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PETITIONED PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT ADDENDUM

SOUTHERN WOOD PIEDMONT
AUGUSTA, RICHMOND COUNTY, GEORGIA



CONCLUSIONS

Sampling and Monitoring Data from 1993

Sampling and monitoring data acquired from the EPA Region IV office in 1993 indicate that there is no widespread contamination in off-site soils surrounding the SWP site (refer to ATSDR's Health Consultation in Appendix 3 for more information):

Ditches

  1. Lead and PCB levels in one Hyde Park ditch are of potential health concern for residents who may inadvertently ingest this sediment on a daily basis for many years (Figure 6, page 30); however, the GA EPD is in the process of cleaning up the ditch, which will prevent and/or mitigate these exposures from producing chronic adverse health effects.
  2. Arsenic levels in ditches west of Gravel Pit Road are of potential health concern for residents who may inadvertently ingest sediment on a daily basis for many years (Figure 6, page 30); however, the ditches are inaccessible to nearby residents, which prevents and/or mitigates these exposures from producing chronic adverse health effects.
  3. Sampling and analysis data of ditch sediments in the Virginia subdivision and the Nixon/Winter roads area do not indicate a potential public health hazard.

Surface Soil

  1. Some surface soils around Nixon and Winter roads had levels of dioxins/furans and arsenic that are of potential health concern for residents inadvertently ingesting surface soil on a daily basis for many years. However, the contaminated areas are limited and isolated, which means public contact is minimal and mitigates these exposures from producing chronic adverse health effects..
  2. Surface soil at the Goldberg Recycling site had widespread lead and PCB contamination at levels that are of potential health concern for daily, long-term exposure. Arsenic and chromium levels detected in isolated areas are of potential health concern for daily long-term exposure. Since access to these contaminated areas is restricted, public contact is prohibited, which prevents and/or mitigates these exposures from producing chronic adverse health effects.
  3. Sampling and analysis data of surface soils in the Virginia subdivision, Hyde Park, and the Gravel Pit Road area do not indicate a potential public health hazard.

Groundwater

  1. Chromium and lead levels in groundwater beneath the Virginia subdivision, Hyde Park, the Nixon/Winter roads area, and the Gravel Pit Road area are of potential health concern for residents ingesting well water on a daily basis for many years. However, because all homes in this area are connected to the municipal water supply, this groundwater contamination does not pose a public health hazard.
  2. Groundwater beneath the Nixon/Winter roads area also contained levels of arsenic, benzene, naphthalene, and cadmium of potential health concern for residents ingesting well water on a daily basis for many years. All homes in this area are also connected to the municipal water supply, so this groundwater contamination does not pose a public health hazard.

Other Media

  1. Results of ambient air monitoring showed no contaminants above levels of public health concern.
  2. Results of fish bioassays showed no contaminants above levels of public health concern.

Sampling and Monitoring Data from 1990-1992

Since completion of the last public health assessment, ATSDR representatives obtained additional data during 1990, 1991, and 1992. These data indicated that past exposures to contamination found in some residential soils and groundwater were a hazard to public health.

  1. Historical environmental sampling data indicated that populations residing along Nixon and Winter roads adjacent to SWP have been exposed to elevated levels of wood-treating chemicals; including arsenic, PAHs, and dioxins; all of which were detected in surface soils and ditch sediments. People who ingested the contaminated soils and sediments on a regular basis could have developed skin rashes and increased their risk for skin cancer.
  2. Other contaminants not related to wood-treating were also found in off-site soils at levels that pose a health hazard for children who ingest these chemicals or absorb them through their skin while playing in the contaminated soils. These contaminants included lead, which was found at levels of public health concern in ditches near the recycling facilities located in Hyde Park.
  3. Pica children residing in areas where soil contamination has been found were of special concern, since they are known to swallow larger amounts of soil than other children do, putting them at a much greater risk for illness and disease.
  4. Short-term exposures to elevated levels of wood-treating chemicals found along the banks of Rocky Creek and Phinizy Swamp could have happened only if children playing in these areas swallowed contaminated soils or sediments. Workers on a new road in this area could also experience exposures to Phinizy Swamp sediments.
  5. Prior exposure estimates indicated that residents in neighborhoods near SWP were exposed to elevated benzene levels in air between 1973 and 1985. Monitoring of the surrounding air during ditch remediation did detect benzene at elevated levels above comparison values for benzene; however, the levels were similar to those found in most urban areas of the United States and are not expected to result in adverse health effects.
  6. Previous groundwater monitoring had indicated elevated levels of organic chemicals in private wells north of SWP. New groundwater monitoring data indicated elevated levels of arsenic, other metals, and organic chemicals southeast of SWP. Residents with private wells in this area may have been exposed to arsenic, heavy metals, and organic chemicals for a long time (greater than a year) by drinking contaminated water, getting contaminated water on their skin, or breathing contaminated steam during showers.
  7. Unfenced drainage ditches near the Clara Jenkins Elementary School pose a physical hazard. The depth of the ditches and the presence of water in them present a danger of drowning. These ditches may also present a chemical hazard due to surface water runoff from nearby industrial properties (Figure 6, page 30) possessing on-site contamination.

RECOMMENDATIONS

A. Recommendations and Health Activities Recommendation Panel (HARP) Statement

Recommendations based on 1993 sampling and monitoring information included the following:

  1. Maintain warning signs around ditches in Hyde Park and near Rocky Creek until the ditches are cleaned.
  2. Continue to educate children and adults to mitigate their exposures to surface soils in the Nixon/Winter roads area because of isolated areas of arsenic and dioxin/furan contamination.
  3. Educate children and adults against frequent trespassing on the Goldberg Recycling site because of widespread lead and PCB contamination.
  4. Continue to educate residents in Hyde Park, the Virginia subdivision, the Nixon/Winter roads area, and the Gravel Pit Road area not to use the water beneath the ground surface (groundwater) for potable and non-potable purposes.
  5. Continue with the proposed public health actions listed in this addendum.
  6. Alert workers to consider environmental contamination issues as part of their worker safety plans when conducting activities on or near the site.

Health Activities and Recommendation Panel Statement

HARP reviewed the public health assessment addendum for SWP again on September 5, 1995. The Panel recommended that the following revised statement be included in the public health assessment addendum:

    The overall data and information developed in the Southern Wood Piedmont Petitioned Public Health Assessment Addendum have been reevaluated by the Health Activities Recommendation Panel for appropriate public health actions. Exposures to contaminants from Southern Wood Piedmont via contact with groundwater, soil, and sediments (as discussed in this document), posed a public health threat in the past and the Panel indicated the need for several follow-up actions, which are part of the Public Health Action Plan (PHAP) contained in this addendum. Results of additional data with respect to sediment, soil, and groundwater sampling, conducted by EPA in 1993, do not indicate the need for further public health actions in addition to those previously determined by the Panel. The exposed population and their local health care providers continue to need assistance in understanding the public health implications of exposure to sediment, soil, and groundwater contamination. Therefore, the panel recommends the following as health follow-up actions for this site:
    • continuation of environmental health education for health care providers and community members,
    • continuation of the community health investigation focusing on identification of the community's health status through medical records review and other activities assessing exposures of concern and evaluating potential adverse health conditions, and
    • implementation of the activities in the public health action plan contained in this addendum.

B. Public Health Actions

The Public Health Action Plan (PHAP) for SWP contains a description of actions to be taken by ATSDR at and in the vicinity of the site subsequent to the completion of this addendum. For those actions already taken at the site, please see the Background section of this Public Health Assessment Addendum and the PHAP on page 2-25 in Appendix 2. The purpose of the PHAP is to ensure that this public health assessment addendum not only identifies public health hazards but also provides a plan of action designed to mitigate and prevent adverse human health effects resulting from exposure to hazardous substances in the environment. The PHAP is a commitment on the part of ATSDR to follow up on this plan to ensure its implementation. The public health actions to be implemented by ATSDR are as follows:

  • ATSDR, in cooperation with the Richmond County Health Department, has proposed a Medical Assistance Plan. The proposed Medical Assistance Plan may include the following elements:
    1. Environmental health education for health care providers and community members,
    2. Community health needs assessment and assurance (i.e., continuation of the community health investigation),
    3. Technical assistance to local health agencies and health care providers, and
    4. Medical testing.
    Representatives of ATSDR and the Richmond County Health Department are working on the final plan document.

ATSDR has requested reprogramming of funds in fiscal year (FY) 1995 in support of the Medical Assistance Plan. Pending clarification from Congress, ATSDR has decided to suspend funding in FY 1995. Other public health follow-up actions such as the community health investigation will be conducted as resources permit.

PREPARERS OF REPORT

Lynelle (Neufer) Phillips, RN MPH
Environmental Health Scientist
Petition Response Branch

Thomas H. Umbreit, PhD
Toxicologist
Petition Response Branch

David S. Sutton, PhD
Environmental Engineer
Petition Response Branch

Heather Tosteson, PhD
Writer/Editor
Program Evaluation, Records, and Information Services Branch

Ronald Hatcher
Writer/Editor
Program Evaluation, Records, and Information Services Branch

ATSDR Regional Representative:

Robert Safay
ATSDR, Region IV
Atlanta, GA

REFERENCES

1. Notebook A: Groundwater/Soil/Sediment Sampling & Analysis for Nixon, Doughty, Winter, Norton, Lynchburg Road Area. 1988 - 1991.

2. Notebook B: Groundwater/Soil/Sediment Sampling & Analysis for Dan Bowles, Hyde Park, Gravel Pit Road Area. 1990 -1991.

3. Environmental Protection Agency. RCRA Environmental Investigation, Phinizy Swamp (Southern Wood Piedmont), August, GA. ESD Project No. 92 - 0133. November 25 - 26, 1991.

4. Georgia Environmental Protection Division. Data Reporting Sheets For Southern Wood Piedmont Ditches. March 20, 1990.

5. University of Georgia Cooperative Extension Service. Sample Test Results, Soil Samples SP-340. September 9, 1991.

6. Environmental Protection Agency. RCRA Environmental Investigation for the Southern Wood Piedmont Company, Augusta, GA. ESD Project Number 90-914. September, 1990.

7. Geraghty & Miller, Inc. Soil and Ditch Sediment Investigation at the Southern Wood Piedmont Company Augusta, GA. September, 1990.

8. Klassan, CD et al. Cassarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 3rd ed. Macmillan Publishing Company. New York, NY. 1986.

9. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Trip Report, Southern Wood Piedmont CAP Meeting. April 22, 1992.

10. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Trip Report, Southern Wood Piedmont Community Assistance Panel Meeting. May 15, 1992.

11. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Trip Report, Southern Wood Piedmont, Augusta, GA. January 16, 1992.

12. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Record of Activity for Southern Wood Piedmont. April 14, 1992.

13. Dever, AG. A Health Status Assessment of Residents Living in the Virginia Subdivision Hyde Park Area, Augusta, GA. Mercer University, December, 1991.

14. Austin, H., Cole, P., Flander, D. Review of "A Health Status Assessment of Residents Living in the Virginia Subdivision Hyde Park Area, Augusta, GA." May 25, 1992.

15. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Official Files, Southern Wood Piedmont. Notes from Community Meeting at Butler High School, January 10, 1992.

16. Geraghty & Miller, Inc. Air Quality Group. Ambient Air Quality Investigation During Ditch Excavation and Remediation Test Series 1 and 2. Southern Wood Piedmont Company, Augusta, GA. March, 1992.

17. Law Environmental. Human Health and Environmental Exposure Assessment of a Portion of Rocky Creek in Richmond County, prepared for: Southern Wood Piedmont, Augusta, GA. January 1992.

18. Environmental Protection Agency. Memo to Bell and Pannell. March 28, 1988.

19. Southern Wood Piedmont. Estimated Extent of confirmed Off-site Contamination in the Recent Alluvium Based on the 1988 Groundwater Monitoring Program. Job No. 55-5270, Figure 5.

20. Hazardous Substance Data Base. Environmental Fate and Transport of Benzene.

21. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Trip Report, Southern Wood Piedmont, Augusta, GA. May 6, 1992.

22. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Trip Report, Southern Wood Piedmont, Augusta, GA. July 15, 1992.

23. United States Geological Survey. Augusta West and Augusta East 7.5 Minute Topographic Map Quadrangles. Photorevised 1980.

24. Georgia Environmental Protection Division. Data Reporting Sheets for Southern Wood Piedmont, Augusta, Georgia. October 16, 1990.

25. Geraghty and Miller, Inc. Air Quality Group. Air Quality Investigation During Soil Excavation Remediation, Vol I. Southern Wood Piedmont company. Augusta, GA. June 1990.

26. Southern Wood Piedmont. Memo to Georgia Department of Natural Resources. April 27, 1992.

27. ENSR Consulting and Engineering. Memo to Long, Weinberg, Anslay and Wheeler. May 24, 1989.

28. Georgia Environmental Protection Division. Corrective Action Reports Vols 1 - 5. 1989 - 1992.

29. Southern Wood Piedmont. Consent Agreement Item 2(A). January 24, 1990.

30. Census of Population and Housing, 1990: Summary Tape File 1 (Georgia) [machine-readable data files]/prepared by the Bureau of the Census.--Washington: The Bureau [producer and distributor], 1991.

31. Cox, R.D. and Manning, R.O. Summary and Analysis of Soil Sampling Data for Neighborhoods Near the Southern Wood Piedmont Site Augusta, GA. Prepared for: The State of Georgia Governor's Task Force for Assessment of Health concerns in the Virginia and Hyde Park Subdivisions. October 13, 1992.

32. ATSDR Record of Activity. Meeting with EPA Regional Council. August 20, 1992.

33. ATSDR Record of Activity. Meeting with Southern Wood Piedmont. September 21, 1992.

34. ATSDR. Toxicological Profile for Benzo(a)pyrene. May, 1990.

35. Hazardous Substance Database. Environmental Fate and Transport of Benzo(a)pyrene. Accessed January 15, 1993.

36. Klaassen, C.D., M.O. Amdur, J. Doull. 1986. Casarett and Doull's Toxicology the Basic Science of Poisons. 3rd edition. Macmillan Publishing Company, NY.

37. ATSDR. Public Health Assessment Guidance Manual. 1992.

38. Environmental Protection Agency. Work Plan, Area Characterization Study, Aragon Park and Hyde Park Neighborhoods, Augusta, GA. ESD Project No. 93E-094. January, 1993.

39. Agency for Toxic Substances Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Arsenic. Atlanta: ATSDR, March, 1989.

40. Agency for Toxic Substances Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Chromium. Atlanta: ATSDR, July, 1989.

41. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Benzene. Atlanta: ATSDR, October, 1991.

42. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Pentachlorophenol. Atlanta: ATSDR, December 1989.

43. Agency for Toxic Substances Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Benzo(a)pyrene. Atlanta: ATSDR, May, 1990, and: Agency for Toxic Substances Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Atlanta: ATSDR, February, 1990.

44. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for 2,3,7,8-TCDD. Atlanta: ATSDR, June 1989.

45. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Cresols. Atlanta: ATSDR, July 1992.

46. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Cadmium. Atlanta: ATSDR, March, 1989.

47. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Lead. Atlanta: ATSDR, June 1990.

48. Agency for Toxic Substances Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Nickel. Atlanta: ATSDR, December 1988.

49. Agency for Toxic Substances Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Thallium. Atlanta: ATSDR, July 1992.

51. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Selected PCBs. Atlanta: ATSDR, June 1989.

52. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Beryllium. Atlanta: ATSDR, December 1988.

53. Georgia Environmental Protection Division. Memo to Carl Blair, ATSDR Region IV Representative, September 10, 1993.

54. Public comments received by ATSDR during November and December, 1993.



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