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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

SACRAMENTO ARMY DEPOT
SACRAMENTO, CALIFORNIA


Figure 1. Area Map
Figure 1. Area Map

Figure 2. Site Map of Eight IRP Sites, Parking Lot 3, Freon 113 Area, and ContractorsSpoils Area
Figure 2. Site Map of Eight IRP Sites, Parking Lot 3, Freon 113 Area, and ContractorsSpoils Area

Figure 3. Site Map of 13 SWMU Sites
Figure 3. Site Map of 13 SWMU Sites

Figure 4. Site Map of 29 Non-SWMU Sites, Drum Storage Area, and Dark Feature on 1949 Aerial Photo
Figure 4. Site Map of 29 Non-SWMU Sites, Drum Storage Area, and Dark Feature on 1949 Aerial Photo

Figure 5. Sacramento County Census Tract
Figure 5. Sacramento County Census Tract

Figure 6. Demographics within a 1-Mile Radius of SADA
Figure 6. Demographics within a 1-Mile Radius of SADA

Figure 7. ATSDR's Exposure Evaluation Process
Figure 7. ATSDR's Exposure Evaluation Process

Figure 8. Off-Site Wells
Figure 8. Off-Site Wells




TABLE 1. EXPOSURE PATHWAYS

Pathway NameSource of
Contamination
Environmental
Medium
Point of
Exposure
Route of
Exposure
Exposed
Population
Comment
Groundwaterin the vicinityof the SouthPost (SP)plume South Post Burn PitsGroundwaterWatersupplied bynine privateoff-sitewells Ingestion
Inhalation
Dermal
Approximately 50-100 employeesand 15-20residentsPast:
  • To be conservative, ATSDR assumed that contaminants first reached the nine private off-sitewells when the South Post Burn Pits first became operational in the late 1950s.
  • The water from wells at Eastman Products, Ellis Company, and at least two residences wasdefinitely used for drinking water. (Eastman Products and Ellis Company stopped using the waterfor drinking in 1986 and started receiving bottled water. It is unclear when the residential wells wereremoved from use.) The other five wells may also have been used for drinking water, but this hasnot been confirmed.
  • Although past populations were exposed, contaminants detected in the wells were too low to posea health hazard.
    Present:
  • The residences and businesses associated with the nine off-site wells currently receive their waterfrom municipal wells or Citizens Utilities' wells. We assume, therefore, that the nine private wellsare not being used.
    Future:
  • It is highly unlikely that future exposures will pose a health hazard because remedial activitiesshould restore the groundwater to conditions that are acceptable for drinking.
  • Appendix A. Evaluation of Potential Public Health Hazards Associated with the 55 Sites at SADA

    SADA SitesSite Description/Waste
    Disposal History
    Investigational Results/
    Environmental Monitoring
    Results
    Corrective Activities and Current StatusATSDR's Evaluation of Public HealthHazards
    EIGHT INSTALLATION RESTORATION PROGRAM (IRP) SITES
    South PostBurn PitsSoilOperableUnitBetween the late 1950sand 1966, plating shopwastes, paints, sludges,oil and grease, batteries,and construction debriswere incinerated in theSouth Post Burn Pits.Soil: Seven organics, twoPCBs, dioxins/furans, and12 metals detected. Theorganic contaminationextended down to thegroundwater table. Theother contaminants weregenerally isolated to thetop 21 feet of soil.Corrective Activities:
  • SVE treatment completed in 1994.
  • Soil excavated, stabilized, and placed incorrective action management unit (CAMU).
  • Confirmation soil samples collected. Clean-up levels achieved.
    Current Status:
  • Remediation complete.
  • No further remedial action required.
  • Soil: Access was (past scenario) and is (currentscenario) highly restricted. Past and currentexposures for the general public are thereforehighly unlikely. Future exposures will not pose apublic health hazard because remedial activitieshave reduced contaminant concentrations tolevels that are protective of human health.
    South PostGround-waterPlumeOperableUnitVOCs from the SouthPost Burn Pits migratedto the groundwater. TheSouth Post GroundwaterPlume extends at least1,900 feet off site.Groundwater: VOCs(TCE, PCE, cis and trans1,2-DCA, DCE, carbontetrachloride, andchloroform) detected in theplume. VOCs detected inprivate off-site productionwells during samplingevents conducted in the1980s.Corrective Activities:
  • Seven extraction wells (EW-1 through EW-7) installed in 1989.
  • Water treatment system operational since1989.
  • Two horizontal wells (EW-12 and EW-13)and two vertical wells (EW-10 and EW-11)installed in 1996.
  • Groundwater monitoring programimplemented to ensure that clean-up levels areachieved and maintained.
    Current Status:
  • Water treatment activities are ongoing.
  • Groundwater: The groundwater associated withthe South Post plume does not pose a healthhazard for past, current, or future scenarios (seeapplicable section in this PHA and Table 1 for adetailed evaluation).
    OxidationLagoonsOperableUnitBetween the 1950s and1972, SADA's domesticand industrialwastewater wasdischarged to thelagoons and then drainedto Old Morrison Creekvia three drainageditches.Soil: Twenty-two metals(11 above backgroundconcentrations) detected inthe first 2 feet of soil.Corrective Activities:
  • Soil excavated, stabilized, and placed inCAMU.
  • Confirmation soil samples collected. Cleanuplevels achieved.
    Current Status:
  • Remediation complete.
  • No further remedial action required.
  • Soil: Access was (past scenario) and is (currentscenario) highly restricted. Past and currentexposures for the general public are thereforehighly unlikely. Future exposures will not pose apublic health hazard because remedial activitiesreduced contaminant concentrations to levelsthat are protective of human health.
    Groundwater: No production wells are locatedin this area; therefore, there were (past scenario)and are (current scenario) no exposures togroundwater. If a new well is installed in thefuture, exposures will not pose a public healthhazard because 1) the groundwater is notcurrently affected by soil contaminants, and 2)the potential for future contaminant migration togroundwater has been eliminated by remediatingthe overlying soils.
    Tank 2OperableUnitTank 2, a 1,000-gallontank, was used to storewaste solvents until1982. The tank haddeteriorated and leakswere suspected.Soil: Twenty-twocontaminants (includingVOCs, PAHs, andpesticides) detected. Thecontaminants were isolatedbetween 9 and 31 feet.Corrective Activities:
  • Tank emptied in 1982.
  • Tank removed in 1986.
  • SVE treatment completed.
  • Confirmation soil samples collected. Clean-up levels achieved.
    Current Status:
  • Remediation complete.
  • No further remedial action required.
  • Soil: No past exposures occurred because allcontamination was limited to the subsurface. Even if the subsurface soils have been (currentscenario) or will be (future scenario) brought tothe surface, there will still be no health hazardbecause remedial activities reduced contaminantconcentrations to levels that are protective ofhuman health.
    Groundwater: No production wells are locatedin this area; therefore, there were (past scenario)and are (current scenario) no exposures togroundwater. If a new well is installed in thefuture, exposures will not pose a public healthhazard because 1) the groundwater is notcurrently affected by soil contaminants, and 2)the potential for future contaminant migration togroundwater has been eliminated by remediatingthe overlying soils.
    Building300 BurnPitBetween 1945 and the1950s, plating shopwastes containing acids,alkali, cyanide, heavymetals, paint sludges,radium dial paint,mercury batteries, oil,grease, refuse, and otherindustrial waste wereburied or burned in thisarea. In addition, severalsumps and undergroundpiping suspected to beassociated withradioactive disposal wereburied in the area.Soil: VOCs, SVOCs,pesticides, PCBs, dioxins,furans, and metalsdetected. Corrective Activities:
  • Piping, soil, water, and sediments from thethree sumps excavated and removed in 1994.
  • Sumps removed.
  • Soil excavated, stabilized, and placed inCAMU.
  • Confirmation soil samples collected. Clean-up levels achieved.
    Current Status:
  • Remediation complete.
  • No further remedial action required.
  • Soil: Access was (past scenario) and is (currentscenario) highly restricted. Past and currentexposures for the general public are therefore arehighly unlikely. Future exposures will not pose apublic health hazard because remedial activitiesreduced contaminant concentrations to levelsthat are protective of human health.
    Groundwater: No production wells are locatedin this area; therefore, there were (past scenario)and are (current scenario) no exposures togroundwater. If a new well is installed in thefuture, exposures will not pose a public healthhazard because 1) the groundwater is notcurrently affected by soil contaminants, and 2)the potential for future contaminant migration togroundwater has been eliminated by remediatingthe overlying soils.
    PesticideMixingAreaThis area was used tomix pesticides until1981. Containers usedin the mixing processwere rinsed in anoutdoor utility sink.Rinse water entered thesoils via a drain pipe thatemptied straight to theground. Soil: Pesticides (4,4-DDD,4,4-DDE, 4,4-DDT, 2,4-DDD, 2,4-DDT, andprometon) detected in thefirst 4 feet of soil.
    Groundwater: Nocontaminants detected insamples collected fromhydropunch borings.
    Corrective Activities:
  • Approximately 225 tons of contaminatedsoils removed and disposed off site in 1993.
    Current Status:
  • Remediation complete.
  • No further remedial action required.
  • Soil: Access was highly restricted and pastexposures for the general public were thereforehighly unlikely. Current and future exposureswill not pose a public health hazard becauseremedial activities reduced contaminantconcentrations to levels that are protective ofhuman health.
    Groundwater: No production wells are locatedin this area; therefore, there were (past scenario)and are (current scenario) no exposures togroundwater. If a new well is installed in thefuture, exposures will not pose a public healthhazard because 1) the groundwater is notcurrently affected by soil contaminants, and 2)the potential for future contaminant migration togroundwater has been eliminated by remediatingthe overlying soils.
    BatteryDisposalAreaBetween 1946 and 1947,this area was used as adisposal site for spentbatteries and otherdebris.Soil (pre-excavation):
    Six metals detected abovebackgroundconcentrations.
    Soil (post-excavation):
    Lead and arsenic detectedabove backgroundconcentrations but atconcentrations that do notpose a health hazard.
    Groundwater: All metalsdetected in hydropunchsamples were withinbackgroundconcentrations.
    Corrective Activities:
  • Approximately 400 tons of soil and debris(containing heavy metals) excavated duringremedial and site investigations.
  • Excavated soils stabilized and placed inCAMU.
  • Confirmation soil samples collected. Clean-up levels achieved.
    Current Status:
  • Remediation complete.
  • No further remedial action required.
  • Soil: Access was highly restricted and pastexposures for the general public were thereforehighly unlikely. Current and future exposureswill not pose a public health hazard becauseremedial activities reduced contaminantconcentrations to levels that are protective ofhuman health.
    Groundwater: No production wells are locatedin this area; therefore, there were (past scenario)and are (current scenario) no exposures togroundwater. If a new well is installed in thefuture, exposures will not pose a public healthhazard because 1) the groundwater is notcurrently affected by soil contaminants, and 2)the potential for future contaminant migration togroundwater has been eliminated by remediatingthe overlying soils.
    FireFightingTrainingAreaThis area was reported toconsist of a shallow,unlined pit. Reportsindicate that 1,000-1,500gallons of gasoline, oil,and JP-4 fuel werepoured into the pit andignited. Soil: No VOCs, metals,petroleum hydrocarbons,or pesticides/PCBsdetected. Current Status:
  • No remedial action required.
  • No public health hazard is associated with thissite. There is no physical evidence that thereported activities actually occurred. Nocontaminants were detected during samplingevents.
    This odd column needs to be fixed
    THREE "ADDITIONAL SITES"
    Parking Lot#3This area was previouslyan open field equippedwith a waste disposalsystem and ASTs thatheld dirty solventsawaiting disposal. Solvents leaked in thisarea, collected in lowspots, and soaked intothe soil.Soil: VOCs detected.
    Groundwater: Four VOCs(TCE, carbontetrachloride, PCE, and1,2-DCA) and one metal(chromium) detected aboveMCLs.
    Corrective Activities:
  • Air sparging pilot test (conducted in 1993and 1994) removed approximately 468 poundsof TCE. Other soil contaminants experiencedsimilar dramatic reductions and are no longerdetected.
  • Confirmation soil samples collected.Residual contaminants pose no increased healthhazard.
  • Two vertical extraction wells (EW-8 andEW-9) installed in 1996.
  • Water treatment system is operational.
  • Groundwater monitoring programimplemented.
    Current Status:
  • Water treatment activities are ongoing.
  • Soil: Access was (past scenario) and is (currentscenario) highly restricted. Past and currentexposures for the general public are thereforehighly unlikely. Future exposures will not pose apublic health hazard because remedial activitiesreduced contaminant concentrations to levelsthat are protective of human health.
    Groundwater: No production wells are locatedin this area; therefore, there were (past scenario)and are (current scenario) no exposures togroundwater. If a new well is installed in thefuture, exposures will not pose a public healthhazard because remedial activities will restorethe water to a state acceptable for drinking waterpurposes.
    Freon 113Area The Freon 113 area is a10-acre site in thevicinity of numerousbuildings. Soil: Freon 113 and otherVOCs detected.
    Groundwater: Freon 113and other VOCs detected below MCLs.
    Corrective Activities:
  • Air sparging pilot test (conducted in 1994)removed approximately 540 pounds of freon.Other contaminants (present in lowconcentrations) have also been significantlyreduced. (Freon 113 concentrations fell byapproximately 88% in groundwater and 98% insoil gas.)
  • Confirmation soil samples collected.Residual contaminants pose no increased healthhazard.
    Current Status:
  • Remediation complete.
  • No further remedial action required.
  • Soil: Access was (past scenario) and is (currentscenario) highly restricted. Past and currentexposures for the general public are thereforehighly unlikely. Future exposures will not pose apublic health hazard because remedial activitiesreduced contaminant concentrations to levelsprotective of human health.
    Groundwater: No production wells are locatedin this area; therefore, there were (past scenario)and are (current scenario) no exposures togroundwater. If a new well is installed in thefuture, exposures will not pose a public healthhazard because 1) the current concentrations arebelow MCLs, and 2) the potential for futurecontaminant migration to groundwater has beeneliminated by remediating the overlying soils.
    ContractorSpoils AreaThis area was used fordisposal of constructiondebris (e.g., concrete,asphalt, scrap metal).Soil: SVOCs, TPH, andmetals characteristic of thedisposed debris (asphalt)detected in some surfacesamples.Current Status:
  • No remedial action required.
  • No public health hazard is associated with thissite. Contaminants were detected atconcentrations that do not pose a health hazard.
    SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT UNIT (SWMU) SITES
    PossibleTrenches(Site 010)This area consists of twoparallel trenches. Soil: No VOCs or SVOCsdetected. All metalsdetected withinbackgroundconcentrations.Current Status:
  • No remedial action required.
  • No public health hazard is associated with thissite. No contaminants detected abovebackground concentrations.
    TwoTrenches(Site 011)This site consists of twotrenches.Soil: Three VOCs detected(1,1,1-TCA, PCE, xylenes)but at concentrationsbelow ATSDR's soilcomparison values orEPA's risk-basedconcentrations (RBCs). Allmetals detected withinbackgroundconcentrations.Current Status:
  • No remedial action required.
  • No apparent public health hazard is associatedwith this site. Contaminants detected belowATSDR's soil comparison values or EPA's RBCvalues.
    Building315(CyanideSump)
    (Site 012)
    Reports suggest that a12,000-gallon sump waslocated in this area. Reports indicate that thesump held wastecontaining cyanide,cadmium, and zinc.Soil: No VOCs, SVOCs, orcyanide detected. Allmetals detected withinbackgroundconcentrations.Corrective Activities:
  • Materials in sump removed in 1994.
  • Site backfilled with clean materials in 1994.
  • Concrete re-surfaced in 1994.
    Current Status:
  • No further remedial action required.
  • No public health hazard is associated with thissite. No contaminants detected abovebackground concentrations.
    Building316 (AcidSump) (Site013)Reports suggest that a12,000-gallon sump waslocated in this area. Reports indicate that thesump held acid wastesand metals.Soil: No VOCs, SVOCs, orcyanide detected. Twometals (zinc and cadmium)detected above backgroundconcentrations but belowATSDR's soil comparisonvalues. All other metalsdetected withinbackgroundconcentrations.Corrective Activities:
  • Materials in sump removed in 1994.
  • Site backfilled with clean materials in 1994.
  • Concrete re-surfaced in 1994.
    Current Status:
  • No further remedial action required.
  • No apparent public health hazard is associatedwith this site. All contaminants detected withinbackground concentrations or below ATSDR'ssoil comparison values.
    PossibleShallowLagoon
    (Site 014)
    This area was identifiedin a 1953 aerial photo asa shallow, lowdepression. Nodocumentation existssuggesting that the areawas affected by wastedisposal or used forwaste storage. Soil: No contaminantsdetected.Current Status:
  • No remedial action required.
  • No public health hazard is associated with thissite. No contaminants detected.
    Building382(gasolinespills)
    (Site 015)
    Reports suggest that oiland paint spills occurredin this area. Gasolinespills (one 500-gallonspill and two 150-gallonspills) have also beenreported. Soil: No TPH detected.Current Status:
  • No remedial action required.
  • No public health hazard is associated with thissite. No contaminants detected.
    Paint,Residue,and WasteOil Dump(Site 016)Reports suggest that thisarea was used as a paint,residue, and waste oildump.Soil: No VOCs, SVOCs, orTPH detected. Twopesticides (4,4-DDE anddieldrin) detected but atconcentrations belowATSDR soil comparisonvalues.Current Status:
  • No remedial action required.
  • No apparent public health hazard is associatedwith this site. Contaminants detected belowATSDR's soil comparison values.
    OutdoorStorage of Wastes
    (Site 017)
    Drummed hazardouswastes containing metalswere stored in this area.Soil (pre-remedial): Soilscontaminated with heavy metals.
    Soil (post-remedial):Metals within backgroundconcentrations.
    Corrective Activities:
  • Contaminated soils excavated and drummed.
    Current Status:
  • No further remedial action required.
  • Soil: Access was highly restricted and pastexposures to the general public were thereforehighly unlikely. Current and future exposureswill not pose a public health hazard becauseremedial activities reduced the metalconcentrations to levels within backgroundconcentrations.
    OldMorrisonCreek (eastportion)(Site 018)Reports suggest thatwastes (petroleumwastes, oils andlubricants, and by-products of paintsludges) may haveleached into the creek.Soil: No TPH detected. Allmetals detected withinbackgroundconcentrations.Current Status:
  • No remedial action required.
  • No public health hazard is associated with thissite. No contaminants detected abovebackground concentrations.
    Fill AreawithNumerousVehicles(Site 019)Reports suggest that thisarea was used to store vehicles and equipment.Reports suggest potentialpetroleum hydrocarboncontamination.Soil: Two VOCs and fourpesticides detected but atconcentrations belowATSDR's comparisonvalues. TPH detected oncebut finding neverreplicated. Some metalsdetected above backgroundconcentrations.Current Status:
  • No remedial action required.
  • No apparent public health hazard is associatedwith this site. A health risk assessment wasconducted and none of the detected contaminantsexceeded health-based concentrations.
    CyanideLeach Field(Building320)
    (Site 021)
    Reports suggest that thisarea is the leach fieldfrom the cyanide sump.Soil: No VOCs detected.Cyanide (0.78 mg/kg)detected but atconcentrations belowATSDR's soil comparisonvalue. All metals withinbackgroundconcentrations.Current Status:
  • No remedial action required.
  • No apparent public health hazard is associatedwith this site. All contaminants withinbackground or below ATSDR comparisonvalues.
    5,000GallonHazardousWaste TankNo. 1
    (Site 031)
    A 5,000 gallon wastesolvent tank was locatedin this area.Soil: No VOCs, SVOCs,pesticides, or PCBsdetected.Corrective Activities:
  • Tank removed in 1986.
    Current Status:
  • No further remedial action required.
  • No public health hazard is associated with thissite. No contaminants detected.
    ContractorStorageArea
    (Site 054)
    Reports suggest that thisarea was used to store construction materialsand some wastematerials.Soil: No VOCs or SVOCsdetected. All metalsdetected withinbackgroundconcentrations.Current Status:
  • No remedial action required.
  • No public health hazard is associated with thissite. No contaminants detected abovebackground.
    NON-SWMU SITES
    SmallShallowLagoon
    (Site 003)
    This area consisted of ashallow ditch locatednear the OxidationLagoons. The ditchcollected small amountsof surface water.Standing water resultedfrom rainfall and irrigationrather than from hazardouswaste practices.Current Status:
  • No remedial action required.
  • No public health hazard is associated with thissite. There is no evidence that the site evercontained hazardous constituents.
    Sludge Piles
    (Site 004)
    Sludge from theoxidation lagoon waspiled in this area.Soil: No VOCs or SVOCsdetected. Metals detected above backgroundconcentrations in surfacesoils.Corrective Activities:
  • Area was excavated during the excavation ofthe South Post Burn Pits.
    Current Status:
  • Remediation complete.
  • No further action required.
  • Access was highly restricted and past exposuresto the general public were therefore highlyunlikely. Current and future exposures will notpose a health hazard because remedial activitieshave removed the contaminated piles.
    TrashDisposalArea
    (Site 020)
    This area consisted oftrenches used for thedisposal ofuncontaminatedconstruction debris.No records exist, historicalor otherwise, indicatingthat hazardous waste wasdisposed at this site.Current Status:
  • No remedial action required.
  • No public health hazard is associated with thissite. There is no evidence that the site evercontained hazardous constituents.
    RadioactiveWasteDisposalArea
    (Site 022)
    Reports suggest thatradioactive waste wasdumped in this area. The location is veryindefinite.No radioactivity abovebackground has beendetected in site soil orgroundwater.Current Status:
  • No remedial action required.
  • No public health hazard is associated with thissite. There is no evidence that the site evercontained hazardous constituents.
    DispensaryWaste Area
    (Site 023)
    Reports suggest that thisarea was used as a dumpin the 1960s. Thelocation is veryindefinite and is basedon the memory of onlyone person.Aerial photos from the1960s do not showtrenches or pits. Reportedwaste dumping activitieshave not been confirmed.Current Status:
  • No remedial action required.
  • No public health hazard is associated with thissite. There is no evidence that the site evercontained hazardous constituents.
    PetroleumSludgeDisposalArea
    (Site 024)
    Reports suggest that thisarea was used as a dumpsite for gasoline tanksludge.Soil: No TPH detected.Lead within backgroundconcentrations.
    Groundwater: Nophthalate esters or gascontaminants detected
    Current Status:
  • No remedial action required.
  • No public health hazard is associated with thissite. No contaminants detected abovebackground concentrations.
    PreviousOil DumpArea (Site025)Reports suggest that thisarea was used as a usedmotor oil disposal area.Soil: No oil and greasedetected. Lead withinbackgroundconcentrations.Current Status:
  • No remedial action required.
  • No public health hazard is associated with thissite. No contaminants detected abovebackground concentrations.
    FormerSecondarySewageTreatmentPlant
    (Site 026)
    The Sewage TreatmentPlant receivedwastewater from platingoperations.Soil: Metals withinbackgroundconcentrations.Current Status:
  • No remedial action required.
  • No public health hazard is associated with thissite. No contaminants detected abovebackground concentrations.
    AAFESDrain Well(Site 027)This site consists of adrain well that was usedto drain the bay of agasoline service station. Soil:
    1989 Sampling: Unknownhydrocarbon and leaddetected in subsurfacesamples.
    1994 Sampling: Nocontaminants detected.
    Corrective Activities:
  • Drain well removed in 1994.
    Current Status:
  • No further action required.
  • No past exposures occurred because allcontamination was restricted to the subsurface. Even if the subsurface soils have been (currentscenario) or will be (future scenario) brought tothe surface, there will still be no health hazardbecause the latest sampling indicates that thereare no contaminants associated with the site.
    Groundwater: Analysis of downgradientmonitoring data indicates that this site has notaffected the underlying groundwater.
    Rail YardEngineShed (Site028)This site was used as asteam-cleaning area forlocomotive engines andrailroad cars.Soil (pre-remedial):Gasoline and dieseldetected.
    Soil (post-remedial):Contaminants decreased to1/100th of their originaldetected levels.
    Corrective Activities:
  • The area was remediated via bioremediationin 1996.
  • Confirmation samples collected and soilsdeemed clean.
    Current Status:
  • Remediation completed.
  • No further action required.
  • Soil: Access was highly restricted and pastexposures for the general public were thereforehighly unlikely. Current and future exposureswill not pose a public health hazard becauseremedial activities reduced contaminantconcentrations to levels that are protective ofhuman health.
    Groundwater: Analysis of downgradientmonitoring data indicates that this site has notaffected the underlying groundwater.
    Building420ChromicAcid Spill(Site 029)Reports suggest that achromic acid spilloccurred in this area. Soil: Chromium detectedwithin backgroundconcentrations.
    Groundwater: Nochromium detected ingroundwater.
    Current Status:
  • No remedial action required.
  • No public health hazard is associated with thissite. No contaminants detected abovebackground concentrations.
    1,000-GallonSolventTank #3
    (Site 030)
    Reports suggest that a1,000-gallon UST(containing wastesolvents) was used fromthe 1950s to the late1970s.There is no evidence ofsoil or groundwatercontamination associatedwith the UST.Current Status:
  • Tank removed in 1980s.
  • No remedial action required.
  • No public health hazard is associated with thissite. There is no evidence that the site evercontained hazardous constituents.
    500-GallonBatteryAcidStorageTank #4(Site 032)Reports suggest that a500-gallon UST(containing battery acid)was located in this area.There is no evidence thatthe tank leaked.Corrective Activities:
  • Tank removed in 1986.
    Current Status:
  • No further remedial action required.
  • No public health hazard is associated with thissite. There is no evidence that chemicals werereleased at this site.
    SewageOutfall
    (Site 033)
    This site is located alongMorrison Creek andconsists of the sewageoutfall. Sediments (1981sampling): Metalsdetected above backgroundconcentrations. Corrective Activities:
  • Outfall removed in 1980s.
    Current Status:
  • No further action required.
  • Access was highly restricted and past exposuresto the general public were therefore highlyunlikely. Current and future public healthhazards are not associated with this site. Contaminants that were located here have sincebeen disturbed, displaced, and removed duringconstructive activities at Morrison Creek.
    Building320, PlatingSpill, andGraphicArts Spill(Site 034)Reports suggest thatspills from platingoperations (containingmetals) and from thegraphic shop (containingcopper chloride andferric chloride solution)occurred in this area.Soil: Metals withinbackgroundconcentrations.
    Groundwater: Metalswithin backgroundconcentrations.
    Corrective Activities:
  • Soils suspected of contamination excavatedand disposed in the South Post Burn Pits.
    Current Status:
  • No further remedial action required.
  • No public health hazard is associated with thissite. No contaminants detected abovebackground concentrations.
    MorrisonCreek
    (Site 039)
    This portion of the creekmay have receivedwastes from industrialprocesses.Surface Water (1981sampling): Copper andzinc were detected butbelow EPA's drinkingwater regulations andATSDR's comparisonvalues, respectively. Lead(30 ppb) was detectedabove EPA's drinkingwater action levels.
    Sediments (1981sampling): Cadmium (40ppm). Copper (110 ppm),lead (37 ppm), mercury(0.086 ppm), and zinc (130ppm) were detected abovebackground but atconcentrations that do notpose a health hazard.
    Current Status:
  • No further action required.
  • No public health hazard is associated with thissite. Any past exposure to surface water waslimited to infrequent dermal contact (notingestion) by trespassers. Although lead wasdetected above EPA's drinking water guidelines,exposure was too infrequent to pose a healthhazard. Contaminants that were located herehave since been disturbed, displaced, andremoved during construction activities atMorrison Creek.
    PossibleOpen SpaceArea(Building150)
    (Site 040)
    Reports suggest that thissite was used for openstorage of constructionmaterials between 1946and 1949.Aerial photos and infraredsurveys do not showevidence of disposalpractices. (There is nosign of lawn dieback orstressed vegetation).Current Status:
  • No remedial action required.
  • No public health hazard is associated with thissite. There is no evidence that the site evercontained hazardous constituents.
    PossibleOpenStorageArea(Buildings246 & 248)(Site 041)Reports suggest that thisarea was used for openstorage of constructionmaterials between 1947and 1950.Aerial photos and infraredsurveys do not showevidence of hazardouswaste or other disposalpractices.Current Status:
  • No remedial action required.
  • No public health hazard is associated with thissite. There is no evidence that the site evercontained hazardous constituents.
    PossibleOpenStorageArea(Building426)
    (Site 042)
    Reports suggest that thisarea was used for openstorage of constructionmaterials between 1947and 1950.This area was paved beforebeing used for storage.There are no records ofany spills in the area. Current Status:
  • No remedial action required.
  • No public health hazard is associated with thissite. There is no evidence that the site evercontained hazardous constituents.
    OpenStorageArea(Building555)
    (Site 043)
    This area was used as anopen field for storingmaterials during anactive construction phasein the 1940s and 1950s.Aerial photos and infraredsurveys do not showevidence of disposalpractices. There are norecords of hazardousmaterials or spills in thisarea. No contaminantswere detected in nearbygroundwater samples.Current Status:
  • No remedial action required.
  • No public health hazard is associated with thissite. There is no evidence that the site evercontained hazardous constituents.
    PossibleDump Site
    (Site 044)
    This open field was usedfor vehicular activity.Aerial photos and infraredsurveys do not indicate that disposal activities occurredin this area.
    Groundwater: No VOCsdetected in groundwatersample.
    Current Status:
  • No remedial action required.
  • No public health hazard is associated with thissite. There is no evidence that the site evercontained hazardous constituents.
    LargeDisturbedArea
    (Site 045)
    Reports suggest that thisarea was used for swampvehicle testing.Aerial photos and infraredsurveys do not indicate thathazardous wastes ormaterials were everhandled, stored, or spilledin this area.Current Status:
  • No remedial action required.
  • No public health hazard is associated with thissite. There is no evidence that the site evercontained hazardous constituents.
    PossibleTrench
    (Site 046)
    A surface depression waspresent in this area in the1950s. It is no longerpresent.Investigators conclude thatthe depression could haveresulted from constructionactivities. There is noevidence indicating thathazardous wastes ormaterials were everhandled, stored, or spilledin this area.Current Status:
  • No remedial action required.
  • No public health hazard is associated with thissite. There is no evidence that the site evercontained hazardous constituents.
    Possible FillActivity(Site 047)This site is a scarred arealocated near theOxidation Lagoons.Soil: No VOCs, SVOCs, orTPH detected.Current Status:
  • No remedial action required.
  • No public health hazard is associated with thissite. No contaminants detected.
    PossibleDump Site
    (Site 048)
    This area was used as anopen storage area forconstruction debris. It islocated in the vicinity ofthe Battery DisposalWell and there weretraces of surfaceactivities related to theBattery Disposal Well atSite 48. Soils: No samplescollected before top soilsremoved.
    Groundwater: No site-related halogenated VOCsdetected in BAT (spell outon first reference) probegroundwater sample.
    Corrective Activities:
  • Top soils were removed from Site 48 andpossibly used as topsoil for the Battery DisposalWell Area, which has since been excavated.
    Current Status:
  • No further remedial action required.
  • Soil: Access was highly restricted and pastexposures for the general public were thereforehighly unlikely. Current and future exposureswill not pose a public health hazard because thepotentially affected soils have been removed.
    Groundwater: No production wells are locatedin this area; therefore, there were (past scenario)and are (current scenario) no exposures togroundwater. If a well was installed in thefuture, exposures will not pose a public healthhazard because 1) the groundwater is notcurrently impacted by contaminants, and 2) thepotential for future contaminant migration togroundwater has been eliminated by removingpotentially affected overlying soils.
    Possible FillMaterial(Site 049)This area consists of soilpiles from constructionactivities.Soil: Metals detectedabove backgroundconcentrations in surfacesamples.Corrective Activities:
  • Area was excavated during the excavation ofthe South Post Burn Pits.
    Current Status:
  • Remediation complete.
  • No further action required.
  • Access was highly restricted and past exposuresto the general public were therefore highlyunlikely. Current and future exposures will notpose a health hazard because remedial activitieshave removed the contaminated piles.
    ExcavationActivitywith Pilesof RemovedSoil
    (Site 050)
    This area was used as aconstruction debris dumparea. It is currentlyincluded in theContractors Spoils Area.Soil: Three VOCsdetected but all atconcentrations belowATSDR's soil comparisonvalues or EPA's RBCs.One SVOC detected. TPHdetected. Lead and zincdetected above backgroundconcentrations.Current Status:
  • No further action required.
  • No apparent public health hazard is associatedwith this site. A health risk assessment wasconducted and no increased health risks wereidentified.
    StandingLiquid
    (Site 051)
    An area of standingwater was identified inan aerial photo taken inthe 1960s.Aerial photos and infraredsurveys do not indicate thathazardous wastes ormaterials were everhandled, stored, or spilledin this area.Current Status:
  • No remedial action required.
  • No public health hazard is associated with thissite. There is no evidence that the site evercontained hazardous constituents.
    Scarred/
    Stressed
    Area (Site052)
    This area was ascarred/vegetative-stressed area.There is no evidenceindicating that hazardouswastes or materials wereever handled, stored, orspilled in this area.Current Status:
  • Top soils removed.
  • No remedial action required.
  • No public health hazard is associated with thissite. There is no evidence that the site evercontained hazardous constituents.
    MISCELLANEOUS SITES
    DrumStorageAreaThis area was used foropen storage of drums.Soil: No VOCs detected.Current Status:
  • No remedial action required.
  • No public health hazard is associated with thissite. No contaminants detected.
    DarkFeature on1949 aerialphoto(Referred toas Site 11)This area consists of adark feature locatedsouth of the Building300 Burn Pits.Soil: No VOCs, SVOCs, ordioxins/furans detected.Three pesticides detectedbut at concentration belowATSDR soil comparisonvalues. Five metalsdetected above backgroundconcentrations in surfacesoils.
    Groundwater: Nogroundwater contaminantsattributable to this site.
    Corrective Activities:
  • Soil excavated and removed.
    Current Status:
  • The Army does not recommend additionalsite investigation activities.
  • Access was highly restricted and past exposuresto the general public were therefore highlyunlikely. Current and future exposures donot/will not pose a public health concern becausethe contaminated soil in this area has beenexcavated and removed.

    References: ATSDR, 1996; CA EPA, 1997; EPA, 1996; Kleinfelder, 1991, 1992, 1995, 1996a, 1997a, 1997c, 1997d, 1997e; SADA, 1997b, 1997c

    Appendix B: ATSDR Public Health Hazard Conclusion Categories

    CategoryDefinitionCriteria
    A. Urgent public health hazard This category is used for sites that pose an urgent public healthhazard as the result of short-term exposures to hazardoussubstances.
  • evidence exists that exposures have occurred, are occurring, or are likely to occur in the futureAND
  • estimated exposures are to a substance(s) at concentrations in the environment that, upon short-term exposures, can cause adverse health effects to any segment of the receptor populationAND/OR
  • community-specific health outcome data indicate that the site has had an adverse impact onhuman health that requires rapid intervention AND/OR
  • physical hazards at the site pose an imminent risk of physical injury
  • B. Public health hazardThis category is used for sites that pose a public health hazard asthe result of long-term exposures to hazardous substances. evidence exists that exposures have occurred, are occurring, or are likely to occur in the future
    AND
  • estimated exposures are to a substance(s) at concentrations in the environment that, upon long-term exposures, can cause adverse health effects to any segment of the receptor populationAND/OR
  • community-specific health outcome data indicate that the site has had an adverse impact onhuman health that requires intervention
  • C. Indeterminate public health hazardThis category is used for sites with incomplete information.
  • limited available data do not indicate that humans are being or have been exposed to levels ofcontamination that would be expected to cause adverse health effects; data or information are notavailable for all environmental media to which humans may be exposed AND
  • there are insufficient or no community-specific health outcome data to indicate that the site hashad an adverse impact on human health
  • D. No apparent public health hazardThis category is used for sites where human exposure tocontaminated media is occurring or has occurred in the past, butthe exposure is below a level of health hazard.
  • exposures do not exceed an ATSDR chronic MRL or other comparable value AND
  • data are available for all environmental media to which humans are being exposed AND
  • there are no community-specific health outcome data to indicate that the site has had an adverseimpact on human health
  • E. No public health hazardThis category is used for sites that do not pose a public healthhazard.
  • no evidence of current or past human exposure to contaminated
  • media AND
  • future exposures to contaminated media are not likely to occur AND
  • there are no community-specific health outcome data to indicate that the site has had an adverse impact on human health
  • Appendix C: Glossary

    Background Level
    A typical or average level of a chemical in the environment. Background often refers to naturally occurring or uncontaminated levels.
    Carcinogen
    Any substance that may produce cancer.
    CERCLA
    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, also known as Superfund. This legislation created ATSDR.
    Comparison Values
    Estimated contaminant concentrations in specific media that are not likely to cause adverse health effects, given a standard daily ingestion rate and standard body weight. The comparison values are calculated from the scientific literature available on exposure and health effects.
    Concentration
    The amount of one substance dissolved or contained in a given amount of another. For example, sea water contains a higher concentration of salt than fresh water.
    Contaminant
    Any substance or material that enters a system (the environment, human body, food, etc.) where it is not normally found.
    Dermal
    Referring to the skin. Dermal absorption means absorption through the skin.
    Dose
    The amount of substance to which a person is exposed. Dose often takes body weight into account.
    Environmental contamination
    The presence of hazardous substances in the environment. From the public health perspective, environmental contamination is addressed when it potentially affects the health and quality of life of people living and working near the contamination.
    Exposure
    Contact with a chemical by swallowing, by breathing, or by direct contact (such as through the skin or eyes). Exposure may be short term (acute) or long term (chronic).
    Hazard
    A source of risk that does not necessarily imply potential for occurrence. A hazard produces risk only if an exposure pathway exists, and if exposures create the possibility of adverse consequences.
    Ingestion
    Swallowing (such as eating or drinking). Chemicals can get in or on food, drink, utensils, cigarettes, or hands where they can be ingested. After ingestion, chemicals can be absorbed into the blood and distributed throughout the body.
    Inhalation
    Breathing. Exposure may occur from inhaling contaminants because they can be deposited in the lungs, taken into the blood, or both.
    Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL)
    The MCL is the drinking water standard established by EPA. It is the maximum permissible level of contaminant in water that is delivered to free-flowing outlets. MCLs are considered protective of human health to the "extent feasible" over a lifetime (70 years) for individuals consuming 2 liters of water per day.
    Media
    Soil, water, air, plants, animals, or any other parts of the environment that can contain contaminants.
    Minimal Risk Level (MRL)
    An MRL is defined as an estimate of daily human exposure to a substance that is likely to be without an appreciable risk of adverse effects (noncancer) over a specified duration of exposure. MRLs are derived when reliable and sufficient data exist to identify the target organ(s) of effect or the most sensitive health effect(s) for a specific duration via a given route of exposure. MRLs are based on noncancer health effects only. MRLs can be derived for acute, intermediate, and chronic duration exposures by the inhalation and oral routes.
    National Priorities List (NPL)
    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) listing of sites that have undergone preliminary assessment and site inspection to determine which locations pose immediate threat to persons living or working near the release. These sites are most in need of cleanup.
    No Apparent Public Health Hazard
    Sites where human exposure to contaminated media is occurring or has occurred in the past, but the exposure is below a level of health hazard.
    Plume
    An area of chemicals in a particular medium, such as air or groundwater, moving away from its source in a long band or column. A plume can be a column of smoke from a chimney or chemicals moving with groundwater.
    Potentially Exposed
    The condition where valid information, usually analytical environmental data, indicates the presence of contaminant(s) in one or more environmental media contacting humans (that is, air, drinking water, soil, food chain, surface water), and people may be exposed through ingestion, inhalation, or dermal contact to contaminated environmental media.
    Public Health Assessment
    The evaluation of data and information on the release of hazardous substances into the environment to assess any current or future impact on public health, develop health advisories or other recommendations, and identify studies or actions needed to evaluate and mitigate or prevent human health effects; also, the document resulting from that evaluation.
    Public Health Hazard
    Sites that pose a public health hazard as the result of long-term exposures to hazardous substances.
    Risk
    In risk assessment, the probability that something will cause injury, combined with the potential severity of that injury.
    Route of Exposure
    The way in which a person may contact a chemical substance. For example, drinking (ingestion) and bathing (skin contact) are two different routes of exposure to contaminants that may be found in water.
    Superfund
    Another name for the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), which created ATSDR.
    Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA)
    The 1986 legislation that broadened ATSDR's responsibilities in the areas of public health assessments, establishment and maintenance of toxicologic databases, information dissemination, and medical education.
    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
    Substances containing carbon and different proportions of other elements such ashydrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, sulfur, or nitrogen; these substances easilybecome vapors or gases. A significant number of VOCs are commonly used as solvents (paintthinners, lacquer thinner, degreasers, and dry cleaning fluids).

    Appendix D: Public Comments On the Sacramento Army Depot Public Health Assessment

    The Sacramento Army Depot Public Health Assessment was released for public comment onAugust 13, 1997. The comment period ended on October 4, 1997. Comments were receivedfrom the California Department of Health Services (CDHS).

    1. Comment: The "Summary" states that "ATSDR assumes, therefore, that no private wellsare currently being used." CDHS conducted a door-to-door survey to determine thecurrent usage of private wells and determined that the Ellis company well is being usedfor non-drinking water purposes.

      Response: ATSDR modified the "Summary" to reflect CDHS' findings. This informationalso required changes to the "Evaluation of Environmental Contamination and ExposurePathways-SP Groundwater Plume-Current Exposure" and the "Conclusions" sections.

    2. Comment: Figure 2 does not clearly distinguish IRP sites from non-IRP sites.

      Response: ATSDR modified the figure so that the IRP sites are now clearly defined.

    3. Comment: Figures 5 and 6 are not labeled.

      Response: ATSDR labeled the figures.

    4. Comment: Would it be possible to provide a list of contaminants detected in thegroundwater plume.

      Response: This list is provided in Appendix A and the text directs the reader to Appendix A.

    5. Comment: CDHS conducted a door-to-door survey to determine the current usage of private wells near SADA. The Public Health Assessment does not include this information.
    6. Response: ATSDR added CDHS' findings to the "Evaluation of EnvironmentalContamination and Exposure Pathways-SP Groundwater Plume-Current Exposure"section. ATSDR changed the company name of "Drake Auto Wrecking" to "Smog Tech"throughout the document. Additionally, ATSDR changed the company name of "BlackMagic Products" to "Inline Hockey Arena" throughout the document. ATSDR alsoindicated that the 8188 Berry Avenue well is not a residential well.

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