 240. The total dose is 0.31 mrem/year as shown in Figure 2. Consumption of plants (food crops) accounts for about 65% of the total dose, soil ingestion about 26% of the dose, and inhalation of dust accounting for about 6% of the dose.
Figure A-2. RESRAD output showing dose contributions from different exposure pathways or routes. These doses are based on an average soil concentration of 2.5 pCi/g Pu 239 and Pu 240. The total dose is 0.31 mrem/year as shown in Figure 2. Consumption of plants (food crops) accounts for about 65% of the total dose, soil ingestion about 26% of the dose, and inhalation of dust accounting for about 6% of the dose.


APPENDIX 5: GROSS ALPHA AND NUCLIDE-SPECIFIC MONITORING DATA

    CaRHB   LLNL + LLNL + LLNL GA  LLNL Pu 239  LLNL +    
    digestor sludge   sewer effluent dried sludge digester sludge
pCi/g or pCi/L
digester sludge annual releases
(Gross Alpha except 1973)
   
    pCi/g   pCi/L pCi/g   pCi/L Ci/yr    
1960 Jan 0.15 wet wt. <38            
    0.15 wet wt. <38            
    0.15 wet wt. <38            
  Apr   wet wt. <38            
      wet wt. <38            
      wet wt. <38            
  Jul   wet wt. <38            
      wet wt. <38            
      wet wt. <38            
  Oct   wet wt.              
      wet wt.              
      wet wt.              
1961 Jan   wet wt. 18.7* <7.2          
      wet wt. 18.7* <7.2          
      wet wt. 18.7* <7.2          
  Apr   wet wt. 18.7* <7.2          
      wet wt. 18.7* <7.2          
      wet wt. 18.7* <7.2          
  Jul   wet wt.   <7.2          
      wet wt.   <7.2          
    0.1 wet wt.   <7.2          
  Oct 0.15 wet wt.   4.5          
    0.15 wet wt.   4.5          
    0.3 wet wt.   4.5          
1962 Jan 0.15 wet wt.   4.6          
    0.2 wet wt.   4.6          
    0.15 wet wt.   4.6          
  Apr 0.15 wet wt.   4.6          
    0.15 wet wt.   4.6          
    0.15 wet wt.   4.6          
  Jul 0.15 wet wt.              
    0.15 wet wt.              
      wet wt.              
  Oct   wet wt.              
      wet wt.              
      wet wt.              
1963 Jan   wet wt. 8.9 6     1.10E-03    
      wet wt. 8.9 6     1.10E-03    
      wet wt. 8.9 6     1.10E-03    
  Apr   wet wt. 8.9 6     1.10E-03    
        8.9 6     1.10E-03    
        8.9 6     1.10E-03    
  Jul     6.1 6.7     1.10E-03    
        6.1 6.7     1.10E-03    
        6.1 6.7     1.10E-03    
  Oct     6.1 6.7     1.10E-03    
        6.1 6.7     1.10E-03    
    11.1   6.1 6.7     1.10E-03    
1964 Jan 23.9   29 12     6.40E-03    
    11.6   29 12     6.40E-03    
    21.9   29 12     6.40E-03    
  Apr 0.15   29 12     6.40E-03    
        29 12     6.40E-03    
    296.9   29 12     6.40E-03    
  Jul 173   92 34     6.40E-03    
        92 34     6.40E-03    
        92 34     6.40E-03    
  Oct     92 34     6.40E-03    
        92 34     6.40E-03    
    94   92 34     6.40E-03    
1965 Jan 84   20.4 39     3.60E-03    
    39   20.4 39     3.60E-03    
    52   20.4 39     3.60E-03    
  Apr     20.4 39     3.60E-03    
        20.4 39     3.60E-03    
        20.4 39     3.60E-03    
  Jul     5.4 60     3.60E-03    
        5.4 60     3.60E-03    
        5.4 60     3.60E-03    
  Oct     5.4 60     3.60E-03    
    23   5.4 60     3.60E-03    
        5.4 60     3.60E-03    
1966 Jan     6 42     3.00E-03    
        6 42     3.00E-03    
    64   6 42     3.00E-03    
  Apr 8 est. 6 42     3.00E-03    
    31 est. 6 42     3.00E-03    
    26   6 42     3.00E-03    
  Jul 7 est. 9 17     3.00E-03    
    0.15   9 17     3.00E-03    
        9 17     3.00E-03    
  Oct     9 17     3.00E-03    
        9 17     3.00E-03    
    82 est. 9 17 pCi/g   3.00E-03    
1967 Jan     154   12#   3.90E-02    
        154       3.90E-02    
        154       3.90E-02    
  Apr     154       3.90E-02    
    258   154       3.90E-02    
    229   154   606#   3.90E-02    
  Jul 154   30   240#   3.90E-02    
    21   30   158#   3.90E-02    
    147   30   133#   3.90E-02    
  Oct 72   30   168#   3.90E-02    
    34 est. 30   85#   3.90E-02    
    50   30   15#   3.90E-02    
1968 Jan 18 est. 11       6.00E-03    
    15 est. 11       6.00E-03    
    18 est. 11       6.00E-03    
  Apr 27 est. 11       6.00E-03    
    14 est. 11       6.00E-03    
    14 est. 11       6.00E-03    
  Jul     9       6.00E-03    
    20 est. 9       6.00E-03    
        9       6.00E-03    
  Oct 5 est. 9       6.00E-03    
    1 est. 9       6.00E-03    
    16 est. 9       6.00E-03    
1969 Jan 6   19**   6#   7.90E-03    
    12   19**   5#   7.90E-03    
    14   19**   3#   7.90E-03    
  Apr 6   19**   8#   7.90E-03    
    21   19**   13#   7.90E-03    
    8   19**   11#   7.90E-03    
  Jul         18#   7.90E-03    
            20#   7.90E-03    
            21#   7.90E-03    
  Oct         23#   7.90E-03    
            45#   7.90E-03    
            39#   7.90E-03    
1970 Jan   est. 7.6   22#   3.60E-03    
      est. 7   22#   3.60E-03    
      est. 4.6   17#   3.60E-03    
  Apr   est. 3.5   16#   3.60E-03    
      est. 20       3.60E-03    
      est. 20       3.60E-03    
  Jul   est. 8       3.60E-03    
      est. 4       3.60E-03    
      est. <1.2       3.60E-03    
  Oct   est. <1.2       3.60E-03    
      est. 4       3.60E-03    
      est. 7       3.60E-03    
1971 Jan             2.80E-03    
            160   2.80E-03    
            150   2.80E-03    
  Apr         190   2.80E-03    
            210   2.80E-03    
            280   2.80E-03    
  Jul         220   2.80E-03    
            260   2.80E-03    
            280   2.80E-03    
  Oct         110   2.80E-03    
            220   2.80E-03    
            180   2.80E-03    
1972 Jan         430   2.40E-03    
            190   2.40E-03    
            280   2.40E-03    
  Apr         240   2.40E-03    
            250   2.40E-03    
            390   2.40E-03    
  Jul         220   2.40E-03    
            280   2.40E-03    
            330   2.40E-03    
  Oct         200   2.40E-03    
            430   2.40E-03    
            330 Pu 239 pCi./L 2.40E-03   Pu 238 pCi/L
1973 Jan       2.6 430 9.9 2.00E-04 Pu 239 3.2
          2.6 260 6.3 2.00E-04 Pu 239 2.2
          2.6 210 8.3 2.00E-04 Pu 239 3.6
  Apr         210 7.8 2.00E-04 Pu 239 3.6
            210 6.8 2.00E-04 Pu 239 2.5
            290 12 2.00E-04 Pu 239 2.3
  Jul         200 7.4 2.00E-04 Pu 239 1.9
            450 8.9 2.00E-04 Pu 239 2.2
            330 3.6 2.00E-04 Pu 239 0.87
  Oct         340 5.4 2.00E-04 Pu 239 0.89
            210 4.4 2.00E-04 Pu 239 0.63
            250 6.8 2.00E-04 Pu 239 0.67

CaRHB- LWRP digester gross alpha concentrations for the years 1960 through 1969 are from data sheets entitled "Gross Radioactivityin Sewage Samples: 1960-1969, published in the Radiological Health News, California Department of Health Services, Radiation Health Branch.

-CaRHB Measurements of "No Significant Activity" are reported in this spreadsheet as values of 0.15 pCi/g to facilitate dataplotting.

-Values noted as estimated (est.) "When the counting rate of the sample is not equal to at least twice the 0.95 error, the value reported isthe best available estimate, but is not statistically significant. Where the asterisk appears without a value, no activity was detected."(reported as 0.15 in this spreadsheet).

- The 1964 CaRHB report contains this note "Beginning May 1963 all sewage sludge has been reported in picocuries per gram of drysludge. Before that date it was reported in picocuries per gram of wet sludge. The footnote should be corrected."

LLNL- All data labeled as LLNL data are from published annual and semi-annual reports for the years 1960 through 1973. These includereports published as the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory or the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, or the Lawrence Livermore NationalLaboratory. LLNL analyses of sludge from digester 1 are reported as pCi/L or pCi/g, as specified above.

* following value denotes "Limits of Detection".
** Maximum monthly average for 6 month reporting period.
+ 6-month or annual average values are shown as repeated values.
# Average of digester 1 and digester 2.


APPENDIX 6: EPA SOIL SCREENING GUIDANCE FOR RADIONUCLIDES

Click here to view Appendix 6 in PDF format (PDF, 142KB)

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