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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

WALDICK AEROSPACE DEVICES
WALL TOWNSHIP, MONMOUTH COUNTY, NEW JERSEY
EPA FACILITY ID: NJDO54981337

February 29, 1988


TABLE OF CONTENTS

SUMMARY

BACKGROUND

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND PHYSICAL HAZARDS

DEMOGRAPHICS OF POPULATION NEAR SITE

EVALUATION

PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

PREPARERS OF THE REPORT

REFERENCES

APPENDIX


SUMMARY

The 1.72-acre Waldick Aerospace Devices site is located at 2121 Highway 35 in the Sea Girt section of Wall Township, Monmouth County, New Jersey. Surface soils and ground water are contaminated with volatile organic chemicals, petroleum hydrocarbons, chromium, and cadmium; building interiors are contaminated by a wide variety of process chemicals and pesticides. The nearest residence is located approximately one-quarter mile southeast of the site. A September 29, 1987, Record of Decision (ROD) addresses contaminant source control (buildings and on-site soils) as the first operable unit of ultimate site remediation. The contaminated buildings are currently vacant, and adequate remedial cleanup measures will be implemented before returning the buildings to service. Although there are small, on-site areas with high concentrations of soil contaminants, the areas are vegetated and partially fenced to discourage trespassing. Access to these areas should be restricted until the soils are decontaminated or removed as proposed in the ROD. The ROD further indicates that off-site migration of contaminants will be addressed in a future, operable unit study.


BACKGROUND

A. SITE DESCRIPTION

The Waldick Aerospace site is an EPA-lead site ranked number 258 within the sixth group of the June 1986 National Priorities List. The 1.72-acre site is an abandoned manufacturing and metal plating facility located on Route 35 in Wall Township, Monmouth County, New Jersey.

From 1979 to 1985, Waldick Aerospace Devices, Inc., operated a manufacturing and electroplating facility on the site. These operations produced cadmium-plated quick-release pins for the aerospace industry. The site contains three buildings. The main building, located along the southern end of the property, formerly severed as the principal manufacturing facility. An auxiliary building, located along the western boundary of the site, was used to store reagents, solvents, and other chemicals. The third and northern most building was not used by Waldick Aerospace and operated as a separate storefront. This third building in recent years has operated as a retail paint store and most recently as a sprinkler system equipment supplier. The third building, under its current operation, is isolated from the site proper by a stockade fence.

In June 1982, a joint inspection of the Waldick Aerospace facility conducted by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP), the Monmouth County Division of Criminal Justice, and the Monmouth County Board of Health (MCBH) revealed that a series of degreasing, dip, rinse, and plating tanks, as well as polishing machine were discharging waste water directly to the exterior ground surface just south of the main facility. Toward the front of the main building, sink drains were also discharging wastewater directly to the ground surface. Runoff from the discharge flowed across the front lawn. In addition, used machine oil was allowed to drain out of perforated drums onto the ground at the rear (western side) of the main building.

During January through March, 1983, the company implemented limited remedial measures under the supervision and order of NJDEP. Remedial measures included the installation of four monitoring wells on-site with associated ground water and soil sampling. The subsequent analyses of soil and ground water samples demonstrated significant contamination and led to a June 1983, excavation of approximately 40 cubic feet of soil from the southeast corner of the main building and the two feet (also approximately 40 cubic feet) of top soil from an area behind the main building.

In October of 1984, after remedial activities by the responsible parties, MCBH noted that ground water samples from the on-site monitoring wells demonstrated levels of cadmium greater than the National Primary Drinking Water Standard of 0.01 mg/l. It was further noted that the cadmium levels were significantly elevated with respect to the February 1983 samples by NJDEP. Additional soil sampling and excavation were recommended. In January of 1985, MCBH found the site to be vacant.

EPA Region II initiated a remedial investigation in the spring of 1985 with preliminary sampling at and around the site in May and June. The field work for the remedial investigation began in November of 1985 and was completed in September of 1986. During December 1985 and January 1986, a detailed inspection of on-site buildings revealed a large number of process chemicals in poorly sealed and unmarked containers. During subsequent visits, the materials were tested for composition and compatibility, inventoried, segregated, and relocated to the main building for secured storage. Materials were later taken off-site to a waste broker for storage/disposal. The draft Remedial Investigation (RI) Report was completed in March 1987; the draft Feasibility Study (FS) was completed in May 1987. The RI documented the existence of three sources of soil contamination around the main building. In addition, the interiors of the two buildings were considered to constitute additional contaminant sources. The RI could not, however, detail the extent of ground water contamination or contaminant impact upon the nearby Hannabrand Brook. Accordingly, the FS addressed only on-site source contamination as the first operable unit for the Waldick Aerospace site.

The ROD for the source control operable unit includes 1) in-situ air stripping of contaminated soils, 2) excavation and off-site disposal of treated soils remaining above action levels, 3) appropriate remediation of on-site buildings by decontamination or demolition, and 4) installation of additional ground water monitoring wells, establishment of an environmental monitoring program, complete fencing of the site, and well and deed restrictions. Subsequently, the ground water, surface water, and stream sediments will be characterized more fully in a separate off-site RI/FS and lead to a second operable unit ROD.


ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND PHYSICAL HAZARDS

A. ON-SITE CONTAMINATION

1. Buildings
To identify and evaluate the contaminants remaining in the buildings, the RI contractor utilized both wipe sampling of surfaces as well as concrete sampling via excavation. Total petroleum hydrocarbons were found at fairly high levels in wipe samples from both the main and auxiliary buildings. The presence of these compounds may have masked the presence of more toxic compounds. Due to the unusually high detection limits, the contaminants will be listed only qualitatively.

a. Main Building
During the initial inspection of the RI, the concrete floor was reported to be visibly contaminated in several areas with a thick film of lubricating oil(s). It was further reported that the painted cinder-block walls had grease and oil marks over most of the surface.

The primary contaminants identified by general category were:

Petroleum Related Pesticide Dyestuff Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbon
pentadecane
hexadecane
lindane
heptachlor-epoxide
heptachlor
aldrin
endosulfan
N-nitrophenol
methyl-napthalene
3,3-'dichloro-benzidine
benz[a]-anthracene
benzo[a]-pyrene
fluorene
phenanthrene

Also evident were the members of the phthalate plasticizer family and eicosane.

b. Auxiliary Building
As with the Main Building, reports of the initial inspection indicated areas of the concrete floor contaminated with an oil coat. The primary contaminants identified by general category were:

Pesticide Polynuclear
Aromatic
Hydrocarbon
4,4-DDT
4,4-DDE
heptachlor
methylene chloride
benzo[a]pyrene
fluorene
phenanthrene

Also evident were members of the phthalate plasticizer family as well as the rubber accelerator, N-nitrosodiphenylamine.

2. Soil:
The levels shown are the highest of those recorded for tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), and total dichloroethylenes (DCE).

Location
Main Bldg.-
Main Bldg.
Main Bldg.
 
Auto
Supply
Front
Rear
Depth (ft)
1
2
1
2
3.5
1
1.9
3
Indicator
mg/kg
               
PCE
6,400
.630
4.9
1.0
 
.58
4.6
>.14
TCE
47
             
DCE
.37
             
Cd
16,200
288
520
1,420
139
     
Cr
4,390
66
           

3. Ground Water:

Indicator
ug/l
Max
Min
No.*
PCE
62
ND
2/4
TCE
17
ND
3/4
DCE
6
ND
1/4
VC
16
ND
1/4
Cr
19
4.9
4/4

VC: Vinyl Chloride
ND: Non-detected
*: Samples with quantifiable levels per total samples

B. OFF-SITE CONTAMINATION

1. Ground Water:

Indicator
ug/l
Max
Min
No.*
PCE
660
ND
6/9
TCE
0.3
ND
1/7
Cd
189
ND
4/8
Cr
174
8
9/9

ND: Non-detected
*: Samples with quantifiable levels per total samples

2. Surface Water/Sediment:

Indicator
ug/l;ug/kg
Sample Location
 
Up Stream
 
Lateral
 
Down Stream
 
1
2
3
4
5
TCE          
   Surface Water
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
   Sediment
12
14
14
13
9
PCE          
   Surface Water
ND
ND
ND
3
3
   Sediment
ND
ND
36
2
ND
Cr          
   Surface Water
10
10
11
9
15
   Sediment
3000
5000
3000
6000
4000

ND: Non-detected

C. PHYSICAL HAZARDS

It is reported that the EPA removal team evaluated all existing access routes and pedestrian traffic and concluded that the existing site security was adequate. On-site conditions would seem to offer minimal physical hazards and then only to site trespassers. The ROD will implement complete site fencing.


DEMOGRAPHICS OF POPULATION NEAR SITE

Historically the area associated with the site has been agricultural and recreational in nature, but in recent years commercial and industrial development has increased due to the close proximity to New York City (approximately 65 miles), Philadelphia (approximately 70 miles), major highways such as the New Jersey Garden State Parkway, and the state's overall economic growth. Employment in the private sector has increased by 42 percent for 1977 to 1985. Construction has increased by 80 percent since 1977 to meet the demand for new housing and office space.

According to the Monmouth County planning Board, the population of Wall Township has increased from 18,952 in 1980 to 20,447 in 1985 which represents a 7 percent increase over a five year period. It is estimated that the township population will increase to 32,000 by the year 2010. The median age for Wall Township as of 1980 was 34.0 and the 1980 median household income was $21,070. The unemployment rate for 1985 was 3.9 percent which was below the Monmouth County level of 4.8 percent. Highway 35 is an industrial-commercial corridor that separates largely undeveloped land to the west from developed land to the east. Land use west of the highway consists mainly of woodland, agriculture, and scattered residential areas, although a 20-unit housing development is currently planned just north of the site. East of the highway, most properties are residential, with some waterways and recreational areas. The nearest residence to the site is one-quarter mile to the southeast. The few residential wells present in this area are used for irrigation. The nearest drinking water well is on a residential property approximately three-eights mile upgradient of the site.


EVALUATION

A. SITE CHARACTERIZATION (DATA NEEDS AND EVALUATION)

1. Environmental Media
The RI included sampling of the reasonably discrete media: on-site buildings, soil, ground water, surface water and sediment. The results of the RI concluded that although all contaminated media were studied, only two (soils and buildings) had been characterized sufficiently to proceed with the FS to develop and evaluate remedial alternatives for the site. For this reason, the September 29, 1987, ROD has separated on-site source control as the first operable unit for ultimate site remediation. Ground water, surface water and sediments will be characterized more fully in a separate and subsequent RI/FS and lead to a second operable unit ROD.

Until such time as environmental sampling data from this second RI are available, public health implication of ground water, surface water, and sediment related environmental pathways cannot be fully assessed.

2. Land Use and Demographics
As of the present, the third building on-site is being operated as a sprinkler system equipment supplier. This third building is isolated from the site proper by a stockade fence. The site proper is vacant and reported secure.

The area of the site is commercial in nature and will likely remain so. Remediation as delineated by the ROD should render the site suitable again for commercial operation.

3. Quality Control and Quality Assurance
All discussion, conclusions, and recommendations within this report assume the adequacy of quality control and quality assurance measures as performed by contract field and laboratory representatives during the conduct of the RI.

B. ENVIRONMENTAL PATHWAYS

The environmental pathways associated with this site are as follows:

1. The release to the atmosphere of volatilized on-site soil contaminants and/or the wind erosion and suspension of on-site, soil-originated, contaminant-laden dust particles.

2. The release and transport of soil contaminants to area ground waters via the infiltration and percolation of precipitation.

3. The discharge to Hannabrand Brook of site contaminants via hydraulic interconnection of the brook with the Cohansey Sand aquifer.

4. The physical contamination associated with on-site soils and buildings from previous industrial practices of Waldick Aerospace.

C. HUMAN EXPOSURE PATHWAYS

The exposure pathways associated with the identified environmental pathways are as follows:

1. The inhalation of volatilized site contaminants or contaminant-laden particulates.

2. The ingestion and inhalation of site-related contaminants via the usage of contaminated surface waters of Hannabrand Brook or ground waters of the Cohansey Sand or Kirkwood aquifers as potable water sources.

3. The ingestion of site-related contaminants via consumption of fish and other aquatic life native to Hannabrand Brook.

4. The dermal contact with contaminated waters and/or sediments of Hannabrand Brook.

5. The ingestion of site-related contaminants via consumption of garden vegetables and fruits grown with the aid of irrigation waters drawn from the Cohansey Sand or Kirkwood aquifers.

6. The ingestion of or dermal contact with on-site contaminated soils.

7. The dermal absorption of contaminants from the interior walls and floors of the on-site buildings.


PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

The public health implications associated with the previously identified exposure pathways are as follows:

1. The inhalation of volatilized site contaminants or contaminant-laden particulates.

Previous waste disposal activities have resulted in contamination of on-site soils with chromium and cadmium. Epidemiological studies of workers with inhalation exposure to chromium and cadmium have shown an association between exposure and increased incidence of lung cancer. In addition, lung cancer has been induced in rats by exposing them to cadmium aerosols.

In 1983-1984, 80 cubic feet of contaminated soil were removed and disposed off-site. However, elevated soil concentrations of cadmium (16,200 mg/kg) and chromium (4,390 mg/kg) still remain on-site. Although chronic exposure of workers to dust from these contaminated soils may present a potential health concern, the risk appears to be minimal. The heavily-contaminated areas are relatively small, and surface vegetation would impede the generation of dust. In addition, workers would only occasionally have contact with these areas. The projected remedial activity consisting of excavation and off-sites disposal of contaminated soil should permanently resolve this concern. The cleanup of surface soils to the NJDEP soil objectives of 3 ppm for cadmium and 100 ppm for cadmium and 100 ppm for chromium would provide adequate protection from dust inhalation for future occupants of the site. Elevated concentrations of PCE and other volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) were detected in subsurface soil samples at the site. Some of these compounds are carcinogenic in animals and, at higher doses, can also cause noncarcinogenic toxic effects in animal and humans. However, these compounds are highly volatile, and it is not likely that high concentrations would be present in surface soils or in ambient air.

The digestion of VOCs from subsurface soils and groundwater could lead to their accumulation in air inside the on-site buildings. Chronic inhalation of indoor air is, therefore, an exposure route of potential concern. The contribution of soil contaminants to this exposure route would be eliminated by the proposed air stripping of contaminated soils under and around the buildings. Since the depth to ground water beneath the site is only 17 to 20 feet, digestion of VOCs from the water might also contribute to indoor air VOC concentrations.

2. The ingestion of site-related contaminants via the usage of contaminated surface waters of Hannabrand Brook or ground waters of the Cohansey Sand or Kirkwood aquifers as potable water sources.

The two aquifers underlying the Waldick Aerospace site included within studies of the RI were the Cohansey Sand and Kirkwood. The Cohansey Sand aquifer lies approximately 17 to 20 feet below ground surface, is composed of poorly sorted sands and gravels, and ranges in unit thickness between 30 to 35 feet. The Kirkwood lies approximately 45 to 50 feet below ground surface and is composed of fine silty sands and clays. These two aquifers are separated by a leaky clay aquitard. Based on existing geological data, these aquifers are believed to be underlain by the Hornerstown, Wenonah and Mt. Laurel Sand, Englishtown, and Raritan-Magothy aquifers.

Wells installed in the Cohansey Sand, Kirkwood, and Hornerstown formations are reported to be primarily used for irrigation and domestic use. The Wenonah and Mt. Laurel, Englishtown, and Raritan-Magothy aquifers are reported to serve principally for municipal water supply. It is reported that approximately three-quarters of the ground water removed by major wells derive from the Englishtown and Raritan-Magothy aquifers.

During the RI, a total of 17 water supply and monitoring wells were identified within a general one-half mile radius of the Waldick Aerospace site. Thirteen of the identified wells are located upgradient. The remaining four wells are located to the southwest of the site and slightly more that one-half mile distant; these wells would be at a side gradient to the norman southeasterly ground water flow gradient.

Elevated concentrations of cadmium, chromium, PCE, and other VOCs were detected in water from ground-water monitoring wells located down-gradient from the site. The water concentrations of these contaminants exceeded federal drinking water standards and acceptable health-based values. However, it was reported that no potable wells are currently drawing from areas of aquifer contamination. Therefore, there is no known human consumption of contaminated ground water.

Proposed remedial activities will include the prohibition of potable water wells in the area of the contaminant plume. Additional ground-water monitoring wells will also be installed to delineate the extent of contamination. Following implementation of these directives, it is not likely that human consumption of contaminated ground water would occur.

A low concentration of PCE (3 ppb) was detected in some water samples from Hannabrand Brook. However, there was no indication that Hannabrand Brook is being used for drinking purposes. Furthermore, even if the brook were being as a potable water source, the concentration of PCE wold be below a level of health concern.

3. The ingestion of site-related contaminants via consumption of fish and other aquatic life native to Hannabrand Brook.

NJDEP classifies Hannabrand Brook as FW2/NT/SE1. Designated uses associated with this classification are: maintenance and propagation of natural biota, swimming, secondary-contact recreation, industrial and agricultural water supply, public water supply after treatment, shellfish harvesting, and any other reasonable uses. The stream is not classified as trout maintenance waters.

It was reported that area residents fish in Hannabrand Brook and downstream in Old Mill Pond. Of the major, site-related contaminants, cadmium has the greatest potential for bioconcentration in aquatic plants and animals. No cadmium was detected in surface waters or sediments from Hannabrand Brook. However, low concentrations of PCE were detected in some surface water samples, and Pce and TCE were detected at low concentrations in some stream sediment samples. Since water and sediment concentrations of PCE and TCE are low, and because they are not significantly bioconcentrated by fish, human consumption of fish from Hannabrand Brook would not constitute a significant exposure pathway for these compounds.

4. The dermal contact with contaminated waters and/or sediments of Hannabrand Brook.

As discussed above, only low concentrations of PCE and TCE were detected in surface waters or sediments from Hannabrand Brook.

These concentrations of contaminants do not currently present health concerns for the use of Hannabrand Brook for wading or other secondary-contact recreation.

5. The ingestion of site-related contaminants via consumption of garden vegetables and fruits grown with the aid of irrigation waters of the Cohansey Sand or Kirkwood aquifers.

Cadmium can be taken up by plants and accumulated to concentrations greater than those present in the soil. Although residential irrigation wells were reported down-gradient of the site, no wells were located within the contaminant plume. Therefore, the irrigation of food crops with ground water does not currently present a health concern.

6. The ingestion of or dermal contact with on-site contaminated soils.

Oral ingestion or inhalation of cadmium leads to its accumulation in the body with preferential accumulation in the kidneys and liver. Chronic cadmium exposure in humans can damage the proximal tubules of the kidney. This lesion results in renal dysfunction characterized by proteinuria.

On-site worker activity could result in inadvertent ingestion of small amounts of soil (<100 mg/day) as the result of hand-to mouth activities such as eating, smoking, etc. If workers had long-term exposure to soil in areas of high cadmium contamination, it is possible that the ingestion of potentially toxic amounts of cadmium could occur.

On-site soils were also contaminated with chromium. However, the concentrations of chromium were less than those of cadmium, and chromium was less-widely distributed. Therefore, protecting against cadmium ingestion would simultaneously protect against chromium ingestion.

Metals, such as cadmium and chromium, are not appreciably absorbed through intact skin. Therefore, dermal exposure to soil contaminated with these chemicals does not constitute a significance exposure route.

VOCs were detected in some on-site, subsurface soil samples. However, because of their high vapor pressure, they would not be expected to be present in high concentrations in surface soil samples. Therefore, ingestion or dermal contact with surface soils would not be expected to cause significant VOC toxicity.

7. The dermal absorption of contaminants from the interior walls and floors of the on-site buildings.

Wipe samples and concrete samples from the walls and floors of the buildings were analyzed to determine the extent of indoor contamination.

Despite the high detection limits of the analytical measurements, many chemicals were detected. The kinds and quantities of chemicals that were identified varied widely between sampling locations. Among the chemicals detected were numerous carcinogens. Although workers leaning against the walls could absorb contaminants through their skin, it is not possible to accurately quantitate the amounts absorbed. Therefore, no realistic assessment of health risks by this exposure route can be offered.

In the ROD, it was proposed that the floors and walls of the buildings would be washed-down and then sealed. This remedial activity should provide adequate protection from dermal absorption of contaminants for future workers in the buildings.


CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

On- and off-site conditions as presently known pose no immediate public health risk to the population surrounding the site. To prevent exposures to contaminated on-site soils, access to the site should be restricted until appropriate remedial activities are implemented. The ROD-specified remedial alternative number 5A is sufficient to address on-site contaminant source control in terms of protecting the public health over the long-term. The additional measures associated with the first operable unit remediation activities (complete site fencing, well restrictions, and environmental monitoring) appear sufficient to protect the public health pending initiation of the off-site RI/FS and ultimate on- and off-site remediation.

The following are recommended for incorporation within aspects of the on-site source control remediation and off-site RI/FS:

1. Before returning the buildings to use, monitor indoor air VOC concentrations to insure that elevated concentrations are not present.

2. Further assess the potential for cadmium discharge to Hannabrand Brook and its subsequent bioconcentration by aquatic species.

3. Further evaluate the potential for contaminants from the site impacting the recreational use of Hannabrand Brook in the proposed off-site RI/FS.

4. Reevaluate the use of Cohansey Sand and Kirkwood waters for irrigation if future monitoring of ground water demonstrates cadmium contamination of irrigation wells.


PREPARERS OF THE REPORT

Environmental Reviewer:

Lon Q. Hesla
Environmental Health Engineer
Environmental Engineering Branch


Health Effects Reviewer:

Kenneth Orloff, Ph.D.
Toxicologist
Health Sciences Branch, OHA


Regional Representative:

William Nelson
Public Health Advisor
Field Operations Branch, OEA


Typist:

Lorraine P. Adams
Branch Secretary,
Environmental Engineering Branch


REFERENCES

1. Record Of Decision, Waldick Aerospace Devices, signed September 29, 1987, by Christopher J. Daggett, Regional Administrator, EPA Region II.

2. Draft Feasibility Study For The Waldick Aerospace Devices Site, Wall Township, New Jersey by Camp, Dresser & McKee, Inc., May 1987.

3. Draft Remedial Investigation Report For The Waldick Aerospace Devices Site, Wall Township, New Jersey, Volumes 1 and 2, by Camp, Dresser & McKee, Inc., March 1987.


APPENDIX

Record Of Decision, Waldick Aerospace Devices, signed September 29, 1987, by Christopher J. Daggett, Regional Administrator, EPA Region II.

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