Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to site content

PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

LOCKHEED PROPULSION COMPANY
(a/k/a LOCKHEED MARTIN PROPULSION CORPORATION)
REDLANDS, SAN BERNARDINO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA


CONCLUSIONS

Based upon the information reviewed, CDHS identified a completed exposure pathway to perchlorate-contaminated drinking water in the Loma Linda system. Individuals who are served by the City of Loma Linda's water distribution system are exposed to perchlorate at very low levels when they drink the water.

Based on the available data, there appears to be no past or current exposure to perchlorate within the City of Loma Linda system that exceeds the provisional reference dose range. This means that noncancer (thyroid depression) health effects should not have occurred or be occurring to individuals who drink water from the City of Loma Linda system.

Based on the information available at the time this public health assessment was written, CDHS concludes that no public health hazard exists from the levels of perchlorate in drinking water provided by the City of Loma Linda.


PUBLIC HEALTH RECOMMENDATIONS AND ACTIONS

The Public Health Recommendations and Actions Plan (PHRAP) for this site contains a description of actions taken, to be taken, or under consideration by ATSDR and CDHS or others at and near the site. The purpose of the PHRAP is to ensure that this public health assessment not only identifies public health hazards, but also provides a plan of action designed to mitigate and prevent adverse human health effects resulting from exposure to hazardous substances in the environment. The CDHS and ATSDR will follow-up on this plan to ensure that the actions are carried out.

Actions Completed:

  1. CDHS/EHIB collaborated with the City of Loma Linda to ascertain community concern.


  2. CDHS/EHIB collaborated with the CDHS-DDW on technical information, which is provided in this public health assessment.
Actions Planned:
  1. The Air Force and the Perchlorate Work Group (a number of manufacturers and users of perchlorate) are sponsoring an investigation into biological fate and transport questions regarding perchlorate. For instance, they will investigate if perchlorate is taken up and bioconcentrates in vegetable crops and determine the skin permeability of perchlorate.
    .
  2. The Air Force and the Perchlorate Work Group are sponsoring a series of animal studies to address some of the information lacking in understanding perchlorate toxicology.

CDHS cooperative agreement staff, along with other state and federal scientists, were asked by the Air Force to recommend and oversee the planning of the animal studies. The USEPA took over oversight responsibility for the studies in 1998.

Recommendations for Further Action:

  1. CDHS/EHIB encourages the City of Loma Linda staff to communicate with their customers about the perchlorate issue.

  2. If indicated, when new toxicological information is available, CDHS may conduct a toxicological evaluation of perchlorate exposures in drinking water the Loma Linda system.

REFERENCES

  1. California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Santa Ana Region, Cleanup and Abatement order No. 94-10 for Lockheed Corporation and the City of Redlands. January 28, 1994.

  2. Environmental Health Investigations Branch, California Department of Health Services. Health Consultation, Perchlorate Contamination in the Victoria Farms Mutual Water Company System, Lockheed Martin Propulsion Corporation, Redlands, CA. Prepared for the Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry. May 18, 1998.

  3. California Department of Health Services, Drinking Water Field Operations Branch in San Bernardino. Annual Inspection Report for the City of Loma Linda. August 22, 1995.

  4. Personal Communications with the Utilities Supervisor, Public Works Department, City of Loma Linda. July 27, 1998.

  5. California Department of Health Services, Drinking Water Field Operations Branch, San Bernardino. Perchlorate Monitoring Data: 4/29/97 through 5/28/98. June 4, 1998.

  6. National Center for Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Associate Director. Letter with attached report written to the Chairman of the Perchlorate Study Group, concerning Review of Proposed RFD for Perchlorate. October 23, 1995.

  7. Personal Communications with Sanitary Engineer, California Department of Health Services, Division of Drinking Water Field Operations Branch, San Bernardino. October 17, 1997.

  8. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Public Health Assessment Guidance Manual. Lewis: Boca Raton, 1993.

  9. Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment. Proposed Perchlorate Reference Dose (RfD), Peer Review Draft. Prepared for The Perchlorate Study Group. February 1997.

  10. J.M.C. Connell. 1981. Long-Term Use of Potassium Perchlorate. Postgraduate Medical Journal. 57: 516-517.

  11. K.W. Wenzel and J.R. Lente. 1984. Similar effects of thioamide drugs and perchlorate on thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins in Graves' Disease: Evidence against an immunosuppressive action of thioamide drugs. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 58: 62-69.

  12. D. Barzilai and M. Sheinfeld. 1966. Fatal complications following use of potassium perchlorate in thyrotoxicosis: report of two cases and review of the literature. Isr J Med Sci. 2: 453.

  13. E. Martino, F. Aghini-Lombardi, S. Mariott, M. Lenziardi, L. Baschieri, L.E. Braverman and A. Pinchera. 1986. Treatment of amiodarone associated thyrotoxicosis by simultaneous administration of potassium perchlorate and methimazole. J. Endocrinol Invest. 9: 201--207.

  14. E. Martino, F. Aghini-Lombardi, S. Morabito, M. Lenziardi, L. Baschieri, L.E. Braverman, A. Pinchera and M. Safran. 1986. Short term administration of potassium perchlorate restores euthyroidism in amiodarone iodine-induced hypothyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 63: 1233-1236.

  15. E.W.C.M. van Dam, M.F. Prummel, W.M. Wiersinga and R.E. Nikkels. 1993. Treatment of amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism with potassium perchlorate. Neth J. Med. 42: 21-24.

  16. L.J.M. Reichert and H.A.M. De Rooy. 1989. Treatment of amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism with potassium perchlorate and methimazole during amiodarone treatment. Brit Med J. 298:1547-1548.

  17. M.D. Trip, D.R. Duren and W.M. Wiersinga. 1994. Two cases of amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis successfully treated with short course of antithyroid drugs while amiodarone was continued. Br Heart J. 72: 266--268.

  18. Associate Director, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Associate Director. Memorandum to Toxicologist , U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region IX, concerning Provisional Non-cancer and Cancer Toxicity Values for Potassium Perchlorate (CASRN 7778-74-7)(Aerojet General Corp./CA). December 2, 1992.

  19. J.B Stanbury and J.B. Wyndarden. 1952. Effect of Perchlorate on the Human Thyroid Gland. Metabolism. 1: 533-539.

  20. M. Karstadt and J.K. Haseman. 1997. Effect of discounting certain tumor types/sites on evaluations of carcinogenicity in laboratory animals. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 31: 485-494.

  21. C. C. Capen. 1994. Mechanisms of chemical injury of thyroid gland. Prog Clin Biol Res. 387: 173-191.

  22. S.C. Werner. 1967. Hyperthyroidism in the pregnant woman and neonate: two discussions on hyperthyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 27: 1637-1654.

  23. A.R. Frisk and E. Josesson. 1947. Thiouracil derivatives and pregnancy. Acta Med Scand (Suppl). 196: 85-91.

  24. K. Sato, BH. Mimura, S.Kato, O. Isozaki, T. Tsushima, and K. Shizume. 1983. Serum propylthiouracil concentration in patients with Graves' disease with various clinical courses. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 104: 189-194.

  25. S. Retetoff, Y. Ochi, H.A. Selenkow and R.L. Rosenfeld. 1974. Neonatal hypothyroidism and goiter in one infant of each of two sets of twins due to maternal therapy with antithyroid drugs. J. Pediatr. 85:

  26. G.N. Burrow. 1965. Neonatal goiter after maternal propylthiouracil therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 25: 4039-4040.

  27. J.G. Thorpe-Beeston and K.H. Nicolaides. Maternal and Fetal Thyroid Function in Pregnancy. The Parthenon Group: New York, 1996.

  28. S. Postel. 1957. Placental transfer of perchlorate and triiodothryronine in the guinea pig. Endocrinol. 60: 53-66.

  29. K Brown-Grant and M. Sherwood. 1971. Viability of the rat blastocyst following the oral administration of potassium perchlorate or potassium iodide to the mother. J Reprod Fert. 27: 265-267.

PREPARERS OF REPORT

ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSORS:

Tracy Barreau
Research Specialist
Impact Assessment contractor to the Environmental Health Investigations Branch
California Department of Health Services

Marilyn C. Underwood, Ph.D.
Staff Toxicologist
Environmental Health Investigations Branch
California Department of Health Services

COMMUNITY RELATIONS COORDINATOR:

Jane Riggan, M.S.W.
Environmental Health Investigations Branch
California Department of Health Services

ATSDR REGIONAL REPRESENTATIVES:

William Nelson
Dan Strausbaugh
Gwen Eng
Regional Representatives, Region IX
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

ATSDR TECHNICAL PROJECT OFFICER:

Tammie McRae, M.S.
Environmental Health Scientist
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
Superfund Site Assessment Branch, State Programs Section


CERTIFICATION

This Public Health Assessment, Lockheed Martin Propulsion Corporation, Redlands, California, was prepared by the California Department of Health Services under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology and procedures existing at the time the public health assessment was begun.

Tammie McRae, MS
Technical Project Officer, SPS, SSAB, DHAC

The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, ATSDR, has reviewed this public health assessment and concurs with the findings.

Richard Gillig
Chief, State Program Section, DHAC, ATSDR


ATTACHMENT

Figure 1. Lockheed Martin Site and City of Loma Linda Groundwater Well Locations
Figure 1. Lockheed Martin Site and City of Loma Linda Groundwater Well Locations


Table 1.

Perchlorate levels in the City of Loma Linda's water supply wells a
Well Name & Status Well Depth (feet) Perchlorate Levels (ppb or µg/L)b
(raw water source)
Sample Date 5/21/97 6/17/97 7/2/97 8/7/97 9/4/97 10/1/97 11/3/97 12/3/97 12/11/97
Mt. View #1
(Off-line as of 4/98)
750 20 ppb 19 ppb 20 ppb 19 ppb 21.8 ppb 17 ppb 17 ppb 28 ppb 22 ppb
Mt. View #2 (Active) 900 N.D.c N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. 7.6 ppb
Richardson #1 (Active) 1200 N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
Richardson #2 (Active) 970 N.D. 13 ppb N.D. N.D. N.D. 6.9 ppb N.D. 9 ppb N.D.
Richardson # 3 (Active) 815. N.S.d N.D. N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S.
Nicks (Backup) 868 N.S. N.D. N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S.
Sample Date 1/20/98 2/2/98 2/17/98 3/19/98 4/1/98 9/9/98 9/24/98 10/1/98
Mt. View #1 (Off-line) 750 23 ppb 19.2 ppb 19.1 ppb 23.6 ppb 24.6 ppb 28 ppb N.S. 29 ppb
Mt. View #2 (Active) 900 9.3 ppb N.D. N.S. 5.3 ppb 6.4 ppb 7 ppb N.S. 23 ppb
Richardson #1 (Active) 1200 N.S. N.D. N.S. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
Richardson #2 (Active) 970 N.D. 4.5 ppb N.S. N.D. 4.5 ppb 19 ppb 4.9 ppb 6.8 ppb
Richardson # 3 (Active) 815 N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S.
Nicks (Backup) 868 N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S.
a Raw Water Source Monitoring (prior to blending)
b ppb = parts per billion; µg/L = micrograms per liter
c N.S. = Indicates not sampled
d N.D. = Indicates non-detect (laboratory detection limit 4ppb)


Table 2.

Perchlorate levels in the City of Loma Linda's water supply wells: Finished Water Source (after blending)
Name and Blend Location Perchlorate Levels (ppb or µg/L)a
(finished water source)
Sample Date 5/28/98 10/15/98 3/10/98 9/9/98 9/24/98 10/1/98
Mt. View Blend (Lawton Booster Station) 7.6 ppb pending 9.6 ppb 6.5 ppb N.S.b 7.9 ppb
Mt. View Blend (Timole Booster Station) N.S. N.S. N.S. N.D.c N.S. 5.2 ppb
Richardson Blend (Redlands Blvd.) N.D. 6.0 ppb N.D. N.S. *24 ppbd N.D.
a ppb = parts per billion; µg/L= micrograms per liter
b N.S. = Indicates not sampled
c N.D.= Indicates non-detect (laboratory detection limit 4 ppb)
d * Data quality questionable


Table 3.

Elements of completed exposure pathway for different receptor populations. City of Loma Linda's domestic water supply. Redlands, CA. 1997-1998.
Receptor Group
Pathway Name
Source Environmental Medium Point of Exposure Route of Exposure Exposed Population Time
Residential Exposure in the Loma Linda System Lockheed Propulsion Corp. Groundwater House Tap Ingestion Residents Past / Present
Worker Exposure in the Loma Linda System Lockheed Propulsion Corp. Groundwater Business Tap Ingestion Worker Past / Present
Frequent Visitor or Customer to a Business in the Loma Linda System Lockheed Propulsion Corp. Groundwater House or Business Tap Ingestion Frequent Visitor or Customer Past / Present

Table of Contents

  
 
USA.gov: The U.S. Government's Official Web PortalDepartment of Health and Human Services
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 4770 Buford Hwy NE, Atlanta, GA 30341
Contact CDC: 800-232-4636 / TTY: 888-232-6348

A-Z Index

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E
  6. F
  7. G
  8. H
  9. I
  10. J
  11. K
  12. L
  13. M
  14. N
  15. O
  16. P
  17. Q
  18. R
  19. S
  20. T
  21. U
  22. V
  23. W
  24. X
  25. Y
  26. Z
  27. #