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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

CASTLE AIR FORCE BASE
ATWATER, MERCED COUNTY, CALIFORNIA


APPENDIX A: EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH THE 209 RI/FS SITES AT CASTLE AFB

Initially, 230 "Superfund" (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980) sites were identified at Castle AFB. Twenty-one of these sites were listed as no further action and eliminated from further consideration in the Source Control Operable Unit(SCOU) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS). Of the remaining 209 sites, soil at 28 locations were identified during the RI/FS as having the potential to affect the quality of underlying groundwater. These 28 sites, combined with all sites that have undergone remedial activities, are highlighted in Table A1. Table A2 lists all sites identified during the RI/FS as needing no further action (NFA). The NFA sites are not associated with any known public health hazards because: (1) no site-related contaminants are present, (2) contaminant concentrations detected are too low to pose a health hazard, or (3) past and current exposure to the general public has been prevented. The SCOU RI/FS sites include the following types of facilities:

  • Disposal pits
  • Engine maintenance shops
  • Fire training areas
  • Hazardous waste storage sites
  • Landfills
  • Solid waste management units
  • Storage tanks and tank farms
  • Surface fuel spills
  • Utility pipeline
  • Washracks and discharge areas

TABLE A1 (Further Action and Remedial Sites)
Site Site Description/Waste Disposal History Investigation Results/ Environmental Monitoring Results Corrective Activities and/or Current Status* Evaluation of Public Health Hazards
Building (Bldg.) 871
Parcel 19
Bldg. 871 was built in 1989 and used as the Base RecreationFacility. During construction, several crushed 55-gallon drums and an8,000 gallon heating oil underground storage tank (UST) were uncovered.This site had been a hazardous waste storage yard and engine repair yardin the 1950s. Materials disposed of at Bldg. 871 include oils and fuels.Potential contaminants of concern are pesticides, oil, grease, and fuels. Groundwater: Part of Bldg. 871 overlies the southern reach of the Main Plume (0.5 µg/L of trichloroethylene [TCE]).
Soil: Total extractable petroleum hydrocarbons (TEPH) were detected in one surface sample at 180 mg/kg. Several pesticide compounds, including DDT (0.11 mg/kg), were also present. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were detected in two surface samples below 0.1 mg/kg. Several surface soil samples contained lead, cadmium, and beryllium at concentrations above threshold background levels (TBV) and the Environmental Protection Agency Region III's (EPAIII) risk-based concentrations.
Soil Gas: Halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOC) were not detected above 0.005 µg/L.
Corrective Activities:
• Excavation of contaminated soil was completed in September 1995. The excavated soil was consolidated beneath an on-site cap at the Fire Training Area 1 site.
Current Status*:
• Completed removal action site.
• Bldg. 871 was designated for no further action (NFA) on 12/12/96.
• Based on the Castle Air Force Base (CAFB) Disposal and Reuse Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS), Bldg. 871 is located in an area designated as "Public Facilities/Recreation."
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Bldg. 871.
Soil: USAF remediation activities have lowered surface soil contaminant concentrations below the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) comparison values for soil.
Bldg. 1253
Parcel 3
This site is a corrosion control and metals processing area where paint stripper, paint sludge, used oils, and methylethyl ketone were disposed. Operations began in 1947 and continued through 1980, although used oils were not discarded at the site after 1972. Groundwater: Groundwater beneath Bldg. 1253 has been impacted with VOCs.
Soil: Several soil borings contained VOCs, with TCE concentrations up to 0.7 mg/kg. Aromatic VOCs (BTEX) were not detected, but TEPH concentrations were detected up to 16 mg/kg. Manganese concentrations (up to 1,280 mg/kg) exceeded ATSDR comparison values for children (300 ppm). Beryllium concentrations (0.4 mg/kg) slightly exceeded ATSDR's CREG value of 0.2 ppm. These metal concentrations, however, appear to be naturally occurring and not the result of base activities.
Soil Gas: TCE (up to 1,100 µg/L) and other VOCs, including tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and vinyl chloride, were detected.
Current Status*:
• In Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) process.
• Based on the CAFB FEIS, Bldg. 1253 is located in an area designated as "Institutional (Educational)" and "Aviation Support."
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Bldg. 1253.
Soil: Because land use at this site is primarily industrial/commercial and VOC concentrations primarily occurred in subsurface soil, public exposure (past, present, and future) is highly unlikely. On-site workers will not dig or have extended contact with site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).
Bldg. 1260
Parcel 3
This site was used for jet engine maintenance from 1947 to 1982. A washrack at this site currently discharges into two oil/water separators with no secondary liners. Hydraulic fuel oils and solvents may contaminate the site. Groundwater: Groundwater beneath the site has been impacted by VOCs. Prior to remedial activities, samples collected from nearby monitoring wells contained elevated concentrations of TCE (up to 1,200 µg/L).
Soil: TEPH (up to 920 mg/kg) and total volatile petroleum hydrocarbons (TVPH) (up to 840 mg/kg) were detected, but concentrations exceeding ATSDR comparison values occurred in subsurface soils. VOCs (primarily TCE concentrations up to 1.3 mg/kg) were detected, but at levels below ATSDR comparison values. Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) were detected in trace amounts. Detected metal concentrations were not elevated above TBVs, but the oil/water separators were not sampled for metals.
Soil Gas: VOCs and BTEX were detected.
Corrective Activities:
• The oil/water separators and former floor drains will be included in remedial design and remedial action (RD/RA) activities. Should metals remediation be deemed necessary, it will be conducted during the RD/RA activities.
Current Status*:
• In RI/FS process.
• Based on the CAFB FEIS, Bldg. 1260 is located in an area designated as "Aviation Support."
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Bldg. 1260.
Soil: Because land use at this site is industrial/commercial, public exposure (past, present, and future) is highly unlikely. On-site workers will not contact site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.
Bldg. 1344
Parcel 3
Fire truck maintenance occurred at this site during unknown dates of operation. Currently, one 5,000-gallon aboveground storage tank lies near a diesel generator located west of Bldg. 1344 and a grease trap is located south of the building. A fenced drum storage area lies southeast of Bldg. 1344. Used oil was disposed of at this location. Groundwater: Groundwater beneath Bldg. 1344 is not contaminated and, based on available data, Bldg. 1344 does not contribute to groundwater contamination.
Soil: During Phase I of the RI, no TEPHs, TVPHs, VOCs, or SVOCs were detected in soil samples. During Phase II, contaminants were detected in the surface soil of the drum storage area. Contaminant concentrations that exceeded ATSDR comparison values or background levels included: benzo(a)pyrene (1.3 mg/kg), benzo(a)anthracene (1.2 mg/kg), and lead (245 mg/kg).
Soil Gas: Trace concentrations of VOCs and BTEXs were reported in shallow (above 20 feet below ground surface [bgs]) soil gas samples during Phase I.
Current Status*:
• In RI/FS process.
• Based on the CAFB FEIS, Bldg. 1344 is located in an area designated as "Aviation Support."
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Bldg. 1344.
Soil: Because land use at this site is industrial/commercial, public exposure (past, present, and future) is highly unlikely. On-site workers will not contact site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.
Castle Vista Landfill A
(CVLF-A)
CVLF-A is located in the former military family housing area southwest of the Main Base. This two-acre former landfill (containing approximately 13,000 cubic yards of waste) was unlined and received municipal wastes from the late 1950s through the early 1960s. It received both residential and commercial refuse. Groundwater: Prior to the RI, three monitoring wells installed in the CVLF-A area detected several inorganic contaminants in groundwater samples. No detects exceeded ATSDR comparison values.
Soil: Toluene, PCE, and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate were detected at levels well below ATSDR comparison values. TEPH were detected at concentrations up to 51 mg/kg. In several samples, molybdenum, chromium, and zinc concentrations were detected above TBVs.
Soil Gas: No VOCs or BTEXs were detected in shallow soil gas samples collected.
Corrective Activities:
• Excavation of CVLF-A was completed in August 1997. All 13,000 cubic yards of waste were removed and replaced with clean fill.
Current Status*:
• Completed removal action site.
• Based on the CAFB FEIS, CVLF-A is located in an area designated as "Residential."
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of CVLF-A.
Soil: USAF remediation activities have lowered surface soil contaminant concentrations below ATSDR comparison values for soil.
Castle Vista Landfill B
(CVLF-B)
Parcel 12
CVLF-B is located in the former military family housing area southwest of the Main Base. This former unlined landfill contained approximately 59,000 cubic yards of waste. It received commercial and residential wastes from the late 1950s to the early 1960s. Solvents were disposed of at this site. Groundwater: Prior to the RI, monitoring wells in the area detected VOCs, including TCE, PCE, and cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-1,2-DCE)
Soil: Cis-1,2-DCE (up to 0.33 mg/kg) was detected in CVLF-B soil. TEPH concentrations reached a maximum of 6.6 mg/kg. Trace amounts of SVOCs and elevated metal concentrations were also detected.
Soil Gas: VOCs, including cis-1,2-DCE (up to 300 µg/L), were detected.
Corrective Activities:
• Excavation of CVLF-B was completed in August 1997. All 59,000 cubic yards of waste were removed and replaced with clean fill.
• Soil vapor extraction (SVE) drilling began 1/21/98.
Current Status*:
• Completed removal action site.
• Based on the CAFB FEIS, CVLF-B is located in an area designated as "Residential."
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of CVLF-B. Downgradient active wells are closely monitored and remain well below ATSDR comparison values for drinking water.
Soil: USAF remediation activities have lowered surface soil contaminant concentrations below ATSDR comparison values for soil.
Detonation and Burn Facility
Parcel 2
The Detonation and Burn Facility was used to destroy unserviceable or unsafe ammunition. The site consists of two unlined pits approximately 12 feet in diameter and 5 feet deep. An 8-foot high sand berm surrounds the pits on three sides. Contaminants of concern include dioxins in burn residues, inorganic compounds from the explosives, and various metals. Its dates of operation are unknown. Groundwater: Groundwater beneath the Detonation and Burn Facility is not contaminated and, based on available data, the site does not contribute to groundwater contamination.
Soil: Several dioxins (including octochlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [up to 0.14 µg/L] and the explosive 2,4-dinitrotoluene) were detected in soil samples. One soil sample contained low concentrations (6.8 mg/kg) of TEPHs. No TVPHs, VOCs, or SVOCs were detected (with the exception of one sample with di-n-butyl phthalate slightly above detection limits). No metal concentrations were elevated at the site.
Soil Gas: Trace amounts of VOCs and BTEXs were detected.
Corrective Activities:
• Sample remediation technologies were tested at the Detonation and Burn Facility.
Current Status*:
• Completed removal action site.
• The Detonation and Burn Facility was designated for NFA on 8/26/96.
• Based on the CAFB FEIS, the Detonation and Burn Facility is located in an area designated as "Public Facilities/Recreation."
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of the Detonation and Burn Facility.
Soil: USAF remediation activities have lowered surface soil contaminant concentrations below ATSDR comparison values for soil.
Discharge Area 3
(DA-3)
Parcel 19
Beginning in 1950, DA-3 was used as a discharge area for nearby washracks, sumps, and storage areas. The site consists primarily of a runoff ditch in the southern portion of the Main Base sector. Potential contaminants of concern at DA-3 include solvents, oil, grease, antifreeze, detergents, herbicides, and battery acid. Groundwater: The groundwater beneath the site has been impacted by TEPHs and TCE (up to 0.5 ppm).
Soil: TEPHs (up to 810 mg/kg) were detected in one shallow soil sample (<5 feet bgs). One surface soil sample also contained elevated lead concentrations (up to 887 mg/kg). No detectable concentrations of VOCs, SVOCs, or pesticides were reported.
Soil Gas: No VOCs were detected.
Corrective Activities:
• To remediate lead contamination, USAF plans to excavate and dispose of contaminated surface soil areas. The remaining unexcavated TPH-affected soils will undergo intrinsic remediation.
Current Status*:
• In RI/FS process.
• Based on the CAFB FEIS, DA-3 is located in an area designated as "Commercial."
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of DA-3.
Soil: Because land use at this site is industrial/commercial, public exposure (past, present, and future) is highly unlikely. On-site workers will not contact site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.
Discharge Area 4
(DA-4)
Located on the western perimeter of Main Base, DA-4 contains a tool shed and a liquid oxygen (LOX) manufacturing and storage facility. Solvents used during LOX production were discharged to surface soils or to subsurface soils through a French drain system. Potential contaminants of concern at DA-4 include solvents, oil, and grease. Groundwater: Investigations prior to the RI reported TCE in groundwater at concentrations up to 5,600 µg/L. RI investigations detected TCE levels up to 110 µg/L. DA-4 is a known TCE-contributor to the Operable Unit 2 groundwater plume.
Soil: VOCs (including TCE and cis-1,2-DCE) were detected at concentrations above 100 µg/kg in soil samples. The source areas appear to be the French drain and associated sump. Several SVOCs were also detected at low concentrations (less than 1 mg/kg). No TEPHs, TVPHs, or BTEXs were detected.
Soil Gas: In the vicinity of the French drain, TCE was detected in shallow soil gas concentrations above 1,000 µg/L. No TEPHs, TVPHs, or BTEXs were detected.
Corrective Activities:
• USAF installed SVE technology which began operating in January 1998.
• Approximately 325 pounds of debris were removed from DA-4.
Current Status*:
• Completed removal action site.
• Planning administrative site closure.
• Based on the CAFB FEIS, DA-4 is located in an area designated as "Aviation Support."
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of DA-4.
Soil: Because land use at this site is industrial/commercial, public exposure (past, present, and future) is highly unlikely. On-site workers will not contact site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.
Discharge Area 5
(DA-5)
Parcel 3
Beginning in 1950, DA-5 was used as a discharge area. It includes two hazardous waste storage areas (HWS-2 and HWS-5), an oil/water separator, portions of the main aircraft washrack, and a section of the drainage ditch adjacent to the washrack. Soaps, solvents, oils, fuels, pesticides, and miscellaneous chemicals were disposed of at DA-3. Groundwater: Prior to the RI, downgradient monitoring wells detected VOCs (including TCE up to 26 µg/L and bromofluorobenzene [up to 105 µg/L]) in the shallow aquifer. During the RI, groundwater beneath DA-5 contained detectable levels of TCE (up to 0.8 µg/L) and toluene (at 0.24 µg/L).
Soil: TEPHs (up to 26,000 mg/kg) and TVPHs (up to 900 mg/kg) were detected in soil samples with the greatest concentrations at the surface. VOCs (including benzene and TCE) and SVOCs were detected but at levels below ATSDR comparison values. Metal concentrations exceeded TBVs.
Soil Gas: TCE (up to 13.5 µg/L) and benzene (up to 33.6 µg/L) concentrations were detected from the surface down to near the groundwater table.
Current Status*:
• In RI/FS process.
• Based on the CAFB FEIS, DA-5 is located in an area designated as "Aviation Support."
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of DA-5.
Soil: Because land use at this site is industrial/commercial, public exposure (past, present, and future) is highly unlikely. On-site workers will not contact site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.
Discharge Area 8
(DA-8)
DA-8 is a sanitary sewer and storm drain area which also contains a former bomb-trailer maintenance building, a washrack, and oil/water separator, and two USTs. In the past, solvents and other materials were discharged directly to the storm drain. The washrack was abandoned in 1991. Potential contaminants of concern include solvents, oil, and grease. Groundwater: DA-8 overlies the Main Base Plume. VOCs (including TCE levels above 5 µg/L and BTEXs) have been detected in groundwater underlying the site.
Soil: TEPHs, VOCs (including TCE and cis-1,2-DCE), and SVOCs were detected, but at levels well below ATSDR comparison values for soil. Cadmium, antimony, cobalt, chromium, vanadium, and zinc were detected at concentrations exceeding their respective TBVs.
Soil Gas: VOCs (including TCE up to 2,053 µg/L and cis-1,2-DCE below 100 µg/L) were detected in samples from the surface to near groundwater.
Corrective Activities:
• SVE technologies were installed. Three SVE pulsings (2-3 weeks duration) have been completed and a fourth pulsing has been planned.
• 210 pounds of contaminated soil were removed from DA-8.
• One UST was removed from this site.
Current Status*:
• In-progress removal action site.
• Based on the CAFB FEIS, DA-8 is located in an area designated as "Aviation Support."
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of DA-8.
Soil: Because land use at this site is industrial/commercial, public exposure (past, present, and future) is highly unlikely. On-site workers will not contact site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.
Earth Technology Corporation Site #10
(ETC #10)
ETC #10 is a former skeet and trap range located in the East Base Sector. The potential contaminants of concern for this site include lead and clay-pigeon material. Its dates of operation are unknown. Groundwater: All contaminants detected in groundwater underlying ETC # 10 remain below ATSDR comparison values.
Soil: Concentrations of lead (up to 283,000 mg/kg), antimony (up to 6,780 mg/kg), and arsenic (up to 1,350 mg/kg) significantly exceeded their respective TBVs.
Corrective Activities:
• Contaminated surface soil was excavated from ETC#10 during 1997. Additional excavation activities are planned for 1998.
Current Status*:
• In-progress removal action site.
• Based on the CAFB FEIS, ETC #10 is located in an area designated as "Public Facilities/Recreation."
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of ETC#10.
Soil: USAF remediation activities are remediating surface soil contaminant concentrations to below state and federal standards.
Earth Technology Corporation Site #11
(ETC #11)
ETC #11 is located in the East Base Sector. During a site inspection, debris and waste material were observed in the area, thereby classifying ETC #11 as a (potential) disposal site. It is not known what was disposed of at this site. Its dates of operation are also unknown. Groundwater: All contaminants detected in groundwater underlying ETC # 10 remain below ATSDR comparison values.
Soil: No VOCs or TEPHS were detected. Metal concentrations at ETC #11 occur within background ranges.
Soil Gas: Trace and low concentrations of VOCs were detected in shallow soil gas samples, but no concentrations exceeded ATSDR comparison values for air.
Current Status*:
• NFA pending approved Record of Decision.
• Based on the CAFB FEIS, ETC #11 is located in an area designated as "Public Facilities/Recreation."
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of ETC#10.
Soil: All surface soil contaminant concentrations remain below ATSDR comparison values.
Fire Training Area 1
(FTA-1)
Parcel 2
FTA-1 was an unlined fire training area with no surface fluid collection system. During its 20 years of operation from 1955 to 1975, the site contained a 2,000-gallon tank which was used to collect waste oil, fuel, solvents, and other chemicals. On a weekly basis, these materials were applied directly to the soil and ignited. Groundwater: Prior to the RI, TCE (up to 19 µg/L) and other VOCs were detected in nearby monitoring wells. During the RI, TCE (up to 79 µg/L), xylene (up to 130 µg/L), naphthalene (up to 59 µg/L), and other organic compounds were detected in in situ groundwater samples. Other RI sampling, however, indicates that groundwater contamination underlying FTA-1 contains TCE concentrations below the ATSDR comparison value of 5.0 ppb.
Soil: Three distinct vadose-zone fuel hydrocarbon plumes were identified in FTA-1 soil. TEPH (up to 19,000 mg/kg) and TVPH (up to 5,400 mg/kg) were detected. The maximum detected level of TCE was 360 mg/kg. BTEXs and SVOCs were also present at FTA-1, but at levels below ATSDR comparison values. Metal concentrations, specifically arsenic concentrations, were detected at levels of potential health concern in FTA-1 surface soil.
Soil Gas: VOCs that exceeded ATSDR comparison values for air included: TCE (up to 970 µg/L), benzene (up to 172.1 µg/L), and xylenes (up to 277.4 µg/L).
Corrective Activities:
• Approximately 47,000 pounds of contaminated soil and debris were removed from FTA-1.
• USAF put a clean soil cap over FTA-1 to contain metals, control soil gas, and enhance remediation processes.
• A SVE system was installed to remediate subsurface soil contamination. SVE operations began in November 1996.
Current Status*:
• In-progress removal action site.
• Based on the CAFB FEIS, FTA-1 is located in an area designated as "Public Facilities/Recreation."
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of FTA-1.
Soil: USAF remediation activities have lowered surface soil contaminant concentrations below ATSDR comparison values.
Fire Training Area 2
(FTA-2)
Parcel 3
FTA-2 was an unlined fire training area with no surface fluid collection system. It operated from 1962 to 1967. Fuel, waste oil, and solvents were dumped at this site. Foam extinguishers were disposed of at FTA-2, but the types of chemicals used in fire suppression are unknown. Groundwater: Prior to the RI, TCE up to 2.77 µg/L was detected in monitoring wells near FTA-2. Phase 1 of the RI, however, did not confirm these previously detected VOC concentrations.
Soil: Low-level SVOC and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) concentrations were detected in surface soil, but all detected concentrations remained well below ATSDR comparison values. No TEPHs were detected in soil samples. Dioxins were not analyzed because no burn residues were identified during the RI.
Soil Gas: TCE (up to 5.2 µg/L) and trace amounts of other VOCs were detected.
Current Status*:
• In RI/FS process.
• Based on the CAFB FEIS, FTA-2 is located in an area designated as "Aviation Support."
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of FTA-2.
Soil: Because land use at this site is industrial/commercial, public exposure (past, present, and future) is highly unlikely. On-site workers will not contact site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.
Fire Training Area 3
(FTA-3)
Parcel 3
FTA-3 is a fire training area that began operation in 1976. The burn area is unlined and surrounded by a 2-foot berm. There is a surface fluid collection system present designated to collect runoff fuel and water. Jet fuel (pumped through a sprinkler system) was the primary combustible used at FTA-3. Groundwater: Part of FTA-3 overlies the northern reach of the Main Base TCE plume. TCE concentrations under the site range from less than 0.5 ppb to over 5.0 ppb. FTA-3 may be one of the TCE sources contributing to groundwater contamination.
Soil: TVPHs (up to 1,500 mg/kg) and TEPHs ( up to 580 mg/kg) were detected in two samples, but contamination appears confined to the sprinkler area at depths above 5 feet bgs.
Soil Gas: VOCs, BTEXs, and TEPHs detected were confined to downhole samples.
Corrective Activities:
• USAF plans to biovent FTA-3 using SVE.
Current Status*:
• In RI/FS process.
• Based on the CAFB FEIS, FTA-3 is located in an area designated as "Aviation Support."
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of FTA-3.
Soil: Because land use at this site is industrial/commercial, public exposure (past, present, and future) is highly unlikely. On-site workers will not contact site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.
Fuel Spill 1
(FSp-1)
Parcel 1
FSp-1 is located in the West Flight Line Sector of the Main Base. In November 1977, approximately 21,000 gallons of jet fuel were released to the soil. Approximately 1,000 gallons were recovered by CAFB. The remaining fuel infiltrated into the soil or evaporated. Groundwater: Nearby monitoring wells detected low-level or sporadically-occurring TPH, VOC, and BTEX concentrations. No detected concentrations exceed ATSDR comparison values.
Soil: TVPH (up to 4,200 mg/kg) and TEPH (up to 20,000 mg/kg) were detected in soil samples. VOCs were detected at concentrations up to 440 mg/kg. Lead (up to 75 mg/kg) occurred above its TBV. No other metal analyses were conducted.
Soil Gas: Only a few VOCs were detected, and all were limited to downhole samples.
Corrective Activities:
• USAF removed 137,000 pounds of contaminated soil from FSp-1.
• SVE technology was installed and used during 1996.
Current Status*:
• Completed removal action site.
• FSp-1 Draft Closure Report submitted 1/7/98.
• Based on the CAFB FEIS, FSp-1 is located in an area designated as "Aviation Support."
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of FSp-1.
Soil: Because land use at this site is industrial/commercial, public exposure (past, present, and future) is highly unlikely. On-site workers will not contact site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.
Fuel Spill 2
(FSp-2)
Parcel 1
FSp-2 is the former location of five USTs in the West Flight Line Sector of the Main Base. Before 1991, an undetermined amount of jet fuel was released from these USTs, probably as a result of overflowing. Groundwater: All contaminants detected in groundwater underlying FSp-2 remain below ATSDR comparison values.
Soil: Investigations prior to the RI, detected oil and grease (up to 10,000 mg/kg) and TPH (up to 90.8 mg/kg). During the RI Phase 1 and Phase 2 investigations, TVPH (up to 670 mg/kg) and TEPH (up to 270 mg/kg) were detected, primarily in the upper 10 feet of soil. VOCs were detected at trace and low levels significantly below ATSDR comparison values.
Soil Gas: VOCs were detected in downhole soil gas samples.
Corrective Activities:
• In 1991, USAF removed the five USTs located at this site.
• USAF removed 4 pounds of contaminated soil from FSp-2.
• SVE technology was installed at FSp-2 as a site demonstration project.
Current Status*:
• Completed removal action site.
• FSp-1 Draft Closure Report submitted 1/7/98.
• Based on the CAFB FEIS, FSp-2 is located in an area designated as "Aviation Support."
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of FSp-2.
Soil: Because land use at this site is industrial/commercial, public exposure (past, present, and future) is highly unlikely. On-site workers will not contact site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.
Fuel Spill 3
(FSp-3)
Parcel 1
FSp-3 is located near a fuel pumping station in the West Flight Line Sector of the Main Base. An undetermined amount of jet fuel (estimated between several hundred and several thousand gallons) was released to the soil between the 1950s and 1970. Nine 25,000-gallon and two 2,000-gallon USTs were located near the spill area. Groundwater: Groundwater beneath the site appears to be impacted by VOCs, but at levels below ATSDR comparison values. Investigations prior to the RI also found low levels (less than 4 mg/kg) of TPH in nearby monitoring wells.
Soil: TVPH (up to 3,800 mg/kg) and TEPH (up to 34,000 mg/kg) were detected during the RI. VOCs were also detected, but at levels below ATSDR comparison values.
Soil Gas: A few VOCs were detected in downhole soil gas sampling.
Corrective Activities:
• In 1991, USAF removed the 11 USTs located near this site.
Current Status*:
• In RI/FS process.
• Based on the CAFB FEIS, FSp-3 is located in an area designated as "Aviation Support."
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of FSp-3.
Soil: Because land use at this site is industrial/commercial, public exposure (past, present, and future) is highly unlikely. On-site workers will not contact site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.
Landfill 1
(LF-1)
Parcel 10
LF-1, located at the southern boundary of the Main Base, operated from 1940 until 1950. LF-1 comprises approximately 30 acres. It was used for the disposal of general refuse, but also contains three disposal pits. The disposal pits received chemical, petrochemical, metal, and radioactive wastes. Groundwater: Groundwater beneath the site appears to be impacted by VOCs (specifically TCE and toluene), but at levels below ATSDR comparison values.
Soil: TVPH (up to 310 mg/kg) and TEPH (up to 3,500 mg/kg) were detected. VOCs and SVOCs were detected at levels below ATSDR comparison values. Metal concentrations were elevated relative to TBVs established for CAFB.
Soil Gas: VOCs, including PCE (up to 10.2 µg/L) and xylenes (1.6 µg/L), were detected in six shallow samples.
Current Status*:
• In RI/FS process.
• Based on the CAFB FEIS, LF-1 is located in an area designated as "Commercial."
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of LF-1.
Soil: Because land use at this site is industrial/commercial and LF-1 is surrounded by perimeter fencing, public exposure (past, present, and future) is highly unlikely. On-site workers will not contact site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.
Landfill 2
(LF-2)
Parcel 3
LF-2, located near the southern boundary of the Main Base, operated from 1951 to 1953. It received approximately 6,000 cubic yards of general refuse, in addition to small quantities of waste chemicals. Groundwater: Prior to the RI, five nearby monitoring wells detected low levels of oil and grease (less than 39 mg/L) and total organic halides (up to 39 mg/L), but no contaminants detected exceeded ATSDR comparison values.
Soil: VOCs were detected at levels below ATSDR comparison values. Metals, specifically lead (up to 231 mg/kg) and cadmium (up to 2,930 mg/kg) were detected above TBVs.
Soil Gas: VOCs, including dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC12) (246.7 µg/L) and carbon tetrachloride (226 µg/L) were detected.
Corrective Activities:
• Approximately 12,300 cubic yards of waste (out of an estimated 31,000 cubic yards planned for remediation activities) have been excavated to date by the USAF.
Current Status*:
• In-progress removal action site.
• Based on the CAFB FEIS, LF-2 is located in an area designated as "Aviation Support."
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of LF-2.
Soil: Because land use at this site is industrial/commercial, public exposure (past, present, and future) is highly unlikely. On-site workers will not contact site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.
Landfill 3
(LF-3)
Parcel 2
LF-3, located on the northeast boundary of the Main Base, operated from 1954 to 1956. It received general refuse and chemical wastes, but specific information on the materials disposed of at LF-3 are not available. Groundwater: Trace amounts of benzene and TCE were detected in monitoring wells on the perimeter of the landfill, but no detects exceeded ATSDR comparison values.
Soil: No organic or inorganic contaminant levels at LF-3 were detected above ATSDR comparison values. Low TEPH concentrations (up to 52 mg/kg) and trace amounts of SVOC and BTEX compounds were detected in surface soil samples, but none were detected in soil from excavated test pits. VOCs were not detected. Metals (including lead up to 28,500 mg/kg in a single sample) were sporadically detected in soil samples at concentrations above TBVs.
Soil Gas: No VOCs were detected in soil gas samples.
Current Status*:
• In RI/FS process.
• Based on the CAFB FEIS, LF-3 is located in an area designated as "Public Facilities/Recreation."
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of LF-3.
Soil: All surface soil contaminant concentrations remain below ATSDR comparison values.
Landfill 4
(LF-4)
Parcels 1, 3
LF-4 lies in the West Base Sector of the Main Base. It operated from 1957 until 1970. It received approximately 26,000 cubic yards of general refuse. In addition, LF-4 contains two disposal pits which received industrial wastes, including solvents, oils, and miscellaneous chemicals. Groundwater: In 1985, low concentrations (3.7 µg/L) of TCE were detected in monitoring wells. Similar detections of TCE and other VOCs were detected in groundwater samples collected in 1987. All contaminant concentrations detected in groundwater underlying LF-4 remained below ATSDR comparison values.
Soil: No organic or inorganic contaminant levels at LF-4 were detected above ATSDR comparison values. The greatest concentrations of VOCs (1,4-dichlorobenzene up to 5.9 µg/kg and xylenes up to 2.8 µg/kg) occurred within a limited area at one disposal pit. Except for surface lead (which slightly exceeded its TBV in one location) near-surface metals concentrations occurred within their respective background ranges.
Soil Gas: Chloroflurohydrocarbons (CFCs) (primarily CFC12 greater than 10 µg/L), and VOCs (primarily vinyl chloride greater than 10 µg/L) were spatially widespread in soil gas samples, with the highest concentrations occurring near the disposal pit areas.
Corrective Activities:
• Waste excavated from CVLF-A, CVLF-B, and LF-2 have been consolidated into LF-4.
• After consolidation is complete, LF-4 will be capped.
Access to LF-4 is restricted by perimeter fencing.
Current Status*:
• In-progress removal action (consolidation) site.
• Based on the CAFB FEIS, LF-4 is located in an area designated as "Industrial."
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of LF-4.
Soil: Because land use at this site is industrial/commercial and LF-4 is surrounded by perimeter fencing, public exposure (past, present, and future) is highly unlikely. On-site workers will not contact site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.
Landfill 5
(LF-5)
Parcel 4
LF-5, located near the Main Base's northern boundary, operated from 1971 to 1977. It was likely a trench and fill style landfill operation. LF-5 contains approximately 12,000 cubic yards of general refuse, including municipal, construction, and demolition wastes. LF-5 also received miscellaneous chemicals at five disposal pit areas. Specific records of wastes disposed were not available. Groundwater: Prior to the RI, low concentrations of TCE (up to 1.8 µg/L) were detected in groundwater underlying LF-5. Subsequent investigations have revealed that a TCE plume (the North Base Plume) underlies LF-5. North Base Plume TCE concentrations slightly exceed the ATSDR comparison value (5 ppb) in a limited area of the landfill's central portion.
Soil: TEPHs (up to 430 mg/kg) and TVPHs (up to 3.8 mg/kg) were detected in soil samples, with the greatest concentrations occurring within limited areas of the disposal pits. VOCs and SVOCs were also detected in disposal pit areas, but no concentrations exceeded ATSDR comparison values. Metal concentrations were detected at concentrations above TBVs.
Soil Gas: VOCs and BTEX compounds were widespread in soil gas underlying LF-5. The highest concentrations, CFC12 (greater then 1,000 µg/L) and vinyl chloride (greater than 200 µg/L) were detected in a disposal pit area.
Current Status*:
• In RI/FS process.
• Based on the CAFB FEIS, LF-5 is located in an area designated as "Industrial."
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of LF-5.
Soil: Because land use at this site is industrial/commercial and LF-5 is surrounded by perimeter fencing, public exposure (past, present, and future) is highly unlikely. On-site workers will not contact site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.
Petroleum, Oil, and Lubricants (POL) Fuel Farm Area
(PFFA)
Parcel 3
During the 1940s and 1950s, this site operated as a bulk storage facility for petro-chemicals, USTs, and oil/water separators. PFFA also contained a pesticide equipment rinse area, in which rinse water was discharged to a lined pit and allowed to evaporate. Pesticides, solvents, acids, motor oil, jet fuel, diesel, and petroleum were disposed of at the PFFA. Groundwater: Prior to the RI, TCE (up to 26.0 ppb), benzene (up to 660 ppb), and xylenes (up to 43 ppb) were reported in groundwater underlying the PFFA. During the RI, TEPH, TVPH, TCE, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and BTEX compounds were detected in downgradient monitoring wells. Parts of the PFFA overlie the Main Plume, with a small amount of groundwater underlying the site exceeding ATSDR's drinking water comparison value for TCE (5 ppb).
Soil: No contaminant concentrations in PFFA surface soil exceeded ATSDR comparison values. However, soil contamination (TEPH, TVPH, TCE, benzene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) was widespread in subsurface soils, with the greatest detected concentrations occurring approximately 50 feet bgs. Some metals were detected at concentrations above their respective TBVs.
Soil Gas: Benzene (up to 640.4 µg/L), xylenes (up to 563.5 µg/L), TCE (up to 11.5 µg/L) and other VOCs were detected in soil gas samples.
Corrective Activities:
• The lined pit used in the pesticide equipment rinse area was removed between 1983 and 1984.
Current Status*:
• In RI/FS process.
• Based on the CAFB FEIS, the PFFA is located in an area designated as "Aviation Support."
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of the PFFA.
Soil: Because land use at this site is industrial/commercial, public exposure (past, present, and future) is highly unlikely. On-site workers will not contact site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.
Polychlorinated Biphenyl Site 9
(PCB-9)
Parcel 4
PCB-9 is a PCB spill area on a concrete floor near Building 1213. The spill occurred in May 1983. It was the result of a transformer leak which released an undetermined quantity of PCB oil. The spill was reportedly cleaned up the day after the leak was observed. Groundwater: PCB-9 overlies the Main Plume (TCE concentrations above 5 ppb), but the site does not appear to contribute to the underlying groundwater contamination.
Soil: PCBs were detected in three soil samples, with the maximum surface concentration (0.79 ppm) slightly exceeding the ATSDR comparison value (0.4 ppm [CREG]). No other contaminants were detected above ATSDR comparison values.
Corrective Activities:
• USAF excavated approximately 35 cubic yards of soil at PCB-9 in early 1998. After confirmation samples indicated that the soil was clean, the site was backfilled.
Current Status*:
• In-progress removal action site.
• Based on the CAFB FEIS, PCB-9 is located in an area designated as "Industrial."
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of PCB-9.
Soil: Because land use at this site is industrial/commercial, public exposure (past, present, and future) is highly unlikely. On-site workers will not contact site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.
Sanitary Sewer
Line 8
(SS8)
The Castle AFB sanitary sewer piping was installed in 1941 and initially served all industrial facilities. Large amounts of industrial wastes and unknown chemicals were disposed of through SS8. Currently, only sanitary sewage water is collected and routed via SS8 to the Base Sewage Treatment Plant. The potential contaminants of concern include solvents, fuels, and oils. Groundwater: Contamination at SS8 in the vadose zone may affect groundwater. Groundwater underlying the site contains TCE concentrations above ATSDR's comparison value (5 ppb).
Soil: TEPHs (up to 110 mg/kg) were detected at 14 feet bgs in soil samples.
Soil Gas: Toluene (up to 256.6 µg/L) was detected in soil gas samples at 20 feet bgs.
Corrective Activities:
• Repair project programmed and pending.
Current Status*:
• In RI/FS process.
• Based on the CAFB FEIS, SS8 is located in an area designated as "Industrial," "Institutional (educational)," "Commercial," and "Aviation Support."
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of SS8.
Soil: Because land use at this site is industrial/commercial, public exposure (past, present, and future) is highly unlikely. On-site workers will not contact site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.
Stain 41
(ST-41)
ST-41 lies on a refueling parking apron in the Main Base Sector. It is not known when or what materials were disposed of at ST-41, but the primary contaminants of concern include diesel, jet fuel, and possibly solvents. Groundwater: All contaminants detected in groundwater underlying ST-41 remain below ATSDR comparison values.
Soil: PAH compounds (including phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene) were detected in surface scrapes, but all concentrations remained below ATSDR's comparison value. No contamination was found in subsurface soil.
Current Status*:
• In preliminary assessment/site inspection (PA/SI) process.
• Based on the CAFB FEIS, ST-41 is located in an area designated as "Aviation Support."
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of ST-41.
Soil: Because land use at this site is industrial/commercial, public exposure (past, present, and future) is highly unlikely. On-site workers will not contact site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.
Storm Drain System
(SDS)
The SDS consists of more than 47,600 linear feet of underground storm drains and open, unlined ditches across the base. Runoff is routed toward the southeast corner of the base and allowed to evaporate and infiltrate. Until 1984, fuel spills on the flight line were washed to the SDS. In addition, the SDS may have received waste from DA-3, DA-4, DA-5, DA-8, Bldg. 1335, Bldg. 1350, and the PFFA. The potential contaminants of concern include fuels, waste fuels, solvents, oil, and grease. Groundwater: Low concentrations of TVPH, bis(2-etylhexyl) phthalate, and several VOCs (less than 0.0026 mg/L) were detected in surface water samples.
Surface Water: TVPH, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and several VOCs were detected at low concentrations. All contaminant concentrations detected in SDS surface water remained below ATSDR comparison values.
Soil/Sediment: Elevated levels of oil and grease (up to 2,400 mg/kg) were detected in soil samples. TVPH (up to 12 mg/kg) and TEPH (up to 13 mg/kg) were detected in sediment samples. SDS sediments contained SVOCs (up to 3.2 mg/kg) and metals above TBVs. The maximum lead concentration (1,100 mg/kg) slightly exceeded the total threshold limit concentration (1,000 mg/kg).
Corrective Activities:
• USAF cleaned out the SDS. All excavated SDS soil is currently stockpiled for use at Landfill 4 (pending regulatory evaluation).
Current Status*:
• In PA/SI process.
• Based on the CAFB FEIS, SDS is located in an area designated as "Airfield," "Aviation Support," "Industrial," and "Commercial."
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of SDS.
Soil: Because land use at this site is industrial/commercial, public exposure (past, present, and future) is highly unlikely. On-site workers will not contact site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.
Structure T-61
Parcel 3
Structure T-61, located in the Main Base Sector, was constructed in 1941 as a temporary oil and lubricant gas station. The site formerly contained one 10,000-gallon and two 5,000-gallon USTs which contained fuels, solvents, and waste oils. T-61 also served as a storage area for hazardous waste (HWS-1). Material disposed of at this site include fuels, oils, hydraulic fluids, and solvents. Groundwater: T-61 overlies the Maine Plume. VOCs (TCE at 19 ppb) and BTEX compounds (xylene at 4.07 ppb) were detected in an in situ groundwater sample.
Soil: The bulk of contamination at T-61 occurred between 0 and 20 feet bgs. TVPH (up to 2,000 mg/kg) and TEPH (up to 2,700 mg/kg) were detected in soil samples. VOCs and BTEX compounds were also detected in the soil, but at levels below ATSDR comparison values. SVOC concentrations (including benzo(a)pyrene [up to 11 mg/kg] and benzo(b)fluoranthene [up to 17 mg/kg]) were detected above the ATSDR comparison value of 0.1 ppm, but the SVOC detects occurred in subsurface soil. Metal concentrations were below TBVs, except for two lead detections which slightly exceeded the TBV established for CAFB.
Soil Gas: Soil gas contamination also occurred primarily between 0 and 20 feet bgs. VOCs including toluene (up to 30.7 µg/L) and xylenes (up to 422.9 µg/L) were detected.
Corrective Activities:
• April 1991, USAF removed the USTs at T-61.
Current Status*:
• In RI/FS process.
• Based on the CAFB FEIS, T-61 is located in an area designated as "Commercial."
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of T-61.
Soil: Because land use at this site is industrial/commercial, public exposure (past, present, and future) is highly unlikely. On-site workers will not contact site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.
Underground Fuel Leak 3
(UFL-3)
Parcel 3
Located in the Main Base Sector, UFL-3 consists of a UST group and an associated pump/transfer facility that operated from 1940 until 1960. The potential contaminants of concern are JP-4 and other VOCs. Groundwater: Investigations prior to the RI detected TPH (up to 2,500 µg/L) and TCE (up to 5.4 µg/L) in monitoring well groundwater, but recent investigations indicate that groundwater underlying UFL-3 does not contain any contaminants above ATSDR comparison values (5.0 ppb for TCE). No contamination was detected in groundwater samples collected during the 1994 RI from two of the three monitoring wells at UFL-3.
Soil: During investigations prior to the RI, toluene was the only VOC detected in soil samples at UFL-3, and TPH was detected up to 385 mg/kg. Contaminants detected during Phase 1 of the RI, included TEPH (up to 2,200 mg/kg), TVPH (up to 1,500 mg/kg), and aromatic VOCs. In general, the contamination at UFL-3 appears concentrated in soils above 20 feet bgs. Metal concentrations appeared within normal background range, except for two soil samples which contained lead levels slightly above the TBV established for CAFB.
Soil Gas: Investigations prior to the RI detected TCE up to 5 ppb and TPH up to 26 ppb in soil gas samples collected from UFL-3. During the RI, TCE (up to 0.391 µg/L) was detected in two boreholes. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) compounds and several other VOCs were detected in soil gas samples, with their distribution similar to that or the TPH compound distribution in soil.
Current Status*:
• In RI/FS process.
• Based on the CAFB FEIS, UFL-3 is located in an area designated as "Aviation Support."
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of UFL-3.
Soil: Because land use at this site is industrial/commercial, public exposure (past, present, and future) is highly unlikely. On-site workers will not contact site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.
Sources: Jacobs, 1996b, 1997a,b; USAF, 1998; Gutierrez-Palmenberg, 1998a,b.

* Some changes to site status are under consideration as documented in the Draft SCOU Record of Decision Part 1, November 2, 1998 (see Appendix E).


TABLE A2 (No Further Action Sites)*
Site Site Site
Bldg. 23 Bldg. 1324 DP-8a (Evaluated as part of LF-5)
Bldg. 47 Bldg. 1325/HWS-3 DP-9 (Evaluated as part of LF-5)
Bldg. 51 Bldg. 1335 DP-10 (Evaluated as part of LF-5)
Bldg. 52 Bldg. 1350 ETC#2
Bldg. 53 Bldg. 1404 ETC#3
Bldg. 54 Bldg. 1405 ETC#4 (Evaluated with ST-61)
Bldg. 59 (Evaluated as part of PFFA) Bldg. 1529 ETC#5
Bldg. 79 (Evaluated as part of PFFA) Bldg. 1532 ETC#6
Bldg. 84 Bldg. 1541 ETC#7
Bldg. 175 Bldg. 1550 (Evaluated with DA-8) ETC#8
Bldg. 325 Bldg. 1560 ETC#12
Bldg. 508 (Evaluated as part of PFFA) Bldg. 1562 ETC#13
Bldg. 541 Bldg. 1709 F-1
Bldg. 545 (Evaluated with Bldg. 547) Bldg. 1762 F-2
Bldg. 547 Bldg. 1865/1868 F-3
Bldg. 551 DA-1 (Evaluated with TCC-1)* F-4
Bldg. 909 (Evaluated as part of PFFA) DA-2 F-5
Bldg. 917 (Evaluated as part of PFFA) DA-6 F-6
Bldg. 950 (Evaluated with TCC-1) DA-7 (Evaluated as part of PFFA) Firing Range
Bldg. 951 (Evaluated with TCC-1) DP-1 (Evaluated as part of LF-1) FSp-4
Bldg. 1182 DP-2 (Evaluated as part of LF-1) H-4 (Evaluated with UFL-4)
Bldg. 1204 (Evaluated with Bldg. 1205) DP-3 (Evaluated as part of LF-1) HWS-4
Bldg. 1205 DP-4a/4b Industrial Waste Line (IWL)
Bldg. 1207 DP-5 (Evaluated as part of LF-4) JP-4 Fuel Line
Bldg. 1266 DP-6 (Evaluated as part of LF-4) LF-5 Trenches (Evaluated as part of LF-5)
Bldg. 1314 (Evaluated with DA-4) DP-7 (Evaluated as part of LF-5) PCB-5
Bldg. 1319 DP-8 (Evaluated as part of LF-5) SA B-1 (Evaluated with DA-3)
SA B-2 Stain-17 (Evaluated as Stain-11) Structure 55
SA B3 Stain-18 (Evaluated as Stain-11) Structure 1201
SA B4 Stain-19 (Evaluated as Stain-11) Structure 1206 (Evaluated with Bldg. 1205)
Sanitary Sewer 1 Stain-20 (Evaluated as Stain-11) Structure 1571
Sanitary Sewer 2 Stain-21 (Evaluated as Stain-11) Structure T-66
Sanitary Sewer 3 Stain-22 (Evaluated as Stain-11) Structure T-67
Sanitary Sewer 4 Stain-23 (Evaluated as Stain-11) Structure T-85
Sanitary Sewer 5 Stain-24 (Evaluated as Stain-11) SWMU 4.4 (Evaluated with Bldg. 59)
Sanitary Sewer 6 Stain-25 (Evaluated as Stain-11) SWMU 4.5 (Evaluated as part of PFFA)
Sanitary Sewer 7 Stain-26 (Evaluated as Stain-11) SWMU 4.6
Sanitary Sewer 9 Stain-27 (Evaluated as Stain-11) SWMU 4.7 (Evaluated with Bldg. 175)
Stain-1 (Evaluated as Stain-11) Stain-28 (Evaluated as Stain-11) SWMU 4.8 (Evaluated with Bldg. 175)
Stain-2 (Evaluated as Stain-11) Stain-29 (Evaluated as Stain-11) SWMU 4.9 (Evaluated with Bldg. 325)
Stain-3 (Evaluated as Stain-11) Stain-30 (Evaluated as Stain-11) SWMU 4.10 (Evaluated with Bldg. 325)
Stain-4 (Evaluated as Stain-11) Stain-31 (Evaluated as Stain-11) SWMU 4.11 (Evaluated with Bldg. 325)
Stain-5 (Evaluated as Stain-11) Stain-32 (Evaluated as Stain-11) SWMU 4.13 (Evaluated with Bldg. 508)
Stain-6 (Evaluated as Stain-11) Stain-33 (Evaluated as Stain-41) SWMU 4.14 (Evaluated with Bldg. 551)
Stain-7 (Evaluated as Stain-11) Stain-34 (Evaluated as Stain-41) SWMU 4.15 (Evaluated as part of PFFA)
Stain-8 (Evaluated as Stain-11) Stain-35 (Evaluated as Stain-41) SWMU 4.16
Stain-9 (Evaluated as Stain-11) Stain-36 (Evaluated as Stain-41) SWMU 4.17 (Evaluated with Bldg. 1260)
Stain-10 (Evaluated as Stain-11) Stain-37 (Evaluated as Stain-41) SWMU 4.18 (Evaluated with Bldg. 1260)
Stain-11 Stain-38 (Evaluated as Stain-41) SWMU 4.19 (Evaluated with Bldg. 1324)
Stain-12 (Evaluated as Stain-11) Stain-39 (Evaluated as Stain-41) SWMU 4.20
Stain-13 (Evaluated as Stain-11) Stain-40 (Evaluated as Stain-41) SWMU 4.21 (Evaluated with DA-5)
Stain-14 (Evaluated as Stain-11) Stain-42 (Evaluated as Stain-11) SWMU 4.22 (Evaluated with Structure 1571)
Stain-15 (Evaluated as Stain-11) Stain-43 (Evaluated as Stain-11) SWMU 4.23 (Evaluated with Bldg. 1541)
Stain-16 (Evaluated as Stain-11) Stain-44 (Evaluated as Stain-41) SWMU 4.25 (Evaluated with Bldg. 1182)
SWMU 4.26 (Evaluated with Bldg. 1253) SWMU 4.32 (Evaluated with Bldg. 1532) SWMU 4.38 (Evaluated with DA-5)
SWMU 4.27 (Evaluated with Bldg. 1253) SWMU 4.33 (Evaluated with DA-5) Test Center Cell 1*
SWMU 4.28 (Evaluated with DBF) SWMU 4.34 (Evaluated with Bldg. 1319) UFL-1
SWMU 4.29 (Evaluated with Bldg. 1260) SWMU 4.35 (Evaluated with Bldg. 325) UFL-2
SWMU 4.30 (Evaluated with Bldg. 1253) SWMU 4.36 (Evaluated with Bldg. 1324) UFL-4
SWMU 4.31 (Evaluated with Bldg. 1350) SWMU 4.37 (Evaluated with the IWL)  

Bldg. = Building
DA = Discharge Area
DP = Disposal Pit
ETC = Earth Technology Corporation
F = Aircraft Maintenance Site
FSp = Fuel Spill
FTA = Fire Training Area
H = Gasoline Station
IWL = Industrial Waste Line
HWS = Hazardous Waste Storage Area
JP-4 = Jet Fuel
LF = Landfill
PFFA = POL Fuel Farm Area
POL = Petroleum, Oil, and Lubricants
SA = Storage Area
SWMU= Solid Waste Management Unit
TCC = Test Cell Center
UFL = Underground Fuel Leak

* DA-1 and TCC-1 should be counted as a single site
Source: Jacobs, 1997a,b.


APPENDIX B: ESTIMATES OF HUMAN EXPOSURE DOSE AND DETERMINATION OF HEALTH EFFECTS OF PAST CONSUMPTION OF TCE-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER

Derivation of ATSDR's Estimated Exposure Doses

To determine whether noncancer and cancer effects are a concern for this pathway, ATSDR estimated adult and child exposure doses for past ingestion of TCE-contaminated groundwater in the vicinity of Castle AFB. In deriving human exposure doses, ATSDR incorporated information about the frequency and duration of potential contaminant exposure. ATSDR assumed that a typical adult drank 2 liters of water each day and weighed 70 kg and that a child drank 1 liter of water each day and weighed 10 kg. ATSDR used an exposure period of 5 years for adults and children (to consider the maximum number of years in any one production well between when TCE was first detected above state and federal standards and when TCE levels were reduced to below state and federal standards in on- and off-base drinking water supplies(1)). ATSDR also assumed that the drinking water pumped to residential taps contained the maximum TCE concentration (24 ppb) detected in an active production well. Furthermore, ATSDR assumed that 100% of the water used for drinking came from the groundwater contaminated by Castle AFB activities.

ATSDR used the following equation to estimate potential exposure doses for past ingestion of groundwater from abandoned wells in the former housing area that may have been affected by the TCE plume:

ATSDR used the following equation to estimate potential exposure doses for past ingestion of groundwater from abandoned wells in the former housing area that may have been affected by the TCE plume

where:

Where:
Conc. = Maximum detected contaminant concentration in an active production well: 0.024 ppm
IR = Ingestion rate (liters/day): 2 liters/day for adults; 1 liter/day for children (EPA, 1989, 1995)
EF = Exposure frequency or number of exposure events per year of exposure:
1 event/day x 7 days/week x 52 weeks/year or approximately 365 events/year
ED = Exposure duration or the duration over which exposure occurs: 5 years (coincides with the approximate time span that TCE was first detected above the MCL and last detected above the MCL in production wells [1984 to 1989])
BW

= Body weight (kg): 70 kg for adult; 10 kg for children

AT = Averaging time or the time period over which cumulative exposures are averaged (5 years x 365 days/year for noncancer effects; 70 years x 365 days/year for cancer)

The estimated exposure doses calculated are conservative estimates and may overestimate actual doses received by this population. Actual doses associated with exposure to water in the abandoned wells is expected to be less than estimates presented above, based on the following reasons:

  • The maximum detected TCE concentration used to estimate exposure doses for all residents in the vicinity of Castle AFB was detected in a shallow private well serving only one family. All other TCE detections in active drinking water wells (on- and off-base) only slightly exceeded the 5.0 ppb MCL.
  • The exposure frequency is extremely conservative, particularly considering that at the time of the 24 ppb detection, USAF was providing the family with bottled drinking water. USAF supplied all individuals exposed to TCE above 5 ppb in their drinking water (Castle AFB residents, employees, and visitors, Castle Gardens residents, Santa Fe Drive Residents, and Wallace Road residents) with contaminant-free drinking water sources. The dose is estimated using an exposure frequency of 365 days per year; it is highly unlikely that residents were drinking water from contaminated wells, especially on a daily basis.
  • Similarly, the exposure duration is extremely conservative. The exposure duration used to estimate the exposure dose was 5 years for adults and children (the estimated length of time TCE-contamination in active production wells exceeded the MCL). This estimate probably overestimates exposure because not all wells were contaminated or active for the full 5 years.

Evaluation of ATSDR's Estimated Exposure Dose

Noncancer Effects

When evaluating noncancer effects, ATSDR uses standard health guidelines, such as ATSDR's Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs), to determine whether adverse effects will occur. An MRL is defined as an estimate of daily human exposure to a chemical that is likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects (noncancer) over a specified duration of exposure. In the ATSDR Toxicological Profiles, MRLs are developed for acute, intermediate, and chronic exposure intervals. MRLs for TCE are available for acute (14 days or less) exposure only. The resulting estimated exposure doses of 0.0007 mg/kg/day for adults and 0.0024 mg/kg/day for children do not exceed ATSDR's MRL of 0.2 mg/kg/day for acute oral exposure. To assess whether adverse health effects will occur from intermediate or chronic exposure, ATSDR reviewed several toxicologic studies which evaluated intermediate and chronic exposures in animals. ATSDR found that the conservative exposure dose estimates for adults and children were approximately 250 and 100 times lower (respectively) than the lowest reported lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level (LOAEL) in the literature. ATSDR does not expect the use of drinking water to cause noncancer health effects for residents, employees, or visitors (adult and child) in the vicinity of Castle AFB.

Cancer Effects

Although TCE has been shown to produce cancer in experimental animals when administered in large doses, the link between TCE in drinking water and human cancer cases is not well established (ATSDR, 1997). Available human studies examining cancer effects associated with drinking water exposures to TCE have been largely inconclusive. EPA, in an effort to determine a cancer classification for TCE, is currently reviewing the scientific literature pertaining to the carcinogenicity of TCE.

For screening purposes, ATSDR used a previously derived cancer potency factors (CPF) for TCE of 0.011 (mg/kg/day). CPFs, developed using data from animal or human studies, define the relationship between exposure doses and the likelihood of an increased risk of developing cancer over a lifetime. The derivation of CPFs often requires extrapolation from high exposure doses administered in animal studies to lower exposure levels typical of human exposure to environmental contaminants. Because CPFs represent the upper-bound estimate of the probability of developing cancer at a defined level of exposure, they tend to be very conservative (i.e., overestimate the actual risk) in order to account for a number of uncertainties in the data used in extrapolation. Therefore, this approach provides a conservative evaluation of the likelihood of cancer effects being associated with the levels of TCE detected in drinking water in the vicinity of Castle AFB.

ATSDR estimated the potential for cancer to occur using the following equation:

Lifetime Cancer Risk = Estimated exposure dose (mg/kg/day) x CPF (mg/kg/day)-1

For the Castle AFB site, ATSDR derived a lifetime cancer estimate from TCE-contaminated drinking water of 5 x 10-7 (or an increased likelihood of 5 in 10 million). Although no risk of cancer is considered acceptable, because a zero cancer risk is not possible to achieve, ATSDR often uses a range of 10-4 to 10-6 estimated lifetime cancer risk (or 1 new case in 10,000 to 1,000,000 exposed persons) to determine whether there is a concern for cancer effects. The Castle AFB cancer estimate is less than ATSDR's range of 10-4 to 10-6. Therefore, ATSDR does not consider an increased risk of cancer from TCE-contaminated drinking water to be a concern for residents, employees, or visitors of Castle AFB and the surrounding areas.

Conclusions

ATSDR compared the doses estimated based on the above-described assumptions and compared them to the MRL to evaluate noncancer effects and applied the CPF to evaluate cancer effects. Based on this exercise, ATSDR concludes the following:

  • The estimated exposure doses for both adults (0.0007 mg/kg/day) and children (0.0024 mg/kg/day) are less than the acute MRL (0.2 mg/kg/day); therefore, adverse noncancer effects are not expected to be associated with any short-term drinking water exposures.
  • The estimated intermediate and chronic exposure doses for adults (0.0007 mg/kg/day) and children (0.0024 mg/kg/day) are approximately 250 and 100 times lower, respectively, than oral TCE-exposure doses associated with noncancer effects observed in available studies; therefore, adverse noncancer effects are not expected to be associated with drinking water exposure.
  • The estimated lifetime cancer risk estimate from TCE-contaminated drinking water is 5 x 10-7 (or an increased likelihood of 5 in 10 million) for Castle AFB. Because this estimate is less than ATSDR's screening range of 10-4 to 10-6, ATSDR does not consider this increased risk of cancer from TCE-contaminated drinking water to be a concern for residents, employees, or visitors of Castle AFB and the surrounding areas. Furthermore, as stated previously, the extent to which TCE is associated with cancer in human is inconclusive.

In summary, no health hazards are associated with past consumption of TCE-contaminated groundwater from on- or off-base wells in the vicinity of Castle AFB.


APPENDIX C: COMPARISON VALUES

The conclusion that a contaminant exceeds the comparison value does not mean that it will cause adverse health effects. Comparison values represent media-specific contaminant concentrations that are used to select contaminants for further evaluation to determine the possibility of adverse public health effects.

Cancer Potency Factor (CPF)
Usually derived from dose-response models and expressed in mg/kg/day, CPFs describe the inherent potency of carcinogens and estimate an upper limit on the likelihood that lifetime exposure to a particular chemical could lead to excess cancer deaths.

Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide (CREG)
Estimated contaminant concentrations that would be expected to cause no more than one excess cancer in a million (10-6) persons exposed over a 70-year life span. ATSDR's CREGs are calculated from EPA's cancer potency factors.

EPA Risk-Based Concentration
EPA combines reference doses and carcinogenic potency slopes with "standard" exposure scenarios to calculate risk-based concentrations, which are chemical concentrations corresponding to fixed levels of risk (i.e., a hazard quotient of 1, or lifetime cancer risk of 10-6, whichever occurs at a lower concentration) in water, air, fish tissue, and soil.

Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level (LOAEL)
The lowest dose of a chemical that produced an adverse-effect when it was administered to animals in a toxicity study.

Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL)
The MCL is the drinking water stand established by EPA and enforced by the California Department of Environmental Protection. It is the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water that is delivered to the free-flowing outlet. MCLs are considered protective of human health over a lifetime (70 years) for individuals consuming 2 liters of water per day.

Minimal Risk Levels (MRL)
MRLs are estimates of daily human exposure to a chemical (i.e., doses expressed in mg/kg/day) that are unlikely to be associated with any appreciable risk of deleterious noncancer effects over a specified duration of exposure. MRLs are calculated using data from human and animal studies and are reported for acute (< 14 days), intermediate (15-364 days), and chronic (> 365 days) exposures. MRLs are published in ATSDR Toxicological Profiles for specific chemicals.


APPENDIX D: GLOSSARY

Background Level:
A typical or average level of a chemical in the environment. Background often refers to naturally occurring or uncontaminated levels.


Carcinogen:
Any substance that may produce cancer.


Comparison Values:
Estimated contaminant concentrations in specific media that are not likely to cause adverse health effects, given a standard daily ingestion rate and standard body weight. The comparison values are calculated from the scientific literature available on exposure and health effects.


Concentration:
The amount of one substance dissolved or contained in a given amount of another. For example, sea water contains a higher concentration of salt than fresh water.


Contaminant:
Any substance or material that enters a system where it is not normally found or found in greater concentrations than background levels.


Dose:
The amount of substance to which a person is exposed. Dose often takes body weight into account.


Environmental contamination:
The presence of hazardous substances in the environment. From the public health perspective, environmental contamination is addressed when it potentially affects the health and quality of life of people living and working near the contamination.


Exposure:
Contact with a chemical by swallowing, by breathing, or by direct contact (such as through the skin or eyes). Exposure may be short term (acute) or long term (chronic).


Hazard:
A source of risk that does not necessarily imply potential for occurrence. A hazard produces risk only if an exposure pathway exists, and if exposures create the possibility of adverse consequences.


Ingestion:
Swallowing (such as eating or drinking). Chemicals can get in or on food, drink, utensils, cigarettes, or hands where they can be ingested. After ingestion, chemicals can be absorbed into the blood and distributed throughout the body.


Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs):
MCLs represent contaminant concentrations in drinking water that EPA deems protective of public health (considering the availability and economics of water treatment technology) over a lifetime (70 years) at an exposure rate of 2 liters of water per day.


Media:
Soil, water, air, plants, animals, or any other parts of the environment that can contain contaminants.


Minimal Risk Level (MRL):
An MRL is defined as an estimate of daily human exposure to a substance that is likely to be without an appreciable risk of adverse effects (noncancer) over a specified duration of exposure. MRLs are derived when reliable and sufficient data exist to identify the target organ(s) of effect or the most sensitive health effect(s) for a specific duration via a given route of exposure. MRLs are based on noncancer health effects only. MRLs can be derived for acute, intermediate and chronic duration exposures by the inhalation and oral routes.


National Priorities List (NPL):
EPA's listing of sites that have undergone preliminary assessment and site inspection to determine which locations pose an immediate threat to persons living or working near the release. These sites are most in need of cleanup.


Plume:
An area of chemicals in a particular medium, such as air or groundwater, moving away from its source in a long band or column. A plume can be a column of smoke from a chimney or chemicals moving with groundwater.


Potentially Exposed:
The condition where valid information, usually analytical environmental data, indicates the presence of contaminant(s) of a public health concern in one or more environmental media contacting humans (e.g., air, drinking water, soil, food chain, surface water), and there is evidence that some of those persons may have an identified route(s) of exposure (e.g., drinking contaminated water, breathing contaminated air, having contact with contaminated soil, or eating contaminated food).


Public Health Assessment:
The evaluation of data and information on the release of hazardous substances into the environment in order to assess any current or future impact on public health, develop health advisories or other recommendations, and identify studies or actions needed to evaluate and mitigate or prevent human health effects; also, the document resulting from that evaluation.


Public Health Hazard:
Sites that pose a public health hazard as the result of long-term exposures to hazardous substances.


Route of Exposure:
The path in which a person may contact a chemical substance. For example, drinking (ingestion) and bathing (skin contact) are two different routes of exposure to contaminants that may be found in water.


Volatile organic compound (VOC):
Substance containing carbon and different proportions of other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, sulfur, or nitrogen; these substances easily become vapors or gases. A significant number of the VOCs are commonly used as solvents (e.g., paint thinners, lacquer thinner, degreasers, dry cleaning fluids).

APPENDIX E: RESPONSES TO PUBLIC COMMENTS

The Castle Air Force Base Public Health Assessment was released for public comment on September 30, 1998. The comment period ended on November 29, 1998. Comments were received from two agencies and three community members during the comment period.

  1. Comment: Referring to page 4, paragraph 3, sentence 1 ("Environmental investigations at Castle AFB began in 1978 after TCE was detected in four base production wells used for drinking water."): What were the TCE levels? Was the groundwater analyzed for other contaminants (such as cis-1,2-DCE, PCE, benzene, etc.)?
  2. Response: ATSDR changed the text from "TCE was" to "trace amounts of TCE were."

  3. Comment: Referring to page 16, paragraph 2, sentence 2 ("Main Plume contamination…is also present in the upper shallow…"): Are you referring to the upper subshallow HSZ when you stated "upper shallow"? Please clarify.
  4. Response: ATSDR changed the text from "upper shallow" to "upper subshallow."

  5. Comment: Referring to page B-2, paragraph 1, sentence 4 ("ATSDR used an exposure period of 5 years for adults…to consider the years between when TCE was first detected above state and federal standards…"): According to page 4, paragraph 3, sentence 1 ("Environmental investigations at Castle AFB began in 1978 after TCE was detected in four base production wells used for drinking water.") and page 5, paragraph 7, sentence 1 ("In February 1984, TCE was detected in on-base production wells at levels exceeding [U.S. EPA]…(MCL) of 5.0 ppb…" Thus, wouldn't the exposure period be 6 years? Please clarify.
  6. Response: ATSDR changed and footnoted Appendix B text to clarify the derivation of the 5-year exposure period (page B-2).

  7. Comment: Recommendations were made to either change the language of the PHA and state that the PHA does not address future land use concerns, or, to add a section to the PHA that considers potential future land use.
  8. Response: ATSDR used current available information on future land use to assess potential future health concerns. Discussions and conclusions about potential future exposures can be found in several PHA sections, specifically the "Evaluation of Environmental Contamination and Potential Exposure Pathways," "Conclusions," and "Public Health Action Plan." ATSDR changed the "Public Health Action Plan" text to include a specific recommendation for on-going future monitoring of the city of Atwater's production well AM-6 (page 27). ATSDR also recommended the installation of an AM-6 wellhead treatment system or the construction of a new water supply well to replace AM-6, as needed, based on future drinking water quality conditions (page 27).

  9. Comment: [Regarding contamination in a city of Atwater municipal well, AM-6, page 20)] As a municipal supply well, the water from AM-6 is served to the city of Atwater. We believe the direct exposure of city residents to water-borne contaminants from this well necessitates mitigation measures. The Air Force's current groundwater extraction system cannot overcome the pumping effects of AM-6. As a result, AM-6 is being used a part of the cleanup process at Castle AFB, functioning, by default, as an extraction well.
  10. Another consideration is that AM-6, a high volume well, draws water from both contaminated and uncontaminated portions of the aquifer, which results in contaminant dilution. Contaminant concentrations measured in this well, although acceptable for calculating risk, cannot be considered representative of the adjacent aquifer, which likely contains considerably higher contaminant levels. Data from AM-6 are not equivalent to data collected from groundwater monitoring wells. Although we do not expect contaminant levels in AM-6 to increase, we cannot rule this out as a possibility.

    To date, the situation at AM-6 remains under discussion among the Air Force, EPA, andthe state. The Air Force has not agreed to fund the installation and operation of a wellhead treatment system at AM-6, nor the construction of a new water supply well for the city of Atwater, which would be another acceptable alternative.

    Response: ATSDR changed the text (page 20, 27, and 35) to reflect that the Air Force,EPA, and state of California continue to discuss the installation and operation of a wellhead treatment system at AM-6. ATSDR also inserted a recommendation in the "Public Health Action Plan" section for on-going future monitoring of the city of Atwater's production well AM-6 (page 27). Specifically, ATSDR recommended that theAir Force, EPA, and state of California agree on a plan for the installation of an AM-6 wellhead treatment system or for the construction of a new water supply well to replace AM-6. This plan should be implemented as needed, based on future drinking water quality conditions.

  11. Comment: [Regarding Appendix A, Evaluation of Potential Public Health Hazards Associated with the 209 RI/FS Sites at Castle AFB] The remedial decisions for many of the Source Control Operable Unit (SCOU) sites listed in Appendix A have either changed or remain under consideration, particularly with respect to those listed in Table 2A (No Further Action Sites.) A current site summary (from the Draft SCOU Record of Decision Part 1, November 2, 1998) is provided as an attachment to this letter. For the following sites in Table A2, some type of remedial action will be required or the remedial decision remains unresolved:
    • Buildings 51 through 54, 325, 1266, 1314, 1350, 1541, 1550, 1709, and 1762.
    • Storage Area B3 (SA B3)
    • Disposal Pits (DP) - 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 8a, and 9 (associated with landfills)
    • ETC Sites 2, 5, and 8
    • Hangar F4
    • Firing Range
    • Landfill 5 Trenches
    • Structures 55, T-66, and T-67
    • Sanitary Sewer Sites 2, 4, 6, and 7
    • Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) 4.4 through 4.8, 4.14 through 4.18, 4.21, 4.22, 4.23, and 4.29
    • Stain Sites 33 through 44

    Additionally, Table A2 lists several sites that have been determined to contain soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons only. Although response actions at these sites are not required under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), the state may require response actions in accordance with its Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) authority.

    Response: ATSDR changed the text (page 22) to reflect that "USAF and EPA are still considering alternatives at some installation sites." ATSDR also inserted an Appendix A footnote in Table A1 and Table A2 to clarify that some changes to site status are under consideration, as documented in the Draft SCOU Record of Decision Part 1, November 2, 1998. The current site summary from the Draft SCOU Record of Decision Part 1, November 2, 1998, document is attached on the following two pages. The reader is cautioned to note that prior to formal approval of the SCOU RODs additional changes, in detail, may occur to these site assignments.


SCOU ROD Sites Part 1

For tracking purposes, the remaining 65 SCOU sites, not addressed by this ROD, are listed below. These sites are organized by site characteristics.

SCOU ROD Sites Part 2


1. The maximum potential exposure period to TCE above the MCL in on-base wells was one year (February 1984 through February 1985); the maximum potential exposure period to TCE above the MCL in off-base wells was five years (1985 through 1989). ATSDR conservatively assumed a 5-year exposure period for all individuals. It should be noted that, during this potential 5-year exposure period, off-base wells probably did not supply drinking water (or they supplied a minimal amount of drinking water) because affected residents received bottled water from USAF.

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