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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

MONTICELLO MILL TAILINGS (DOE)
CERCLIS NO. UT3890090035
AND
MONTICELLO RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED PROPERTIES
(aka MONTICELLO VICINITY PROPERTIES)
CERCLIS NO. UTD980667208

September 30, 1997

Prepared By:

Energy Section
Federal Facilities Assessment Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry


TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

SUMMARY

BACKGROUND

    Site Description and History
    Site Visits
    Demographics, Land Use, and Natural Resource Use
      Demographics
      Land Use
      Natural Resource Use
    Health Outcome Data Sources

COMMUNITY HEALTH CONCERNS

    Past Site-Related Exposures
    Continuing Exposure Concerns Related to the Sites
    General Health Outcome Concerns
    Specific Health Outcome Concerns

OVERVIEW OF RADIATION

    Nondeterministic Effects
    Deterministic Effects
    Radioactive Health Effects
    Discussion

SOURCES OF CONTAMINATION

    Uranium Milling in General
    Uranium and Vanadium Production Methods at Monticello
    Wastes Produced
    Uranium and Thorium Decay Schemes

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND OTHER HAZARDS

    Surface Soil
    Surface Water
    Groundwater
    Air
      Radon
      Nonradioactive Particulates
      Radioactive Particulates
      Past Air Emissions
    Food Chain
    Quality Assurance and Quality Control
    Physical Hazards

PATHWAYS ANALYSES

    Pathways Model
    Completed Exposure Pathways
      On-Site Surface Soil
      Off-Site Surface Soil
      Air
    Potential Exposure Pathways
      Groundwater
      Surface Water
      Food Chain

PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

    Toxicological Evaluation
      Radioactive Contaminants
        Radon-222
        Radium-226
        Uranium-234 and Uranium-238
      Nonradioactive Contaminants in Soil and Sediment
        Beryllium
        Chromium
        Lead
        Nickel
        Thallium
      Nonradioactive Contaminants in Groundwater
        Arsenic
        Molybdenum
        Nitrate
        Selenium
        Vanadium
      Nonradioactive Contaminants in Air
        Sulfur Oxides, Sulfurous Acid, and Sulfuric Acid
    Health Outcome Data Evaluation
    Community Health Concerns Evaluation
      Exposure Concerns
      Specific Health Outcomes Concerns
      Remediation Concerns

CONCLUSIONS

RECOMMENDATIONS

PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIONS

PREPARERS OF REPORT

REFERENCES

APPENDICES

    Appendix A
      Population Data
      Housing Data
      Socioeconomic Data
    Appendix B
      US EPA Contract Laboratory Program Target Compound List
    Appendix C
      Additional Toxicological Information
        Radioactive Contaminants
        Nonradioactive Contaminants
    Appendix D
      Other Community Concerns Evaluation
    Appendix E
      Uranium Mill Workers Exposures and Long-Term Health Effects
    Appendix F
      Figures
    Appendix G
      Comments to Public Comment Release

FOOTNOTES

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1. Summary of Radiation Health Effects From Acute Doses

Table 2. Uranium Series

Table 3. Thorium Series

Table 4. Nonradioactive Contaminants of Concern in On-Site Tailings Piles

Table 5. Nonradioactive Contaminants of Concern in Off-Site Sediments

Table 6. Contaminants of Concern in Surface Water

Table 7. Contaminants of Concern in Groundwater for the Alluvial Aquifer

Table 8. Results of 1983-1984 Radon-222 Survey

Table 9. Atmospheric Radon-222

Table 10. Average Monthly Real-Time Radon

Table 11. Nonradioactive Off-Site Air Contaminants of Concern 1984-1986

Table 12. Completed Exposure Pathways

Table 13. Potential Exposure Pathways

Table 14. Cancer Incidence Cases

Table 15. Cancer Incidence Ratio of San Juan County Compared With That of the State of Utah

Table A1. Population Data Table

Table A2. Housing Data Table

Table A3. Socioeconomic and Housing Variables Table

Table C1. Uranium Oxides

Table C2. Human Research Results on the Health Effects of Vanadium Compounds

Table C3. Summary of Epidemiologic Studies with Vanadium

Table C4. Occupational Exposure Limits for Vanadium Pentoxide

Table C5. Vanadium Exposure/Dose Limits for the General Public

Table D1. Property Inclusion Limits

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. General Location Map

Figure 2. Monticello Mill Tailings Site Map

Figure 3. Monticello Vicinity Properties Project Area Map

Figure 4. DOE Radiological Survey Map

Figure 5. Population Density

Figure 6. Children 5 Years and Younger

Figure 7. Adults Age 30 - 59

Figure 8. Adults 60 Years and Older

Figure 9. Females Age 15-44

Figure 10. Tailings Piles Location Map

Figure 11. Upgradient and On-Site Surface Water Sampling Locations

Figure 12a. Downgradient Surface Water Sampling Locations

Figure 12b. Downgradient Surface Water Sampling Locations

Figure 13. Upgradient and On-Site Monitoring Well Locations

Figure 14. Downgradient Monitoring Well Locations

Figure 15. 9 Radon Air Sampling Stations

Figure 16. 8 Radon Sampling Locations

Figure 17. Air Particulate Sampling Locations

Figure 18. Direct Environmental Radiation Monitoring

Figure 19. Existing Pathways at the Monticello Mill Tailings Site

Figure 20. Direct Environmental Radiation Monitoring Locations At or near the Monticello Millsite

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
AECAtomic Energy Commission
ATSDRAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
BDLBelow Detection Limit
BLMBureau of Land Management
BUBoston University
BWBody Weight
CDCCenter for Disease Control and Prevention
CERCLAComprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980
CFRCode of Federal Regulation
CNSCentral Nervous System
cmcentimeter
CrChromium
CREGCancer Risk Evaluation Guide
CSFCancer Slope Factor
DCGDerived Concentration Guide
DHSDivision of Health Studies
dldeciliter
DOEDepartment of Energy
EDExposure Dose
EFExposure Factor
EMEGEnvironmental Media Evaluation Guide
EPAEnvironmental Protection Agency
FSFeasibility Study
FYFiscal Year
GJPOGrand Junction Projects Office
GyGray
HARPHealth Activities Recommendation Panel
IARCInternational Agency for Research on Cancer
IRISIntegrated Risk Information System
kgkilogram
LLiters
mmeter
m3cubic meter
MACMaximum Allowable Concentration
MCLMaximum Contaminant Level
mgmilligram
mg/kgmilligram per kilogram
µgmicrogram
µg/dlmicrogram per deciliter
µg/Lmicrogram per liter
MMTSMonticello Mill Tailings Site
mremmilliRoentgen equivalent man
MRLMinimal Risk Level
MVPMonticello Vicinity Properties
N/ANot Applicable
NANot Available
NARELNational Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory
NDNo Data Were Collected
NIOSHNational Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
NOAELNo-Observed-Adverse-Effects-Level
NORMNaturally Occurring Radioactive Materials
NPLNational Priorities List
NTPNational Toxicology Program
OH&SOccupational Health and Safety
OSHAOccupational Safety and Health Administration
OUOperable Unit
pCi/gpicocuries per gram
pCi/Lpicocuries per liter
pCi/m3picocuries per cubic meter
pCi/m2spicocuries per square meter second
PHAPPublic Health Action Plan
PMCLProposed Maximum Contaminant Level
ppbparts per billion
ppmparts per million
QA/QCquality assurance quality control
RACReasonably Assumed a Carcinogen
RCRAResource Conservation and Recovery Act
RfCReference Concentration
RfDReference Dose
RIRemedial Investigation
RMEGReference Dose (or Concentration) Media Evaluation Guide
RODRecord of Decision
SARASuperfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act
SEERSurveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results
SRUSite Review and Update
SSABSite Specific Advisory Board
TALTarget Analyte List (inorganic chemicals)
TCLTarget Compound List (organic chemicals)
TICtentatively identified compounds
TIGERTopologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing
TRIToxic (Chemical) Release Inventory
UDEQUtah Department of Environmental Quality
WLWorking Level


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