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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

MARCH AIR FORCE BASE
(a.k.a. MARCH AIR FORCE BASE)
MARCH AIR FORCE BASE, RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA
EPA FACILITY ID: CA4570024527

March 13, 2001

Prepared By:

Federal Facilities Assessment Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry


TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACRONYMS, ABBREVIATIONS, AND GLOSSARY

SUMMARY

I. BACKGROUND

II. EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION, EXPOSURE PATHWAYS, AND THE PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

  1. GREEN ACRES MILITARY FAMILY HOUSING-PAST, CURRENT, AND FUTURE EXPOSURE TO CONTAMINANTS
    1. Pesticides
      1. Pesticides in Indoor Air at Green Acres
        1. Air Sampling
        2. Human Exposure Routes
        3. Evaluation of Public Health Implications of Exposure
      2. Crawl Space Soils at Green Acres
    2. Lead at Green Acres
    3. Asbestos at Green Acres


  2. EXPOSURE TO VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM GROUND WATER
    1. Volatile Organic Compounds and Boron in the On-Base Ground Water Supply
    2. Volatile Organic Compounds in the Off-Base Ground Water Supply


  3. PAST EXPOSURE TO CONTAMINANTS AT ARNOLD HEIGHTS MILITARY FAMILY HOUSING

III. COMMUNITY HEALTH CONCERNS

  1. Was runoff from Site 40 (Landfill#8) a public health hazard?
  2. Is mercury in hospital plumbing a public health hazard?
  3. Is there radioactive contamination and is it a public health hazard?
  4. Public Discussions
  5. ATSDR Children Health Initiative

IV. HEALTH OUTCOME DATA

V. OVERALL CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

VI. REFERENCES

VII. PREPARERS OF THIS REPORT

TABLES

FIGURES

APPENDICES


LIST OF TABLES

  1. GREEN ACRES MILITARY FAMILY HOUSING-ASBESTOS, LEAD, AND PESTICIDES


  2. PESTICIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN CRAWL SPACE SOIL GREEN ACRES MILITARY FAMILY HOUSING


  3. INDOOR AIR PESTICIDE CONCENTRATIONS-1996 GREEN ACRES MILITARY FAMILY HOUSING


  4. INDOOR AIR PESTICIDE CONCENTRATIONS-1997 GREEN ACRES MILITARY FAMILY HOUSING


  5. 1994 SOIL SAMPLES AT DRIPLINE OF GREEN ACRES MILITARY FAMILY HOUSING AND MODELED BLOOD LEAD LEVELS IN CHILDREN


  6. NO APPARENT PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARD SITUATION: ON-BASE WATER SUPPLY


  7. BASE PRODUCTION WELLS


  8. CONCENTRATIONS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND BORON IN MARCH AFB'S WATER SYSTEM FROM 1978 to 19831


  9. IRP SITES POSSIBLY CONTRIBUTING TO GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION THAT IMPACTED THE BASE PRODUCTION WELLS


  10. RISK CALCULATIONS


  11. NO APPARENT PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARD SITUATION: OFF-BASE WATER SUPPLY


  12. CONCENTRATIONS OF PCE AND TCE IN OFF-BASE PRIVATE WELLS FROM 1986 TO 1990

LIST OF FIGURES

  1. SITE MAP OF MARCH AIR FORCE BASE
  2. MARCH AFB PRODUCTION WELLS
  3. WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM AT MARCH AFB FROM 1960s TO 1983
  4. LOCATION OF OFF-BASE PRIVATE WELLS AND GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION

LIST OF APPENDICES

APPENDIX A. POPULATION DATA AND CENSUS TRACT MAP
APPENDIX B. SUMMARY OF SITE EVALUATIONS
APPENDIX C. PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT CONCLUSION CATEGORIES
APPENDIX D. CALCULATIONS OF RISK FOR EXPOSURE SITUATIONS
APPENDIX E. AMOUNT OF WATER PRODUCED FROM THE WATER TREATMENT PLANT AND PRODUCTION WELLS MARCH AIR FORCE BASE, 1964-1984
APPENDIX F. LIST OF CONSTITUENTS ANALYZED FOR IN DRINKING WATER SOURCES AND TAP WATER, 1978-1983
APPENDIX G. PAST CONCENTRATIONS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND BORON IN DRINKING WATER SOURCES, MARCH AIR FORCE BASE, 1978-1983
APPENDIX H. CONCENTRATIONS OF TRICHLOROETHENE AND TETRACHLOROETHENE IN OFF-BASE PRIVATE WELLS AND BPW-6 FROM 1986 TO 1990, MARCH AIR FORCE BASE
APPENDIX I. DISCUSSION ON CANCER RISKS AND THE AIR FORCE RISK ASSESSMENT OF GREEN ACRES MILITARY FAMILY HOUSING
APPENDIX J. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON DDT (INCLUDING DDD AND DDE) AND DIELDRIN

ACRONYMS, ABBREVIATIONS, AND GLOSSARY

AFB Air Force Base
AFBCA Air Force Base Conversion Agency
AFRC Air Force Reserve Command
AOC Area of Concern. A natural or man made area or unit that may contain hazardous chemicals or waste.
ATSDR Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
adverse health effects negative or unwanted effects on the health of an individual; for example, effects may include a specific illness or a general decrease in the overall health of a person
aerobic Requiring oxygen
anaerobic Requiring the absence of oxygen
aquifer A geologic (rock) formation through which ground water moves and that is capable of producing water in sufficient quantities for a well
BHC Hexachlorocyclohexane or HCH. Hexachlorocyclohexane is a manufactured chemical that does not occur naturally in the environment. It exists in eight chemical forms (called isomers). The gamma isomer is also known as lindane. BHCs are insecticides that have been used on fruit, vegetable, and forest crops and in ointments to treat head and body lice, and scabies.
BPW Base production well
biodegradation Decomposition of a substance through the action of microorganisms or other natural environmental factors
blank sample An artificial or clean "sample" designed to monitor the introduction of artifacts into the measurement process. The blank is taken through all appropriate steps of the process. There are four types of blank samples: 1) Equipment Blanks - clean "samples" which are opened in the field and the contents brought into contact with the sample collection device, collected in a sample container, and returned to the laboratory as a sample. Equipment blanks are used to check on sampling device cleanliness; 2) Field Blank - a clean "sample" that has not been exposed to the sample stream but has been carried to the sampling site and exposed to sampling conditions (bottle caps removed, preservatives added), sample preparation (reagents), and the measurement system; 3) Laboratory Blank (LB) - A blank sample used as a baseline for the point of comparison. For example, a blank is processed and prepared for analyses along with field samples, and used to adjust or correct routine analytical results; and, 4) Laboratory Matrix Blank (LMB) - A clean, unused sampling matrix (filter, XAD resin, etc.) which is processed through the preparation and analytical method to establish baseline concentrations in the sampling media and identify any artifacts (Environment Canada 1994).
CADHS California Department of Health Services
CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act
CREG Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide (CREG) is a concentration in air, soil, or water at which a person's risk of cancer after exposure for 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, and for 70 years is 1 x 10-6. Cancer risk assessments are typically only done on adults since animal studies are typically done on animals after they have reached puberty.
CSF See Cancer slope factor.

Cancer slope factor

The slope of the oral dose-response curve for cancer. This value is derived by EPA and maintained on its IRIS database and used to estimate the risk from carcinogens.

Comparison Values or CVs A concentration of a given contaminant in soil, water, or air below which no adverse human health effects are expected to occur. Comparison values are used by ATSDR health assessors to select environmental contaminants for further evaluation and can be based on either carcinogenic effects or noncarcinogenic effects.
conduit A natural or artificial channel through which materials such as fluids are transported; for example, a water well
Detection limit or method detection limit Minimum (concentration) of chemical that is detectable at a known confidence limit
DDD 1,1-dichloro-2,2- bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane. A chemical component in technical grade DDT and a breakdown product of DDT. DDD also has been used as a pesticide and to treat cancer.
DDE 1,1-dichloro-2,2- bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene. A chemical component in technical grade DDT and a breakdown product of DDT.
DDT 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane. A chemical introduced in the U.S. which was widely used to control insects on agricultural crops and insects that carry diseases like malaria and typhus
DOD United States Department of Defense
EMEG Environmental Media Evaluation Guide (EMEG)-A concentration in air, soil, or water below which no adverse non-cancer health effects are expected to occur. EMEGs are derived from ATSDR's Minimal Risk Levels (MRL), and are expressed for acute, intermediate, and chronic exposures. They are used in selecting environmental contaminants for further evaluation.
EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency
EBS Environmental Baseline Survey is a report documenting the bases environmental status.
Feasibility Study A study conducted to determine the best alternative for remediating environmental contamination based on a number of factors including health risk and costs
gpm Gallons per minute
ground water Water beneath the earth's surface in the spaces between soil particles and in rock
HUD U.S. Housing and Urban Development
HVAC Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning system
HI/HQ
hazard index/quotient
Hazard Quotient (HQ): A comparison of the daily human exposure to a substance to the Minimum Risk Level (MRL). The value is used as an assessment of non-cancer associated toxic effects of chemicals, e.g., kidney or liver dysfunction. It is independent of a cancer risk, which is calculated only for those chemicals identified as carcinogens. A hazard index or quotient of 1 or less is generally considered safe. A ratio greater than 1 suggests further evaluation.

Hazard Index: A summation of the HQ for all chemicals being evaluated. A Hazard Index value of 1.0 or less means that no adverse human health effects (non-cancer) are expected to occur. A ratio greater than 1 suggests further evaluation.

ingestion Eating and drinking; for example, children eating lead paint chips or swallowing lead in dust due to chewing and sucking activity on hands and toys
IRIS The Integrated Risk Information System is a database developed by the EPA for communicating chronic non-cancer and cancer health hazard information for over 500 substances.
IRP Installation Restoration Program (Department of Defense)
J This letter is used as a modifier to a chemical concentration indicating that the concentration value is an estimated quantity because the analytical methods used to quantify the chemical concentration were not sufficiently precise or accurate at the concentrations detected.
L Liter
LRA local redevelopment authority formed by the affected community and recognized by the Department of Defense. The LRA is the single entity responsible for base reuse planning activities at the local level.
MCL Maximum contaminant level. A concentration of a chemical that cannot be legally exceeded in a public drinking water supply system. The MCL is devised and enforced by U.S. EPA. States may also enforce the MCL as well as develop more stringent values.
manometer An instrument used for measuring the pressure of liquids and gases. A common manometer in a hospital is a blood pressure measuring device.
March Joint Powers Authority The name of the local redevelopment authority at March AFB.
medical monitoring A set of medical tests and physical exams specifically designed to evaluate whether an individual is being exposed to a particular chemical at concentrations that could negatively affect that person's health
migration Moving from one location to another
mg/kg Milligram per kilogram
mg/cm2 Milligram per square centimeter
mg/m3 Milligrams per cubic meter; a measure of the concentration of a chemical in a known amount (a cubic meter) of air, soil, or water
Minimal Risk Level (MRL) An estimate, developed by ATSDR, of the daily human exposure to a substance below which no adverse non-cancer health effects are expected to occur. MRLs are available for acute, intermediate, and chronic exposures.
munitions Explosive military items; for example, grenades and bombs
ND Not detected. The chemical was not detected at the analytical limits of the equipment and procedures.
NPL National Priorities List (of Superfund sites)
NOAEL No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level -- The dose of chemical at which there were no statistically or biologically significant increases in frequency or severity of adverse effects seen between the exposed population and its appropriate control. Effects may be produced at this dose, but they are not considered to be adverse.
ng/m3 Nanograms per cubic meter. A measure of the concentration of a chemical in a known amount (a cubic meter) of air, soil, or water
ordnance Military materiel, such as weapons, ammunition, explosives, combat vehicles, and equipment
Pb Lead
PbB Lead concentration in blood
PCE Perchloroethene, also known as tetrachloroethene
PHA Public Health Assessment
ppb Parts per billion
ppm Parts per million
RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976, 1984). This Act regulates management and disposal of hazardous wastes currently generated, treated, stored, disposed or distributed.
RFA RCRA Facility Assessment. An assessment required by RCRA to identify potential and actual releases of hazardous chemicals
RfD See Reference dose
RI/FS Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study
Reference dose An estimate of the daily exposure to the general public that is likely to have no measurable risk of harmful health effects during a lifetime exposure or exposure during a limited time interval
Restoration Advisory Board A committee of public and private citizens formed to act as a focal point for information exchange between March AFB, private citizens, and other public agencies
Remedial Investigation The CERCLA process of determining the type and extent of hazardous material contamination at a site
Risk A qualitative and quantitative expression of the probability of potential adverse health effects occurring at specific levels of exposure to chemical or physical hazards. Adverse health effects can be the result of noncancer and cancer. Risk from cancer is expressed as a probability such as 1 in 1,000,000 (also expressed 1 x 10-6 or 1E-6). This means that 1 person in a population of 1,000,000 are likely to get cancer over the lifetime of these people. Other risk values considered are 1 in 10,000 and 1 in 100,000. This cancer risk is above the background cancer risk which is about 1 in 4 or 250,000 people in a population in 1,000,000.

A noncancer health risk is expressed as a hazard quotient (HQ, this term is defined in this glossary).

SWMU Solid Waste Management Unit. A term defined by RCRA used in RFAs to describe areas or man made units that handle waste materials
solvent A liquid capable of dissolving or dispersing another substance; for example, acetone or mineral spirits
TCE Trichloroethene
TDS Total dissolved solids
g/L Micrograms per liter. A measure of the concentration of a chemical in a known amount (a liter) of air, soil, or water
g/dL Micrograms per deciliter; a measure of the concentration of a chemical in a known amount (deciliter) of liquid; for example, the concentration of lead in a blood sample
g/m3 Microgram per cubic meter. A measure of the concentration of a chemical in a known amount (a cubic meter) of air, soil, or water
VOC Volatile organic compound

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