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PETITIONED HEALTH CONSULTATION

SURFACE WATER AND SEDIMENT PATHWAYS

SOUTHERN WOOD PIEDMONT COMPANY
(NORFOLK SOUTHERN FACILITY)
MACON, BIBB COUNTY, GEORGIA


APPENDICES

Appendix A:

Figures

Appendix B:

Tables

Appendix C:

List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

Appendix D:

Glossary

Appendix E:

Wood Preserving Compounds

Appendix F:

Methodlogy to derive TEQs for 2,3,7,8-Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans

Appendix G:

ATSDR Public Health Conclusion Categories



Appendix A

Figures


Figure 1. Area Map


Figure 2. Site Map


Figure 3. Freedom Park



Appendix B

Tables


TABLE 1

Southern Wood Piedmont
Maximum Surface Water Concentrations
On-Site Samples 1

Contaminant On-Site Drainage Ditch Concentration (ppb) Comparison Value (ppb) (Source)
sVOCs    
Naphthalene 206 20 (LTHA)
Acenaphthene 198 600 (RMEG)
Acenaphthylene 17 NA
Phenanthrene 50 NA
Fluoranthene 182 400 (RMEG)
Chrysene NA NA
Benzo(a)anthracene NA NA
Benzo(b,k)fluoranthene NA NA
Benzo(a)pyrene NA 0.2 (MCL)
Phenol 1 6,000 (RMEG)
Total Dimethylphenol 54 200 (RMEG)
Tetrachorophenol NA NA
Pentachlorophenol 1,512 10 (I-EMEG)
VOCs    
Ethylbenzene 5(*) 1,000 (RMEG)
Xylene 12(*) 2,000 (I-EMEG)

GAEPD, 1987

Key I-EMEG=Intermediate Exposure Duration (14 to 365 days) Environmental Media Evaluation Guide; LTHA=Lifetime Health Advisory for drinking water; MCL=Maximum Contaminant Level; RMEG=Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guide; NA=Not applicable; *=Estimated value .

TABLE 2

Southern Wood Piedmont
Maximum Surface Water Concentrations
Off-Site Samples 1

Contaminant Dillon Branch Creek Concentration (ppb) Freedom Park Pond Concentration (ppb) Comparison Value (ppb) (Source)
sVOCs      
Naphthalene <10 <10 20 (LTHA)
Acenaphthene <10 <10 600 (RMEG)
Acenaphthylene 25 <10 NA
Phenanthrene 11 <10 NA
Fluoranthene 33 <10 400 (RMEG)
Chrysene <10 <10 NA
Benzo(a)anthracene <10 <10 NA
Benzo(b,k)fluoranthene <10 <10 NA
Benzo(a)pyrene <10 <10 0.2 (MCL)
Phenol <10 <10 6,000 (RMEG)
Total Dimethylphenol <10 <10 200 (RMEG)
Tetrachorophenol NA NA NA
Pentachlorophenol 6.8 <20 10 (I-EMEG)
VOCs      
Ethylbenzene 1 <1 1,000 (RMEG)
Xylene 7 <1 2,000 (I-EMEG)

1 GAEPD, 1987

Key I-EMEG=Intermediate Exposure Duration (14 to 365 days) Environmental Media Evaluation Guide; LTHA=Lifetime Health Advisory for Drinking Water; MCL=Maximum Contaminant Level; RMEG=Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guide; NA=Not applicable.

TABLE 3

Southern Wood Piedmont
Sediment Concentrations and TEQs
On-Site Samples 1

Contaminants

(2,3,7,8-PCDD Isomers)

TEF On-Site Drainage Ditch Concentration (ppm) TEQ (ppm) Comparison Value (ppm) (Source)
TCDD 1 0.000013 0.000013 0.00005 (EMEG-Adult)
PeCDD 0.5 0.00019 0.0001    
HxCDD 0.1 0.006 0.0006
HpCDD 0.01 0.220 0.0022
OCDD 0.001 2.400 0.0024
TCDF 0.1 0.00005 0.000005
PeCDF 0.5 0.00034 0.00017
HxCDF 0.1 0.00078 0.000078
HpCDF 0.01 0.0203 0.000203
OCDF 0.001 0.110 0.00011
Total TEQ     0.00588

1 Geraghty & Miller, 1991b

Key EMEG = Environmental Media Evaluation Guide; TEF = 2,3,7,8-TCDD Toxic Equivalency Factor; TEQ = 2,3,7,8-TCDD Toxic Equivalent

TABLE 4

Southern Wood Piedmont
Sediment Concentrations and TEQs
Off-Site Samples 1

Contaminants

(2,3,7,8-PCDD Isomers)

TEF Freedom Park Pond Concentrations (ppm) TEQ (ppm) Dillon Branch Creek Concentrations (ppm) TEQ (ppm) Comparison Value
(ppm)
(Source)
TCDD 1 ND NA ND NA 0.000002
(EMEG-Child)
PeCDD 0.5 0.00000038 0.00000019 0.00000015 0.000000075          
HxCDD 0.1 0.000004 0.0000004 0.00000049 0.000000049
HpCDD 0.01 0.000052 0.00000052 0.0000017 0.00000017
OCDD 0.001 0.00038 0.00000038 0.00016 0.00000016
TCDF 0.1 0.00000036 0.000000036 0.000000005 0.0000000005
HxCDF 0.1 0.0000015 0.00000015 0.0000022 0.00000022
HpCDF 0.01 0.0000062 0.000000062 0.0000063 0.000000063
OCDF 0.001 0.000017 0.000000017 0.0000067 0.0000000067
Total TEQ     0.0000018   0.00000074

1 ChemRisk, 1992

Key EMEG = Environmental Media Evaluation Guide; NA = Not applicable; ND = Not detected; TEF = 2,3,7,8-TCDD Toxic Equivalency Factor; TEQ = 2,3,7,8-TCDD Toxic Equivalent


Appendix C

List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

ATSDR Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
EMEG Environmental Media Evaluation Guide
EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
GAEPD Georgia Environmental Protection Division
HpCDD Heptachlorodibenzodioxins
HpCDF Heptachlorodibenzofurans
HxCDD Hexachlorodibenzodioxins
HxCDF Hexachlorodibenzofurans
I-EMEG Intermediate Environmental Media Evaluation Guide
LTHA Lifetime Health Advisory for Drinking Water
MCL EPA's Maximum Contaminant Level
NA Not applicable
ND Not detected
OCDD Octachlorodibenzodioxins
OCDF Octachlorodibenzofurans
PAH Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
PCDDs Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins
PCDFs Polychlorinated dibenzofurans
PeCDD Pentachlorodibenzodioxins
PeCDF Pentachlorodibenzofurans
ppb parts per billion
ppm parts per million
RMEG Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guide
sVOCs Semi-volatile organic compounds
SWP Southern Wood Piedmont
TCDD Tetrachlorodibenzodioxins
TCDF Tetrachlorodibenzofurans
TEF 2,3,7,8-TCDD Toxic Equivalency Factor
TEQ 2,3,7,8-TCDD Toxic Equivalent
UST Underground storage tank
VOCs Volatile organic compounds



Appendix D

Glossary

Glossary

Comparison Values
Estimated contaminant concentrations in specific media that are not likely to cause adverse health effects, given a standard daily ingestion rate and standard body weight. The comparison values are calculated from the scientific literature available on exposure and health effects.
 
Concentration
The amount of one substance dissolved or contained in a given amount of another. For example, sea water contains a higher concentration of salt than fresh water.
 
Contaminant
Any substance or material that enters a system (the environment, human body, food, etc.) where it is not normally found.
 
Dermal
Referring to the skin. Dermal absorption means absorption through the skin.

Dose
The amount of substance to which a person is exposed. Dose often takes body weight into account.

Environmental Contamination
The presence of hazardous substances in the environment. From the public health perspective, environmental contamination is addressed when it potentially affects the health and quality of life of people living and working near the contamination.

Exposure
Contact with a chemical by swallowing, by breathing, or by direct contact (such as through the skin or eyes). Exposure may be short term (acute) or long term (chronic).

Health Consultation
A response to a specific question or request for information pertaining to a hazardous substance or facility (which includes waste sites). It often contains a time-critical element that necessitates a rapid response; therefore, it is a more limited response than an assessment.

Ingestion
To take into the body, often by swallowing. Chemicals can get in or on food, drinks, utensils, cigarettes, or hands where they can be ingested. After ingestion, chemicals can be absorbed into the blood and distributed throughout the body.

Media
Soil, water, air, plants, animals, or any other parts of the environment that can contain contaminants.

Petitioned Public Health Consultation
A public health consultation conducted at the request of a member of the public. When a petition is received, a team of environmental and health scientists is assigned to gather information to ascertain, using standard public health criteria, whether there is a reasonable basis for conducting a public health consultation. Once ATSDR confirms that a public health consultation is needed, the petitioned health consultation process is essentially the same as the public health consultation process.

Potentially Exposed
The condition where valid information, usually analytical environmental data, indicates the presence of contaminant(s) of a public health concern in one or more environmental media contacting humans (i.e., air, drinking water, soil, food chain, surface water), and there is evidence that some of those persons have an identified route(s) of exposure (i.e., drinking contaminated water, breathing contaminated air, having contact with contaminated soil, or eating contaminated food).

Risk
In risk assessment, the probability that something will cause injury, combined with the potential severity of that injury.

UST (Underground Storage Tank)
An underground tank used for storage of fuel or other fluid.

VOCs
Substances containing carbon and different proportions of other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or nitorgen; these substances easily become vapors or gases. A significant number of VOCs are commonly used as solvents (paint thinners, lacquers, degreasers, and dry cleaning fluids).

Appendix E

Wood Preserving Compounds

Wood Preserving Compounds

The wood preserving compounds used during plant operations included creosote and pentachlorophenol. The type of creosote used for wood preserving is a complex mixture of many chemicals created by high-temperature treatment of coal; it is also known as coal tar creosote. Although approximately 300 chemicals have been identified in creosote, the major constituents of potential health concern are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phenols. PAHs typically represent 85 percent and phenols represent from 2 percent to 17 percent of a creosote mixture (ATSDR, 1990).

Because creosote consists primarily of PAHs, the fate of the mixture often parallels that of PAHs. Most PAHs are ubiquitous in air and soil, but not in water, and are formed during the incomplete burning of coal, oil, wood, or other organic substances. PAHs are generally divided into lower molecular weight PAHs or light PAHs (e.g., acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, anthracene, and naphthalene) and higher molecular weight PAHs or heavy PAHs (e.g., chrysene, benzo(a)pyrene, and benzo(b)fluoranthene). Although PAHs do not readily dissolve in water, they attach to particles and settle to the bottom of a surface water body. For this reason, PAH concentrations in sediments can be an order of magnitude greater than the surface water concentrations. Sediment concentrations are generally measured in parts per billion versus parts per trillion for surface water (ATSDR, 1993). A nationwide survey reported the following maximum PAH concentrations for various water bodies, including Lake Erie (700 micrograms per kilograms [µg/kg]), a lake in the Adirondack Mountains (2,600 µg/kg), and a drainage stream at a wood preserving facility in Florida (140,000 µg/kg) (ATSDR, 1994).

Pentachlorophenol is another artificial substance used for wood preserving. Impure pentachlorophenol, which is the form typically found at hazardous waste sites, exists as dark gray to brown dust, beads, or flakes. Pentachlorophenol is typically broken down in surface water within a few hours or days. Concentrations encountered in various U.S. surface water bodies ranged from not detected (ND) to 100 micrograms per liter (ATSDR, 1992a).

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), loosely referred to as dioxins and furans, respectively, are common impurities in technical grade pentachlorophenol. The more than two hundred possible dioxin and furan isomers belong to one of eight different homologue categories or series.(1) The potency of these isomers varies with structure, with the maximum potency belonging to isomers containing chlorine in the 2,3,7,8-lateral ring positions. Current evidence indicates that the most toxic dioxin is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD).

The ultimate reservoir of airborne and aquatic 2,3,7,8-TCDD is the sediment deposit along the bottom of surface water bodies. The estimated half-life of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in sediment is greater than 1 year. Sediment may contain 2,3,7,8-TCDD as well as a mixture of other dioxin and furan isomers.


Appendix F

Methodology to derive TEQs for 2,3,7,8-Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxin
and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans

Methodology to derive TEQs for 2,3,7,8-Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxin and
Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans

With the exception of the 2,3,7,8-TCDD isomer, ATSDR and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have not established acceptable levels for dioxins or furans. In the absence of comparison values, ATSDR has adopted the EPA Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxin and Dibenzofuran Technical Risk Assessment Panel method for assisting in estimating risk from exposure to other dioxins and furans. This procedure involves using 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalency factors (TEFs), which are derived for other 2,3,7,8-chlorinated isomers based on shared characteristics that can be used to order them relative to 2,3,7,8-TCDD when toxicological data are inadequate for this purpose.

Most TEFs are determined by evaluating the weight of available scientific evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies. The TEF for 2,3,7,8-TCDD is set to 1 and all other 2,3,7,8-chlorinated isomers have a TEF value less than 1 to reflect their lower relative toxicity (ATSDR, 1989, 1992b; ChemRisk, 1992). The 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalent (TEQ) for an isomer in an environmental medium is calculated as follows:

TEQ = Maximum Concentration of the Isomer x TEF

Assuming that all isomers have similar properties, the toxicity of a mixture containing a known distribution of isomers can be estimated. The following is a list of the EPA recommended TEFs for dioxins and furans by their homologue series.

  Constituents

Abbreviations TEF
Dioxins 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin
Other tetrachlorodibenzodioxins
2,3,7,8-TCDD
TCDD
1
0
  2,3,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzodioxin
Other pentachlorodibenzodioxins
2,3,7,8-PeCDD
PeCDD
0.5
0
  2,3,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzodioxin
Other hexachlorodibenzodioxins
2,3,7,8-HxCDD
HxCDD
0.1
0
  2,3,7,8-Heptachlorodibenzodioxin
2,3,7,8-HpCDD
0.01
  Other heptachlorodibenzodioxins HpCDD 0
 

Octachlorodibenzodioxins

OCDD 0.001
       
 

Constituents

Abbreviations TEF
Furans 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzofuran
Other tetrachlorodibenzofurans
2,3,7,8-TCDF
TCDF
0.1
0
  2,3,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran
Other pentachlorodibenzofurans
2,3,7,8-PeCDF
PeCDF
0.5
0
  2,3,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
Other hexachlorodibenzofurans
2,3,7,8-HxCDF
HxCDF
0.1
0
  2,3,7,8-Heptachlorodibenzofuran
Other heptachlorodibenzofurans
2,3,7,8-HpCDF
HpCDF
0.01
0
 

Octachlorodibenzofurans

OCDF 0.001

Source: EPA, 1989

Appendix G

ATSDR Public Health Conclusion Categories

ATSDR Public Health Conclusion Categories

No Public Health Hazard

Sites for which data indicate no current or past exposure or no potential for exposure and therefore no health hazard.

No Apparent Public Health Hazard

Sites where human exposure to contaminated media is occurring or has occurred in the past, but the exposure is below a level of health hazard.

Potential/Indeterminate Public Health Hazard

Sites for which no conclusions about public health hazard can be made because data are lacking.

Public Health Hazard

Sites that pose a public health hazard as the result of long-term exposures to hazardous substances.

Urgent Public Health Hazard

Sites that pose a serious risk to the public health as the result of short-term exposures to hazardous substances.


1. A homologue is a group of structurally related chemicals that have the same degree of chlorination. Eight homologues of dioxins exist: monochlorinated through octachlorinated. An isomer is a substance that belongs to the same homologue class.



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