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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

WALDICK AEROSPACE DEVICES, INC.
WALL TOWNSHIP, MONMOUTH COUNTY, NEW JERSEY


SUMMARY

The 1.72 acre Waldick Aerospace Devices site is located at 2121 Highway 35 in the Sea Girt section of Wall Township, Monmouth County, New Jersey (See appendix 1). On-site surface soils and groundwater are contaminated with volatile organic chemicals, petroleum hydrocarbons, and heavy metals notably chromium, and cadmium. The site is currently fenced to discourage unauthorized entry to areas where remediation is in progress. Off-site groundwater, soils and sediments are exhibiting site related contamination by organic chemicals and metals. Documented environmental pathways are associated with contaminated soils, sediments and groundwater. Based upon current data and information here are no identifiable completed human exposure pathways associated with the site. Potential human exposure pathways are associated with off-site soils (sediments) and groundwater. The nearest residence is located approximately 1/4 mile southeast of the site. Municipal water supplies are available in the area of the site. A September 29, 1987 Record of Decision (ROD) addressed contaminant source control (buildings and on-site soils as the first operable unit of ultimate site remediation. A second operable unit Remedial Investigation Feasibility Study (RI/FS) addressing off-site ground water, surface water, and stream sediments has been completed, and a second ROD for remediation and control of groundwater contamination was completed in FY 91. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) and the New Jersey Department of Health (NJDOH) consider this site to present no apparent public health hazard. This site is not presently being considered for follow up health studies or evaluation at this time.


BACKGROUND

A. Site Description and History

Refer to: A. Site Description (page 1) in the health assessment document (Appendix 6). Additionally, page 3, paragraph 1 should read as follows:

The ROD for the source control operable unit one includes: excavation of contaminated soils, on-site treatment of organically contaminated soils, treatment to stabilize metals contamination, characterization of treated soils to determine the feasibility of on-site verses off-site disposition, appropriate remediation of on-site buildings by decontamination or demolition, installation of additional groundwater monitoring wells, establishment of an environmental monitoring program, complete fencing of the site, and well and deed restrictions. Characterization of off-site contamination was the focus of the second operable unit RI/FS, completed in 1989. A second operable unit ROD proposes an interim remedy intended to prevent migration of contaminated groundwater, and initiate the first phase of groundwater remediation (pumping, on-site treatment, and reinjection).

B. Actions Implemented During The Health Assessment Process

On-site structures have been demolished and removed. The remedial design for the soil cleanup has been completed. The RI/FS for off-site ground-water contamination has been completed with extraction, precipitation, air stripping and reinjection selected and implemented as a remedy. On-site soils are currently being remediated through excavation of contaminated soils, on-site thermal treatment to remove organic contaminants, solidification/stabilization treatment for inorganic contaminants, and off-site disposal of treated soils.

Current groundwater data do not indicate an impact to downgradient private wells.

C. Site Visit

A visit to the Waldick Aerospace Devices site was conducted by NJDOH and Monmouth County Health Department (MCHD) personnel on March 31, 1991. (See appendix 2.) The site perimeter was secured by means of a stockade and chain link fence, and unauthorized entry did not appear likely. On site buildings were locked to prevent unauthorized entry, but trespassing onto the site and entry into the buildings by juveniles has occurred in the past. Personnel did not enter on-site buildings on this inspection. The enclosed area of the site is covered by crushed rock and little vegetation exists, with the exception of isolated patches of grass and weeds. Approximately 60 drum carcasses are present on the site, each apparently punctured by an axe. Discoloration of areas associated with the drums indicate contents may have discharged directly to the soil. No physical hazards were observed with the exception of the drums and those which may be associated with the interiors of on-site buildings.

Hannabrand Brook, the primary surface water feature associated with the site, was not of a size adequate to permit it's use for recreational activities. It was not clear if the brook supported aquatic life which might enter the human food chain. The brook was not discernibly fenced or artificially isolated, and therefore contact with contaminated sediments is possible although not probable.

Representatives of the NJDOH (James Pasqualo) and the USEPA visited the site on July 23, 1993. On-site structures observed during previous visits have been removed. The removal and treatment of on-site soils was observed to be in progress.

D. Demographics, Land Use, and Natural Resource Use

The Waldick Aerospace Devices site is located in Wall Township, Monmouth County, New Jersey. Historically the environs of the site have been agricultural and recreational in nature, but in recent years, residential, commercial and industrial development has been substantial and ongoing, particularly along the Route 35 corridor. Wall Township encompasses 31.01 square miles and presently contains a population of approximately 20,242 persons. There are two primary land use patterns within a 1.5 mile radius of the site. West of route 35, land is generally undeveloped, consisting of farmland, forests, and isolated residential areas. East of the highway land use is primarily residential, while the highway corridor itself is largely commercial and industrial. The Township is bordered by the Shark river to the north, and the Manasquan river to the south, and contains numerous other small surface water features. The nearest private residence to the site is located approximately 1/4 miles to the south east (hydraulically downgradient). Approximately 30 private wells downgradient of the site have been identified in the off-site RI/FS, and their owners contacted to determine the wells depth, uses and availability for monitoring/testing. (See appendix 3). The RI/FS report states that Wall Township during recent conditions of drought, discouraged the use of municipal water for uses other than potable supply and has encouraged the use of domestic wells for irrigation, lawn watering, and other non-potable domestic purposes.

E. Health Outcome Data

There are multiple sources of health data in New Jersey. State and local data for health outcome information include the New Jersey State cancer registry, Birth Defects Registry, Vital Statistics Records, Renal Dialysis Network, and hospital discharge reports. Federal databases such as those maintained by the Department of Health and Human Services (National Cancer Institute, NIOSH, and ATSDR are not site-specific, but may be used for comparison and evaluation purposes.


COMMUNITY HEALTH CONCERNS

According to the MCHD, the concerns of the community with respect to the Waldick Aerospace Devices Inc. site have focused upon those issues associated with the potential for contamination of potable water supplies, and the potential for domestic well contamination. Past meetings regarding site issues were reported by MCHD to have been widely attended by area residents.


ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND OTHER HAZARDS

To identify possible facilities that could contribute to contamination of environmental media near the Waldick Aerospace Devices Inc. site, the ATSDR and the NJDOH searched the 1987 and 1988 Toxic Release Inventory (TRI). TRI is developed by the USEPA from the chemical release (air, water, and soil) information provided by certain industries. Upon review and evaluation, TRI was not found to contain information on toxic chemical release in the vicinity of the Waldick Aerospace Devices Inc. site which was pertinent to the contaminants and pathways of concern at the site.

A. On-Site Contamination

Refer to pages 3 through 4 in the health assessment document (Appendix 6).

B. Off-Site Contamination

Off-site contamination was the principal focus of the second operable unit RI/FS. The investigation was initiated in August 1988, and completed in November 1988. In summary, field work during this investigation consisted of: the installation of off-site monitoring wells to 3 distinct depths in the underlying Kirkwood Cohansey aquifer, collection of subsurface soil, groundwater, surfacewater, and sediment samples, and the identification of the presence and use of private wells downgradient of the site.

The primary findings of the second operable unit RI/FS may be summarized as follows:

* Off-site groundwater quality has been impacted by the Waldick Aerospace Devices Inc. site. Contamination by VOC's and metals emanating from the site has been documented. Table 1 summarizes the off-site groundwater contamination detected in monitoring wells during the second operable unit RI/FS. In addition, possible health risks may be associated with the non-potable domestic use of contaminated groundwater. According to the RI/FS, the risk is reported to be above target risk levels typically established for Superfund sites.

* Off-site subsurface soils have been contaminated by volatile and semivolatile compounds, and metals emanating from the site. Table 2 summarizes off-site contamination of subsurface soils detected during the second operable unit RI/FS.

* Off-site surface water samples exhibited relatively insignificant levels of contamination (Tetrachloroethylene 2.0 ppb. maximum, and Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate 79.0 ppb. maximum) which could not be definitively ascribed to the site.

* Off-site sediments collected from Hannabrand Brook exhibited significant contamination by volatile and semi-volatile compounds. Table 3 summarizes off-site sediment contamination detected in the second operable unit RI/FS.

C. Quality Assurance and Quality Control

In preparing this Public Health Assessment, ATSDR and NJDOH rely on the information provided in the referenced documents, and assume that adequate quality assurance and quality control measures were followed with regard to chain-of-custody, laboratory procedures, and data reporting. The validity of the analyses and conclusions drawn for this Health Assessment is determined by the availability and reliability of the referenced information.

D. Physical and Other Hazards

The site contains no obvious or discernible physical hazards. On-site buildings are secured against unauthorized entry. The site perimeter is fenced to prevent unauthorized access. There are no known or suspected radiological or biological hazards associated with the site.


PATHWAYS ANALYSES

To determine whether nearby residents are exposed to contaminants associated with the site, ATSDR evaluates the environmental and human components that lead to human exposure. This pathways analysis consists of five elements: A source of contamination, transport through an environmental medium, a point of exposure, a route of human exposure, and an exposed population.

An exposure pathway is categorized as a completed or potential exposure pathway if the exposure pathway cannot be eliminated. A completed exposure pathway occurs when the five elements of an exposure pathway link the contaminated source to a receptor population. Should a completed exposure pathway exist in the past, present, or future, the population is considered exposed. A potential exposure pathway exists when one or more of the five elements is missing, or if modeling is performed to replace real sampling data. Potential pathways indicate that exposure to a contaminant could have occurred in the past, could be occurring now, or could occur in the future. An exposure pathway can be eliminated if at least one of the five elements is missing and will never be present. The discussion that follows incorporates only those pathways that are important and relevant to the site.

Based upon current site conditions and review of information describing the nature and extent of on-site and off-site contamination, completed and potential human exposure pathways may be identified. Tables 6 and 7 provide a summary of completed and potential human exposure pathways regarding the GSC/SJCC site.

A. Completed Exposure Pathways

Refer to the health assessment document (Appendix 6) sections: "B. Environmental Pathways" page 7, and "C. Human Exposure Pathways" page 7 through 8.

Current site data and information do not indicate completed human exposure pathways associated with the Waldick Aerospace Devices site.

B. Potential Exposure Pathways

The use of private wells for non-potable domestic purposes represents a potential exposure pathway at the Waldick Aerospace Devices site. A plume of ground-water contamination emanating from the site has been documented moving in a southerly direction. Numerous (30) private wells have been identified down gradient of the site (Appendix 3). However, the off-site RI/FS appears to indicate that the ground-water contamination is hydraulically confined by the Hannabrand Brook; monitoring wells on the east side of the brook show no site-related contamination. Private wells down-gradient of the site are used extensively for irrigation and other non-potable household activities, but do not exhibit site related contamination.


PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

This section discusses the potential for health effects in persons exposed to specific contaminants, evaluate state and local databases, and address specific community health concerns. Health effects evaluations are accomplished by estimating the amount (or dose) of those contaminants that a person might come in contact with on a daily basis. This estimated exposure dose is than compared to established health guidelines. People who are exposed for some crucial length of time to contaminants of concern at levels above established guidelines are more likely to have associated illnesses or disease.

Health guidelines are developed for contaminants commonly found at hazardous waste sites. Examples of health guidelines are the ATSDRs Minimum Risk Level (MRL) and the USEPAs Reference Dose (RfD). When exposure (or dose) is below the MRL or RfD than non-cancer, adverse health effects are unlikely to occur.

MRLs are developed for each route of exposure, such as acute (less than 14 days), intermediate (15 to 364 days), and chronic (365 days and greater). ATSDR presents these MRLs in Toxicological Profiles. These chemical-specific profiles provide information on health effects, environmental transport, human exposure, and regulatory status.

A. Toxicological Evaluation

Refer to the health assessment document (Appendix 6) section "Public Health Implications" pages 8 through 12. Additionally, page 9, paragraph 6, should read:

During the second operable unit RI/FS, domestic wells were identified within a general 1/2 mile radius of the Waldick Aerospace Devices site. Thirteen of the identified wells are located upgradient. There are four wells located to the southwest of the site and slightly more than 1/2 mile distant, these would be at a side gradient to the southeasterly groundwater flow. There have been identified 30 wells located downgradient of the site on the east/south side of Hannabrand Brook (See Appendix 3).

B. Health Outcome Data Evaluation

Health outcome data for the community surrounding the Waldick Aerospace Devices Inc. site was not evaluated because there are no completed exposure pathways and no community health concerns to evaluate.

C. Community Health Concerns Evaluation

The concerns of the community regarding the Waldick Aerospace Devices Inc. site have focused upon potential contamination of domestic wells. Groundwater in the vicinity of the site flows in a southerly direction. Domestic wells which are located downgradient (Appendix 3) are hydraulically isolated from the plume emanating from the site by the Hannabrand Brook (Appendix 5). A public well system located 2 miles sidegradient of the site supplies these residences. Identified domestic wells are reported to be used for non-potable purposes. While site-related ground-water contamination has been documented, no current human exposure to contaminated groundwater is known to exist.

Non-potable well usage is also a concern of the community downgradient of the site. While the locations of private wells have been established by the USEPA during the off-site RI/FS. Off-site monitoring and private well results currently show no contamination east of Hannabrand Brook).

Public Comment Period

The New Jersey Department of Health (NJDOH) conducted a public comment period for the Public Health Assessment Addendum for the Waldick Aerospace Devices Inc. site from July 27, 1992 through August 25 1992. The Public Health Assessment Addendum document was placed in local repositories to facilitate commentary and reaction by the public at large. Additionally, the Public Health Assessment Addendum was circulated to the Monmouth County Health Department for the purpose of soliciting commentary by local health officials.

A summary of commentary received by the NJDOH and associated responses is contained in Appendix 7.


CONCLUSIONS

On the basis of the information reviewed, the ATSDR and NJDOH have concluded that the Waldick Aerospace Devices Inc. site presents no apparent public health hazard.

Available data describing non-potable domestic well quality do not presently indicate that the presence of site related contaminants.

Human exposure pathways identified in the February 29, 1988 Health Assessment are not supported by current site conditions, data and information.

A potential human exposure pathway exists with regard to the sediments of the Hannabrand Brook but human contact with these sediments is not likely. The brook is not used for recreational purposes, and physical access is difficult.


RECOMMENDATIONS

Refer to the Conclusions and Recommendations section of the Health Assessment documents. Additionally, the following adjuvant information is addended:

Recommendations and the Health Activities Recommendations Panel (HARP) Statement.

Cease/Reduce Exposure Recommendations

To prevent exposures to contaminated on-site soils and sediments of the Hannabrand Brook, access to contaminated areas should remain restricted until appropriate remedial activities are completed.

Site and Exposure Characterization Recommendations

Should additional data become available regarding characterization of off-site groundwater contamination and domestic well usage, ATSDR and NJDOH should review the public health significance of this information.


Health Activities Review Panel Statement

The data and information contained in the Public Health Assessment for the Waldick Aerospace Devices, Monmouth County, New Jersey, has been evaluated for appropriate follow-up with respect to health activities. This site is not being considered for follow-up health activities at this time. However, if data or information become available suggesting that human exposure to hazardous substances, at levels of public health concern, is currently occurring or has occurred in the past, ATSDR will reevaluate this site for any indicated follow-up. Specifically, ATSDR will reevaluate this site if additional hydrogeological data regarding the Hannabrand Brook and contaminant plume become available.


Public Health Actions

The Public Health Action Plan (PHAP) for the Waldick Aerospace Devices site contains a description of the actions to be taken by ATSDR and/or NJDOH at or in the vicinity of the site subsequent to the completion of this Public Health Assessment. The purpose of the PHAP is to ensure that this health assessment not only identifies public health hazards, but provides a plan of action designed to mitigate and prevent adverse human health effects resulting from exposure to hazardous substances in the environment. Included, is a commitment on the part of ATSDR/NJDOH to follow up on this plan to ensure that it is implemented. The public health actions to be implemented by ATSDR/NJDOH are as follows:

Public Health Actions Taken

  1. Environmental data and proposed remedial activities have been evaluated within the context of human exposure pathways and relevant public health issues.


  2. The ATSDR and the NJDOH have communicated to USEPA concerns regarding the possible human exposure pathways associated with the domestic wells located across from the Hannabrand Brook.


  3. The NJDOH has reviewed groundwater data from the USEPA subsequent to the Health Assessment of February 29, 1988 with regard to potential impact to private well downgradient of the site.

Public Health Actions Planned

  1. As necessary, ATSDR and the NJDOH will coordinate with the appropriate environmental agencies to develop plans to implement the cease/reduce exposure and site characterization recommendations contained in this health assessment.


  2. ATSDR will provide an annual follow up to this PHAP, outlining the actions completed and those in progress. This report will be placed in repositories that contain copies of this health assessment, and will be provided to persons who request it.


  3. The ATSDR and/or the NJDOH will reevaluate and expand the Public Health Action Plan (PHAP) when needed. New environmental, toxicological, health outcome data, or the results of implementing the above proposed actions may determine the need for additional actions at this site.

CERTIFICATION

The Public Health Assessment Addendum was prepared by the New Jersey Department of Health under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology and procedures existing at the time the public health assessment addendum was initiated.

Gregory V. Ulirsch
Technical Project Officer, SPS, RPB, DHAC


The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation (DHAC), ATSDR, has reviewed this Public Health Assessment Addendum and concurs with its findings.

Division Director, DHAC, ATSDR


PREPARERS OF ADDENDUM

James Pasqualo
ATSDR Health Assessment Project Manager
Environmental Health Service
New Jersey State Department of Health

ATSDR REGIONAL REPRESENTATIVE

Arthur Block
Regional Operations
Office of the Assistant Administrator, ATSDR

ATSDR TECHNICAL PROJECT OFFICER

Gregory V. Ulirsch
Environmental Health Engineer
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
Remedial Programs Branch


REFERENCES

The following references should be added to those cited:

  1. Final Remedial Investigation Report For the Off-Site RI/FS at the Waldick Aerospace Devices Site, Wall Township, Monmouth County, New Jersey. Volumes 1 and 2, Ebasco Services Incorporated, April 1990.


  2. Draft Proposed Plan: Remediation of Groundwater Contamination, Waldick Aerospace Devices Site, USEPA: January 1991.

TABLES

Table 1 - Offsite Groundwater Contamination; Waldick Aerospace Devices Inc. Site, Wall Township, N.J.

Maximum Concentrations in ppb. Detected in Sampling Rounds 1 and 2.
Compound
Deep Wells
Int. Wells
Shallow Wells
MCL*
Trans 1,2 Dichloroethylene
ND
14.0
1.0
1
Carbon Disulfide
1.5
ND
ND
NA
Chloroform
ND
1.4
1.4
NA
Trichloroethylene
0.6
33.0
6.0
1
Tetrachloroethylene
ND
320.0
470.0
1
Toluene
5.0
4.0
4.0
2000
2-Butanone
ND
11.0
7.0
NA
Ethyl Benzene
3.0
ND
ND
700
Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate
31.0
42.0
9.0
NA
Phenol
2.0
ND
ND
NA
 
Arsenic
69.5
6.1
2.7
50
Beryllium
11.2
1.1
5.2
NA
Cadmium
29.5
13.1
144.0
10
Chromium
604.0
1,330.0
466.0
50
Copper
72.1
181.0
148.0
1,000
Lead
120.0
15.2
79.9
50
Nickel
454.0
879.0
201.0
NA
Selenium
11.7
3.6
3.3
10
Zinc
565.0
68.4
154.0
5,000
 
Cyanide
ND
ND
9.5
NA
Lindane
ND
ND
0.06
NA
Endosulfan II
ND
0.3
ND
NA
Endosulfan Sulfate
ND
0.4
0.19
NA

NA = Not available.
ND = Not detected.
* = Maximum Contaminant Level

Data from Final Remedial Investigation Report (Offsite RI/FS);
Ebasco Services Inc., April 1990.


Table 2 - Off-Site Subsurface Soils; Waldick Aerospace Devices Inc. Site, Wall Township, N.J.

Compound
Conc. (ppb)
FBG*
 
Carbon Disulfide
150.0
44
 
1,1,1 Trichloroethane
6.0
26
 
Tetrachloroethylene
74.0
71
 
 
Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate
710.0
5
 
1,4 Dichlorobenzene
35.0
12
 
Diethylphthalate
14.0
12
 
Phenanthrene
9.0
12
 
Di-n-butyl phthalate
36.0
12
 
Pyrene
17.0
12
 
Fluoranthene
12.0
12
 
 
Metals
Conc. (ppm)
FBG*
CO**
Arsenic
11.0
71
20
Beryllium
1.9
71
1
Cadmium
137.0
10
3
Chromium
38.0
71
100
Mercury
0.5
71
1
Nickel
17.7
31
100
Selenium
1.3
71
4

* = Feet Below grade
** = New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection And Energy cleanup objective.

Data from Final Remedial Investigation Report (Offsite RI/FS);
Ebasco Services Inc., April 1990.


Table 3 - Off Site Sediments (Hannabrand Brook); Waldick Aerospace Devices Inc. Site, Wall Township, N.J.

Compound Maximum Concentrations (ppb).
Toluene
Phenol
2-Chlorophenol
1,4-Dichlorobenzene
N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene
Naphthalene
4-Chloro-3-methylphenol
2-Methylnapthalene
Acenaphthene
4-Nitrophenol
Dibenzofuran
Fluorene
Pentachlorophenol
Phenanthrene
Anthracene
Di-n-butylphthalate
Fluoranthene
Pyrene
Benzo(a)anthracene
Chrysene
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
Benzo(a)pyrene
Ideno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene
Benzo(g,h,i)perylene
Bis(2-chloroisopropyl)ether
Methylphenol
19.0
11,000.0
10,000.0
4,600.0
4,800.0
5,300.0
1,700.0
6,300.0
940.0
7,600.0
11,000.0
1,900.0
3,000.0
9,800.0
12,000.0
4,700.0
76.0
9,200.0
12,000.0
4,100.0
3,900.0
2,800.0
2,100.0
3,000.0
1,000.0
360.0
1,000.0
5,300.0
1,700.0
 
Inorganics (ppm)
Arsenic
Chromium
Copper
Lead
Selenium
Zinc
1.1
12.0
10.0
29.1
1.1
18.1

Data from Final Remedial Investigation Report (Offsite RI/FS);
Ebasco Services Inc., April 1990.


APPENDICES

General Site Location Map
Appendix 1. General Site Location Map.

General Site Map
Appendix 2. General Site Map.

Downgradient Private Wells
Appendix 3. Downgradient Private Wells.

Known Horizontal Extent of VOC Contamination in Groundwater
Appendix 4. Known Horizontal Extent of VOC Contamination in Groundwater.

Known Vertical Extent of VOC Contamination in Groundwater
Appendix 5. Known Vertical Extent of VOC Contamination in Groundwater.


APPENDIX 6: PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT FOR WALDICK AEROSPACE DEVICES SITE


PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

WALDICK AEROSPACE DEVICES, INC.
WALL TOWNSHIP, MONMOUTH COUNTY, NEW JERSEY
EPA FACILITY ID: NJDO54981337

February 29, 1988


TABLE OF CONTENTS

SUMMARY

BACKGROUND

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND PHYSICAL HAZARDS

DEMOGRAPHICS OF POPULATION NEAR SITE

EVALUATION

PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

PREPARERS OF THE REPORT

REFERENCES

APPENDIX


SUMMARY

The 1.72-acre Waldick Aerospace Devices site is located at 2121 Highway 35 in the Sea Girt section of Wall Township, Monmouth County, New Jersey. Surface soils and ground water are contaminated with volatile organic chemicals, petroleum hydrocarbons, chromium, and cadmium; building interiors are contaminated by a wide variety of process chemicals and pesticides. The nearest residence is located approximately one-quarter mile southeast of the site. A September 29, 1987, Record of Decision (ROD) addresses contaminant source control (buildings and on-site soils) as the first operable unit of ultimate site remediation. The contaminated buildings are currently vacant, and adequate remedial cleanup measures will be implemented before returning the buildings to service. Although there are small, on-site areas with high concentrations of soil contaminants, the areas are vegetated and partially fenced to discourage trespassing. Access to these areas should be restricted until the soils are decontaminated or removed as proposed in the ROD. The ROD further indicates that off-site migration of contaminants will be addressed in a future, operable unit study.


BACKGROUND

A. SITE DESCRIPTION

The Waldick Aerospace site is an EPA-lead site ranked number 258 within the sixth group of the June 1986 National Priorities List. The 1.72-acre site is an abandoned manufacturing and metal plating facility located on Route 35 in Wall Township, Monmouth County, New Jersey.

From 1979 to 1985, Waldick Aerospace Devices, Inc., operated a manufacturing and electroplating facility on the site. These operations produced cadmium-plated quick-release pins for the aerospace industry. The site contains three buildings. The main building, located along the southern end of the property, formerly severed as the principal manufacturing facility. An auxiliary building, located along the western boundary of the site, was used to store reagents, solvents, and other chemicals. The third and northern most building was not used by Waldick Aerospace and operated as a separate storefront. This third building in recent years has operated as a retail paint store and most recently as a sprinkler system equipment supplier. The third building, under its current operation, is isolated from the site proper by a stockade fence.

In June 1982, a joint inspection of the Waldick Aerospace facility conducted by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP), the Monmouth County Division of Criminal Justice, and the Monmouth County Board of Health (MCBH) revealed that a series of degreasing, dip, rinse, and plating tanks, as well as polishing machine were discharging waste water directly to the exterior ground surface just south of the main facility. Toward the front of the main building, sink drains were also discharging wastewater directly to the ground surface. Runoff from the discharge flowed across the front lawn. In addition, used machine oil was allowed to drain out of perforated drums onto the ground at the rear (western side) of the main building.

During January through March, 1983, the company implemented limited remedial measures under the supervision and order of NJDEP. Remedial measures included the installation of four monitoring wells on-site with associated ground water and soil sampling. The subsequent analyses of soil and ground water samples demonstrated significant contamination and led to a June 1983, excavation of approximately 40 cubic feet of soil from the southeast corner of the main building and the two feet (also approximately 40 cubic feet) of top soil from an area behind the main building.

In October of 1984, after remedial activities by the responsible parties, MCBH noted that ground water samples from the on-site monitoring wells demonstrated levels of cadmium greater than the National Primary Drinking Water Standard of 0.01 mg/l. It was further noted that the cadmium levels were significantly elevated with respect to the February 1983 samples by NJDEP. Additional soil sampling and excavation were recommended. In January of 1985, MCBH found the site to be vacant.

EPA Region II initiated a remedial investigation in the spring of 1985 with preliminary sampling at and around the site in May and June. The field work for the remedial investigation began in November of 1985 and was completed in September of 1986. During December 1985 and January 1986, a detailed inspection of on-site buildings revealed a large number of process chemicals in poorly sealed and unmarked containers. During subsequent visits, the materials were tested for composition and compatibility, inventoried, segregated, and relocated to the main building for secured storage. Materials were later taken off-site to a waste broker for storage/disposal. The draft Remedial Investigation (RI) Report was completed in March 1987; the draft Feasibility Study (FS) was completed in May 1987. The RI documented the existence of three sources of soil contamination around the main building. In addition, the interiors of the two buildings were considered to constitute additional contaminant sources. The RI could not, however, detail the extent of ground water contamination or contaminant impact upon the nearby Hannabrand Brook. Accordingly, the FS addressed only on-site source contamination as the first operable unit for the Waldick Aerospace site.

The ROD for the source control operable unit includes 1) in-situ air stripping of contaminated soils, 2) excavation and off-site disposal of treated soils remaining above action levels, 3) appropriate remediation of on-site buildings by decontamination or demolition, and 4) installation of additional ground water monitoring wells, establishment of an environmental monitoring program, complete fencing of the site, and well and deed restrictions. Subsequently, the ground water, surface water, and stream sediments will be characterized more fully in a separate off-site RI/FS and lead to a second operable unit ROD.


ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND PHYSICAL HAZARDS

A. ON-SITE CONTAMINATION

1. Buildings
To identify and evaluate the contaminants remaining in the buildings, the RI contractor utilized both wipe sampling of surfaces as well as concrete sampling via excavation. Total petroleum hydrocarbons were found at fairly high levels in wipe samples from both the main and auxiliary buildings. The presence of these compounds may have masked the presence of more toxic compounds. Due to the unusually high detection limits, the contaminants will be listed only qualitatively.

a. Main Building
During the initial inspection of the RI, the concrete floor was reported to be visibly contaminated in several areas with a thick film of lubricating oil(s). It was further reported that the painted cinder-block walls had grease and oil marks over most of the surface.

The primary contaminants identified by general category were:

Petroleum Related Pesticide Dyestuff Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbon
pentadecane
hexadecane
lindane
heptachlor-epoxide
heptachlor
aldrin
endosulfan
N-nitrophenol
methyl-napthalene
3,3-'dichloro-benzidine
benz[a]-anthracene
benzo[a]-pyrene
fluorene
phenanthrene

Also evident were the members of the phthalate plasticizer family and eicosane.

b. Auxiliary Building
As with the Main Building, reports of the initial inspection indicated areas of the concrete floor contaminated with an oil coat. The primary contaminants identified by general category were:

Pesticide Polynuclear
Aromatic
Hydrocarbon
4,4-DDT
4,4-DDE
heptachlor
methylene chloride
benzo[a]pyrene
fluorene
phenanthrene

Also evident were members of the phthalate plasticizer family as well as the rubber accelerator, N-nitrosodiphenylamine.

2. Soil:
The levels shown are the highest of those recorded for tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), and total dichloroethylenes (DCE).

Location
Main Bldg.-
Main Bldg.
Main Bldg.
 
Auto
Supply
Front
Rear
Depth (ft)
1
2
1
2
3.5
1
1.9
3
Indicator
mg/kg
               
PCE
6,400
.630
4.9
1.0
 
.58
4.6
>.14
TCE
47
             
DCE
.37
             
Cd
16,200
288
520
1,420
139
     
Cr
4,390
66
           

3. Ground Water:

Indicator
ug/l
Max
Min
No.*
PCE
62
ND
2/4
TCE
17
ND
3/4
DCE
6
ND
1/4
VC
16
ND
1/4
Cr
19
4.9
4/4

VC: Vinyl Chloride
ND: Non-detected
*: Samples with quantifiable levels per total samples

B. OFF-SITE CONTAMINATION

1. Ground Water:

Indicator
ug/l
Max
Min
No.*
PCE
660
ND
6/9
TCE
0.3
ND
1/7
Cd
189
ND
4/8
Cr
174
8
9/9

ND: Non-detected
*: Samples with quantifiable levels per total samples

2. Surface Water/Sediment:

Indicator
ug/l;ug/kg
Sample Location
 
Up Stream
 
Lateral
 
Down Stream
 
1
2
3
4
5
TCE          
   Surface Water
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
   Sediment
12
14
14
13
9
PCE          
   Surface Water
ND
ND
ND
3
3
   Sediment
ND
ND
36
2
ND
Cr          
   Surface Water
10
10
11
9
15
   Sediment
3000
5000
3000
6000
4000

ND: Non-detected

C. PHYSICAL HAZARDS

It is reported that the EPA removal team evaluated all existing access routes and pedestrian traffic and concluded that the existing site security was adequate. On-site conditions would seem to offer minimal physical hazards and then only to site trespassers. The ROD will implement complete site fencing.


DEMOGRAPHICS OF POPULATION NEAR SITE

Historically the area associated with the site has been agricultural and recreational in nature, but in recent years commercial and industrial development has increased due to the close proximity to New York City (approximately 65 miles), Philadelphia (approximately 70 miles), major highways such as the New Jersey Garden State Parkway, and the state's overall economic growth. Employment in the private sector has increased by 42 percent for 1977 to 1985. Construction has increased by 80 percent since 1977 to meet the demand for new housing and office space.

According to the Monmouth County planning Board, the population of Wall Township has increased from 18,952 in 1980 to 20,447 in 1985 which represents a 7 percent increase over a five year period. It is estimated that the township population will increase to 32,000 by the year 2010. The median age for Wall Township as of 1980 was 34.0 and the 1980 median household income was $21,070. The unemployment rate for 1985 was 3.9 percent which was below the Monmouth County level of 4.8 percent. Highway 35 is an industrial-commercial corridor that separates largely undeveloped land to the west from developed land to the east. Land use west of the highway consists mainly of woodland, agriculture, and scattered residential areas, although a 20-unit housing development is currently planned just north of the site. East of the highway, most properties are residential, with some waterways and recreational areas. The nearest residence to the site is one-quarter mile to the southeast. The few residential wells present in this area are used for irrigation. The nearest drinking water well is on a residential property approximately three-eights mile upgradient of the site.


EVALUATION

A. SITE CHARACTERIZATION (DATA NEEDS AND EVALUATION)

1. Environmental Media
The RI included sampling of the reasonably discrete media: on-site buildings, soil, ground water, surface water and sediment. The results of the RI concluded that although all contaminated media were studied, only two (soils and buildings) had been characterized sufficiently to proceed with the FS to develop and evaluate remedial alternatives for the site. For this reason, the September 29, 1987, ROD has separated on-site source control as the first operable unit for ultimate site remediation. Ground water, surface water and sediments will be characterized more fully in a separate and subsequent RI/FS and lead to a second operable unit ROD.

Until such time as environmental sampling data from this second RI are available, public health implication of ground water, surface water, and sediment related environmental pathways cannot be fully assessed.

2. Land Use and Demographics
As of the present, the third building on-site is being operated as a sprinkler system equipment supplier. This third building is isolated from the site proper by a stockade fence. The site proper is vacant and reported secure.

The area of the site is commercial in nature and will likely remain so. Remediation as delineated by the ROD should render the site suitable again for commercial operation.

3. Quality Control and Quality Assurance
All discussion, conclusions, and recommendations within this report assume the adequacy of quality control and quality assurance measures as performed by contract field and laboratory representatives during the conduct of the RI.

B. ENVIRONMENTAL PATHWAYS

The environmental pathways associated with this site are as follows:

1. The release to the atmosphere of volatilized on-site soil contaminants and/or the wind erosion and suspension of on-site, soil-originated, contaminant-laden dust particles.

2. The release and transport of soil contaminants to area ground waters via the infiltration and percolation of precipitation.

3. The discharge to Hannabrand Brook of site contaminants via hydraulic interconnection of the brook with the Cohansey Sand aquifer.

4. The physical contamination associated with on-site soils and buildings from previous industrial practices of Waldick Aerospace.

C. HUMAN EXPOSURE PATHWAYS

The exposure pathways associated with the identified environmental pathways are as follows:

1. The inhalation of volatilized site contaminants or contaminant-laden particulates.

2. The ingestion and inhalation of site-related contaminants via the usage of contaminated surface waters of Hannabrand Brook or ground waters of the Cohansey Sand or Kirkwood aquifers as potable water sources.

3. The ingestion of site-related contaminants via consumption of fish and other aquatic life native to Hannabrand Brook.

4. The dermal contact with contaminated waters and/or sediments of Hannabrand Brook.

5. The ingestion of site-related contaminants via consumption of garden vegetables and fruits grown with the aid of irrigation waters drawn from the Cohansey Sand or Kirkwood aquifers.

6. The ingestion of or dermal contact with on-site contaminated soils.

7. The dermal absorption of contaminants from the interior walls and floors of the on-site buildings.


PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

The public health implications associated with the previously identified exposure pathways are as follows:

1. The inhalation of volatilized site contaminants or contaminant-laden particulates.

Previous waste disposal activities have resulted in contamination of on-site soils with chromium and cadmium. Epidemiological studies of workers with inhalation exposure to chromium and cadmium have shown an association between exposure and increased incidence of lung cancer. In addition, lung cancer has been induced in rats by exposing them to cadmium aerosols.

In 1983-1984, 80 cubic feet of contaminated soil were removed and disposed off-site. However, elevated soil concentrations of cadmium (16,200 mg/kg) and chromium (4,390 mg/kg) still remain on-site. Although chronic exposure of workers to dust from these contaminated soils may present a potential health concern, the risk appears to be minimal. The heavily-contaminated areas are relatively small, and surface vegetation would impede the generation of dust. In addition, workers would only occasionally have contact with these areas. The projected remedial activity consisting of excavation and off-sites disposal of contaminated soil should permanently resolve this concern. The cleanup of surface soils to the NJDEP soil objectives of 3 ppm for cadmium and 100 ppm for cadmium and 100 ppm for chromium would provide adequate protection from dust inhalation for future occupants of the site. Elevated concentrations of PCE and other volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) were detected in subsurface soil samples at the site. Some of these compounds are carcinogenic in animals and, at higher doses, can also cause noncarcinogenic toxic effects in animal and humans. However, these compounds are highly volatile, and it is not likely that high concentrations would be present in surface soils or in ambient air.

The digestion of VOCs from subsurface soils and groundwater could lead to their accumulation in air inside the on-site buildings. Chronic inhalation of indoor air is, therefore, an exposure route of potential concern. The contribution of soil contaminants to this exposure route would be eliminated by the proposed air stripping of contaminated soils under and around the buildings. Since the depth to ground water beneath the site is only 17 to 20 feet, digestion of VOCs from the water might also contribute to indoor air VOC concentrations.

2. The ingestion of site-related contaminants via the usage of contaminated surface waters of Hannabrand Brook or ground waters of the Cohansey Sand or Kirkwood aquifers as potable water sources.

The two aquifers underlying the Waldick Aerospace site included within studies of the RI were the Cohansey Sand and Kirkwood. The Cohansey Sand aquifer lies approximately 17 to 20 feet below ground surface, is composed of poorly sorted sands and gravels, and ranges in unit thickness between 30 to 35 feet. The Kirkwood lies approximately 45 to 50 feet below ground surface and is composed of fine silty sands and clays. These two aquifers are separated by a leaky clay aquitard. Based on existing geological data, these aquifers are believed to be underlain by the Hornerstown, Wenonah and Mt. Laurel Sand, Englishtown, and Raritan-Magothy aquifers.

Wells installed in the Cohansey Sand, Kirkwood, and Hornerstown formations are reported to be primarily used for irrigation and domestic use. The Wenonah and Mt. Laurel, Englishtown, and Raritan-Magothy aquifers are reported to serve principally for municipal water supply. It is reported that approximately three-quarters of the ground water removed by major wells derive from the Englishtown and Raritan-Magothy aquifers.

During the RI, a total of 17 water supply and monitoring wells were identified within a general one-half mile radius of the Waldick Aerospace site. Thirteen of the identified wells are located upgradient. The remaining four wells are located to the southwest of the site and slightly more that one-half mile distant; these wells would be at a side gradient to the norman southeasterly ground water flow gradient.

Elevated concentrations of cadmium, chromium, PCE, and other VOCs were detected in water from ground-water monitoring wells located down-gradient from the site. The water concentrations of these contaminants exceeded federal drinking water standards and acceptable health-based values. However, it was reported that no potable wells are currently drawing from areas of aquifer contamination. Therefore, there is no known human consumption of contaminated ground water.

Proposed remedial activities will include the prohibition of potable water wells in the area of the contaminant plume. Additional ground-water monitoring wells will also be installed to delineate the extent of contamination. Following implementation of these directives, it is not likely that human consumption of contaminated ground water would occur.

A low concentration of PCE (3 ppb) was detected in some water samples from Hannabrand Brook. However, there was no indication that Hannabrand Brook is being used for drinking purposes. Furthermore, even if the brook were being as a potable water source, the concentration of PCE wold be below a level of health concern.

3. The ingestion of site-related contaminants via consumption of fish and other aquatic life native to Hannabrand Brook.

NJDEP classifies Hannabrand Brook as FW2/NT/SE1. Designated uses associated with this classification are: maintenance and propagation of natural biota, swimming, secondary-contact recreation, industrial and agricultural water supply, public water supply after treatment, shellfish harvesting, and any other reasonable uses. The stream is not classified as trout maintenance waters.

It was reported that area residents fish in Hannabrand Brook and downstream in Old Mill Pond. Of the major, site-related contaminants, cadmium has the greatest potential for bioconcentration in aquatic plants and animals. No cadmium was detected in surface waters or sediments from Hannabrand Brook. However, low concentrations of PCE were detected in some surface water samples, and Pce and TCE were detected at low concentrations in some stream sediment samples. Since water and sediment concentrations of PCE and TCE are low, and because they are not significantly bioconcentrated by fish, human consumption of fish from Hannabrand Brook would not constitute a significant exposure pathway for these compounds.

4. The dermal contact with contaminated waters and/or sediments of Hannabrand Brook.

As discussed above, only low concentrations of PCE and TCE were detected in surface waters or sediments from Hannabrand Brook.

These concentrations of contaminants do not currently present health concerns for the use of Hannabrand Brook for wading or other secondary-contact recreation.

5. The ingestion of site-related contaminants via consumption of garden vegetables and fruits grown with the aid of irrigation waters of the Cohansey Sand or Kirkwood aquifers.

Cadmium can be taken up by plants and accumulated to concentrations greater than those present in the soil. Although residential irrigation wells were reported down-gradient of the site, no wells were located within the contaminant plume. Therefore, the irrigation of food crops with ground water does not currently present a health concern.

6. The ingestion of or dermal contact with on-site contaminated soils.

Oral ingestion or inhalation of cadmium leads to its accumulation in the body with preferential accumulation in the kidneys and liver. Chronic cadmium exposure in humans can damage the proximal tubules of the kidney. This lesion results in renal dysfunction characterized by proteinuria.

On-site worker activity could result in inadvertent ingestion of small amounts of soil (<100 mg/day) as the result of hand-to mouth activities such as eating, smoking, etc. If workers had long-term exposure to soil in areas of high cadmium contamination, it is possible that the ingestion of potentially toxic amounts of cadmium could occur.

On-site soils were also contaminated with chromium. However, the concentrations of chromium were less than those of cadmium, and chromium was less-widely distributed. Therefore, protecting against cadmium ingestion would simultaneously protect against chromium ingestion.

Metals, such as cadmium and chromium, are not appreciably absorbed through intact skin. Therefore, dermal exposure to soil contaminated with these chemicals does not constitute a significance exposure route.

VOCs were detected in some on-site, subsurface soil samples. However, because of their high vapor pressure, they would not be expected to be present in high concentrations in surface soil samples. Therefore, ingestion or dermal contact with surface soils would not be expected to cause significant VOC toxicity.

7. The dermal absorption of contaminants from the interior walls and floors of the on-site buildings.

Wipe samples and concrete samples from the walls and floors of the buildings were analyzed to determine the extent of indoor contamination.

Despite the high detection limits of the analytical measurements, many chemicals were detected. The kinds and quantities of chemicals that were identified varied widely between sampling locations. Among the chemicals detected were numerous carcinogens. Although workers leaning against the walls could absorb contaminants through their skin, it is not possible to accurately quantitate the amounts absorbed. Therefore, no realistic assessment of health risks by this exposure route can be offered.

In the ROD, it was proposed that the floors and walls of the buildings would be washed-down and then sealed. This remedial activity should provide adequate protection from dermal absorption of contaminants for future workers in the buildings.


CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

On- and off-site conditions as presently known pose no immediate public health risk to the population surrounding the site. To prevent exposures to contaminated on-site soils, access to the site should be restricted until appropriate remedial activities are implemented. The ROD-specified remedial alternative number 5A is sufficient to address on-site contaminant source control in terms of protecting the public health over the long-term. The additional measures associated with the first operable unit remediation activities (complete site fencing, well restrictions, and environmental monitoring) appear sufficient to protect the public health pending initiation of the off-site RI/FS and ultimate on- and off-site remediation.

The following are recommended for incorporation within aspects of the on-site source control remediation and off-site RI/FS:

1. Before returning the buildings to use, monitor indoor air VOC concentrations to insure that elevated concentrations are not present.

2. Further assess the potential for cadmium discharge to Hannabrand Brook and its subsequent bioconcentration by aquatic species.

3. Further evaluate the potential for contaminants from the site impacting the recreational use of Hannabrand Brook in the proposed off-site RI/FS.

4. Reevaluate the use of Cohansey Sand and Kirkwood waters for irrigation if future monitoring of ground water demonstrates cadmium contamination of irrigation wells.


PREPARERS OF THE REPORT

Environmental Reviewer:

Lon Q. Hesla
Environmental Health Engineer
Environmental Engineering Branch


Health Effects Reviewer:

Kenneth Orloff, Ph.D.
Toxicologist
Health Sciences Branch, OHA


Regional Representative:

William Nelson
Public Health Advisor
Field Operations Branch, OEA


Typist:

Lorraine P. Adams
Branch Secretary,
Environmental Engineering Branch


REFERENCES

1. Record Of Decision, Waldick Aerospace Devices, signed September 29, 1987, by Christopher J. Daggett, Regional Administrator, EPA Region II.

2. Draft Feasibility Study For The Waldick Aerospace Devices Site, Wall Township, New Jersey by Camp, Dresser & McKee, Inc., May 1987.

3. Draft Remedial Investigation Report For The Waldick Aerospace Devices Site, Wall Township, New Jersey, Volumes 1 and 2, by Camp, Dresser & McKee, Inc., March 1987.


APPENDIX

Record Of Decision, Waldick Aerospace Devices, signed September 29, 1987, by Christopher J. Daggett, Regional Administrator, EPA Region II.



APPENDIX 7: RESPONSE SUMMARY

This response summary represents those comments and reactions to the Public Health Assessment Addendum received during the public comment period described in the Community Concerns Evaluation section. In some cases, similar commentary was received from various sources, while other concerns specific to individuals or groups. Comments and concerns have been grouped by content where possible and are followed by the consequent response.

Comment:

A comment was received regarding the appropriateness of the selected remedial alternative for on-site soils with regard to existing and proposed residential areas in the environs of the site.

Response:

Questions regarding the suitability of the selected remedy presented in the modified Record of Decision for the Waldick Aerospace Devices Site (March 29, 1991), were directed to the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

Comment:

Comments were received which maintained that inclusion of the Waldick Aerospace Devices site onto the NPL was a political exercise and there was no environmental contamination present at the site.

Response:

There are substantial validated environmental data which establish the presence of environmental contamination.

Comment:

The Wall Township Environmental Commission requested that additional reports be supplied directly in addition to the local and State repositories. The commission also requested that additional private well sampling be conducted and, in the event the wells were found to be contaminated, usage guidelines be developed for residents.

Response:

Private well sampling conducted subsequent to this comment did not reveal site related contamination, thus an advisory and/or usage criteria were not necessary.

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