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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

NAVAL COMPUTER AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS AREA MASTER STATION, PACIFIC (NCTAMS PAC)
WAHIAWA, HONOLULU COUNTY, HAWAII
AND
NAVAL RADIO TRANSMITTER FACILITY LUALUALEI
(NRTF LUALUALEI)
LUALUALEI, OAHU COUNTY, HAWAII


TABLES



TABLE 1.

EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARDS
Site Site Description/Waste Disposal History Investigation Results/Environmental Monitoring Results Corrective Activities and/or Current Status Evaluation of Public Health Hazard
NCTAMS PAC Wahiawa Sites
Old Wahiawa Landfill
[Site 1]
From the 1940s to 1973, industrial and municipal wastes, including batteries, herbicides, pigments, paints, metals, mercury, and creosote, and small quantities of waste lubricant oils, dry cleaning solvents, chlorinated and non-chlorinated solvents, transformer oil, hydraulic fluid, and paint thinners, were disposed of in the gulch. 1997 Draft Remedial Investigation:
Surface soil: Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals were detected slightly and sporadically above comparison values (CVs; see Appendix B for a description of CVs).
Groundwater: Mercury and lead were detected slightly and sporadically above CVs.
Surface water: Lead was detected slightly above the CV.
This was an industrial site in a remote area. The site is currently densely wooded open space in a remote area.

The landfill was officially closed in 1973. In 1978, it was graded and covered with an additional layer of soil. The results of the draft remedial investigation indicate that no further action is necessary.

Based on available data, no public health hazards exist.

Under past, current, and proposed future use, exposure to contaminants in soil at detected levels does not pose a health hazard. Surface water is intermittent and not used for drinking water. Because neither groundwater nor surface water are used as drinking water, no exposures, and therefore no health hazards, exist.

Old Incinerator Site
[Site 2]
From 1951 to 1975, paper was burned and the ash was disposed of in the gulch. This site was investigated as part of the Building 6 Disposal Area (Site 5). See the Building 6 Disposal Area (Site 5). See the Building 6 Disposal Area (Site 5). See Building 6 Disposal Area (Site 5).
East Gulch Disposal
[Site 3]
From the 1940s to 1973, municipal refuse, construction debris, and large inert objects were intermittently disposed of in the gulch. Since no hazardous materials were disposed of at this site, no sampling was performed. This is an industrial site in a remote area.

The 1986 initial assessment study recommended no further action, but there is no decision document to date.

Based on available data, no public health hazards appear to exist.
West Gulch Disposal
[Site 4]
From 1975 to 1978, construction debris, wood, concrete, fiberglass tiles, and asbestos insulation panels were disposed of in the gulch. No visual inspection or sampling were performed at this site. This is an industrial site in a remote area.

The 1995 remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan calls for an abbreviated remedial investigation at this site, which is currently scheduled for fiscal year 2005.

No data are currently available. ATSDR will review the findings of the remedial investigation when they become available.
Building 6 Disposal Area
[Site 5]

The draft remedial investigation was expanded to include the Burn Area (Old Incinerator Site, Site 2), the Drum Disposal Area, and the Building 293 Disposal Area (Site 22).

From the 1940s to 1976, inert wastes, construction debris, metal, waste oils, and solvents were disposed of in the gulch.

From 1951 to 1975, an incinerator on the western edge of the Building 6 gulch burned controlled documents and disposed of the ash in the gulch. Below the incinerator site are a concrete base, steps, and a single wall built in a cutaway of the gulch (the Burn Area).

To the east of the Burn Area and also located in the Building 6 gulch, automobile parts and drums labelled cleaning solvent, diesel fuel, and lubricant oil were disposed of in the Drum Disposal Area.

Immediately upgradient of the Building 6 disposal area, debris from a former auto body shop (Building 293) was disposed of in another gulch. This may have impacted the Building 6 gulch. Wastes may have included solvents, paint, fuel, and lubricants.

1997 Draft Remedial Investigation:

Building 6 Disposal Area, including the Burn Area and Drum Disposal Area:
Surface soil: Lead (9.3-2,880 parts per million [ppm]) was detected above CVs. PAHs, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and metals were detected slightly and sporadically above CVs.

Surface water: Arsenic and lead were detected slightly above CVs.

Building 293:
Soil: No contaminants were detected above CVs.

The gulch lies between an industrial area and open land.

Building 6 Disposal Area: Based on the results of the draft remedial investigation, the Navy is considering remediation of soil contaminated with PCBs and metals in the gulch.

Burn and Drum Disposal Areas: The draft remedial investigation calls for "hot spot" remediation of surface and subsurface soil for both areas.

Building 293 Disposal Area: Based on the results of the draft remedial investigation, no further action is indicated at this site.

Based on available data, no public health hazards exist.

Under past, current, and proposed future use, exposure to contaminants in soil at detected levels does not pose a health hazard. Because surface water is intermittent and not used for drinking water, no exposures, and therefore no health hazards, exist.

Service Station Gulch
[Site 6]
From 1967 to 1980, a reportedly small amount of waste, including inert wastes, auto parts, petroleum, oils, and lubricants, were disposed of in the gulch. Due to the type and small amount of wastes reported, no sampling was performed at this site. The gulch lies between an industrial area and open land.

The 1986 initial assessment study recommended no further action; however, EPA recommended further study.

The 1995 remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan calls for an abbreviated remedial investigation at this site, which is currently scheduled for fiscal year 2004.

No additional data are currently available. ATSDR will review the findings of the remedial investigation when they become available.
Transformers at Buildings 3, 109, 118, 119, 120, 127, 130, 230
[Site 14]
From approximately 1942 until 1977, two 6-ounce fluid samples of dielectric fluid were dumped on the ground next to each transformer on a quarterly basis. An estimated 2 gallons of dielectric fluid may have been disposed of next to each transformer. 1989 Site Inspection and 1992 Removal Action:
Surface soil: PCBs were detected above CVs.
Air: No detectable quantities of PCBs were found during ambient air monitoring.
Transformers at industrial sites are enclosed within cyclone fencing. Transformers at Buildings 118, 119, and 120 are located in residential areas. The transformer at Building 119 is located in close proximity to a playground.

All PCB transformers have been removed or replaced with non-PCB transformers.

From November 1990 to February 1991, a removal action included excavating PCB-contaminated soil, confirmation sampling, and backfilling with clean materials. Sites were excavated to a cleanup goal of 10 ppm.

Based on available data, no apparent public health hazards exist.

Under past, current, and proposed future use, sporadic exposure to contaminants in soil at detected levels is not expected to be associated with adverse health effects. Remediation of soil will further protect public health.

Past exposure to contaminants at detected levels in soil at the playground at Building 119 is not expected to be associated with adverse health effects. Remediation of soil will further protect pubic health currently and in the future.

Transformer at Building 236
[Site 15]
(late discovery)
See Site 14. This transformer is located within a locked concrete block structure. 1992 Site Inspection:
Soil: PCBs were detected slightly and sporadically above CVs.
This is an industrial site.
PCBs were detected at levels below the cleanup goal of 10 ppm; therefore, no further action was indicated.
Based on available data, no public health hazards exist.

Under past, current, and proposed future use, exposure to contaminants in soil at detected levels does not pose a health hazard.

Transformer at Building 262
[Site 16]
(late discovery)
Reportedly, PCBs were accidentally added to two non-PCB transformers while the dielectric fluid was being changed sometime in the 1980s. The transformers are enclosed by cyclone fencing. 1992 Site Inspection:
Soil: PCBs were detected below CVs.
This is an industrial site.
PCBs were detected at levels below the cleanup goal of 10 ppm; therefore, no further action was indicated.
Based on available data, no public health hazards exist.

Contaminants in soil were detected at concentrations that do not pose a health hazard.

Transformers at Buildings 106 and 261
[Site 17] (formerly Site 14)
See Site 14.
- Two transformers at Building 106 were located inside the building; they have been replaced with non-PCB transformers.
- Three transformers at Building 261 were located inside buildings; they have been replaced with non-PCB transformers. Pesticides have been applied to the ground in the vicinity of Building 261.
1989 Site Inspection and 1992 Removal Action:

Building 106:
Surface soil: PCBs were detected above CVs.

Building 261:
Surface soil: PCBs and chlordane were detected above CVs.

These are industrial sites.

PCB-contaminated soil at Buildings 106 and 261 will be excavated to a cleanup goal of 10 ppm (industrial goal) and 1 ppm (residential goal), respectively. Removal activities are to be completed in 1998.

Based on available data, no public health hazards exist.

Under past, current, and proposed future use, sporadic exposures to contaminants in soil at detected levels is not expected to be associated with adverse health effects. Plans to remediate soil will further protect public health.

Transformer at Building 234
[Site 19]
(formerly Site 14)
See Site 14. 1989 Site Inspection:
Surface soil: PCBs were detected slightly and sporadically above CVs.
This is an industrial site.

PCBs were detected at levels below the cleanup goal of 10 ppm; therefore, no further action was indicated.

Based on available data, no public health hazards exist.

Under past, current, and proposed future use, exposure to contaminants in soil at detected levels does not pose a health hazard.

Transformers at Buildings S-17, 242, and 343
[Site 20]
(late discovery)
See Site 14.
- The transformer at Building S-17 was located in an underground vault; it was removed in 1993.
- Two transformers were located in Building 242; they have been replaced with non-PCB transformers.
- The transformer located in Building 343 was located in an area adjacent to residential quarters; the transformer was removed in 1994 and replaced with a non-PCB transformer.
1997 Removal Action:

Building S-17:
Surface soil: PCBs were below detection limits.

Building 242:
Surface soil: PCBs were detected sporadically above CVs.
Other: PCBs were detected in a concrete chip sample (9.5 ppm).

Building 343:
Surface soil: PCBs were below detection limits.
Other: PCBs were below detection limits in concrete and wipe samples. PCBs were detected in a concrete chip sample (42 ppm).

These are industrial sites.

PCBs were detected at levels below the cleanup goal of 10 ppm; however, the 1997 removal action plan calls for further confirmation sampling. Removal action plan activities are to be completed in 1998.

Based on available data, no public health hazards exist.

Under past, current, and proposed future use, exposure to contaminants in soil at detected levels does not pose a health hazard.

Abandoned Firing Range
[Site 21]
The site was used as a small arms firing range by security personnel for qualifications of their weapons. The range was abandoned in the early 1980s. No historical data is available and no environmental sampling has been performed at this site. A remedial investigation/ feasibility study is scheduled for fiscal year 2006. No data are currently available. ATSDR will review the findings of the remedial investigation when they become available.
Building 293 Disposal Area
[Site 22]
The discussion of this site is included in the Building 6 Disposal Area (Site 5) discussion. See the Building 6 Disposal Area (Site 5). See the Building 6 Disposal Area (Site 5). See the Building 6 Disposal Area (Site 5).

The remainder of Table 1 was not available in electronic format for conversion to HTML at the time of preparation of this document. To obtain a hard copy of the document, please contact:

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
Attn: Chief, Program Evaluation, Records, and Information Services Branch, E-56
1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, Georgia 30333




TABLE 2.

EXPOSURE PATHWAYS
Pathway Name Exposure Pathway Elements Comments
Source of Contamination Environmental Medium Point of Exposure Route of Exposure Time of Exposure Exposed Population
POTENTIAL EXPOSURE PATHWAYS
Fish downgradient from contaminated gulches Disposal of industrial wastes in gulches throughout NCTAMS PAC Wahiawa Fish tissue Human ingestion of fish Ingestion Past Present, and Future: Unknown. Sampling data indicate that contaminants are not likely to have migrated to the aquatic ecosystem or accumulated in fish. Residents and employees of NCTAMS PAC Wahiawa and residents of Whitmore Village and the town of Wahiawa who eat fish from the public fishing area Due to the levels of contaminants detected and the distance from the gulches to the nearest perennial stream, migration of contaminants via surface water and accumulation in fish is unlikely.
Fish downgradient from PCB-contaminated transformer sites PCBs at transformer sites at NCTAMS PAC Wahiawa Fish tissue Human ingestion of fish Ingestion Past Present, and Future: Unknown. Sampling data indicate that contaminants are not likely to have migrated to the aquatic ecosystem or accumulated in fish. Residents and employees of NCTAMS PAC Wahiawa and residents of Whitmore Village and the town of Wahiawa who eat fish from the public fishing area Due to the levels of contaminants detected and the distance from the gulches to the nearest perennial stream, migration of contaminants via surface water and accumulation in fish is unlikely.

POTENTIAL EXPOSURE PATHWAYS

Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) Radio transmitters at NRTF Lualualei Electromagnetic radiation NRTF Lualualei and the Waianae District Electromagnetic radiation Past, Present, and Future: EMFs are emitted from the transmission towers at NRTF Lualualei. Residents and employees at NRTF Lualualei and residents of the Waianae District Research does not provide evidence that EMFs are associated with adverse health effects.
POTENTIAL EXPOSURE PATHWAYS
Soil Light industrial activities at NCTAMS Soil Various sites throughout NCTAMS Ingestion

Dermal

Past, Present, and Future: Contaminants exist in surface soil at some industrial sites.

Past: PCB contamination existed in soil at transformer sites located in residential areas. PCB-contaminated soil migrated to a playground adjacent to one of these sites.

Residents and employees of NCTAMS Contaminants are not detected at levels that are likely to pose a public health hazard at industrial sites.

Heavy vegetation and other factors make past exposures to contaminated soil at transformer sites in residential areas unlikely.

Contamination at the playground near Building 119 was not detected at levels that are likely to pose a health hazard.




FIGURES


Figure 1: Location Map


Figure 2: Demographics of Population Residing Within a 1-Mile Radius of NCTAMS PAC Wahiawa


Figure 3: Demographics of Population Residing Within a 1-Mile Radius of NRTF Lualualei


Figure 4: ATSDR's Exposure Evaluation Process


Figure 5: Site Map, NCTAMS PAC Wahiawa



APPENDIX A: Glossary

Analyte
A chemical component of a sample to be determined or measured. For example, if the analyte is mercury, the laboratory test will determine the amount of mercury in the sample.
Background level
A typical or average level of a chemical in the environment. Background often refers to naturally occurring or uncontaminated levels.
Carcinogen
Any substance that may produce cancer.
CERCLA
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, also known as Superfund. This is the legislation that created ATSDR.
Comparison Values
Estimated contaminant concentrations in specific media that are not likely to cause adverse health effects, given a standard daily ingestion rate and standard body weight. The comparison values are calculated from the scientific literature available on exposure and health effects.
Concentration
The amount of one substance dissolved or contained in a given amount of another. For example, sea water contains a higher concentration of salt than fresh water.
Contaminant
Any substance or material that enters a system (the environment, human body, food, etc.) where it is not normally found.
Dermal
Referring to the skin. Dermal absorption means absorption through the skin.
Dose
The amount of substance to which a person is exposed. Dose often takes body weight into account.
Environmental contamination
The presence of hazardous substances in the environment. From the public health perspective, environmental contamination is addressed when it potentially affects the health and quality of life of people living and working near the contamination.
Exposure
Contact with a chemical by swallowing, by breathing, or by direct contact (such as through the skin or eyes). Exposure may be short term (acute) or long term (chronic).
Hazard
A source of risk that does not necessarily imply potential for occurrence. A hazard produces risk only if an exposure pathway exists and if exposures create the possibility of adverse consequences.
Ingestion
Swallowing (such as eating or drinking). Chemicals can get into or on food, drink, utensils, cigarettes, or hands, after which they can be ingested. After ingestion, chemicals can be absorbed into the blood and distributed throughout the body.
Inhalation
Breathing. Exposure may occur from inhaling contaminants because they can be deposited in the lungs, taken into the blood, or both.
Media
Soil, water, air, plants, animals, or any other parts of the environment that can contain contaminants.
Minimal Risk Level (MRL)
An MRL is defined as an estimate of daily human exposure to a substance that is likely to be without an appreciable risk of adverse effects (noncancer) over a specified duration of exposure. MRLs are derived when reliable and sufficient data exist to identify the target organ(s) of effect or the most sensitive health effects(s) for a specific duration via a given route of exposure. MRLs are based on noncancer health effects only. MRLs can be derived for acute, intermediate, and chronic duration exposures by the inhalation and oral routes.
National Priorities List (NPL)
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) list of sites that have undergone preliminary assessment and site inspection to determine which locations pose an immediate threat to persons living or working near the release. These sites are most in need of cleanup.
No Apparent Public Health Hazard
Sites where human exposure to contaminated media is occurring or has occurred in the past, but the exposure is below a level of health hazard.
Plume
An area of chemicals in a particular medium, such as air or groundwater, moving away from its source in a long band or column. A plume can be a column of smoke from a chimney or chemicals moving with groundwater.
Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)
PCBs are very stable, non-flammable liquids used as heat insulation fluids in transformers. Because PCBs are very stable chemicals, they tend to persist in the environment. Several types of PCB mixtures exist; some commercial mixtures are known by their industrial trade name, Aroclor.
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)
PAHs comprise one category of base/neutral acid or extractable compounds and are a group of chemicals that are formed during the burning of coal, oil, gas, wood, or other organic substance. Some PAHs are contained in asphalt used for paving roads or runways. There are more than 100 different PAH compounds and they are found throughout the environment in air, water, and soil. Most PAHs do not appear alone in the environment but, rather, in complex mixtures of many individual PAHs, which may be carcinogenic or noncarcinogenic.
Potentially Exposed
The condition where valid information, usually analytical environmental data, indicates the presence of contaminant(s) of a public health concern in one or more environmental media contacting humans (i.e., air, drinking water, soil, food chain, surface water), and there is evidence that some of those persons may have an identified route(s) of exposure (i.e., drinking contaminated water, breathing contaminated air, having contact with contaminated soil, or eating contaminated food).
Public Health Assessment
The evaluation of data and information on the release of hazardous substances into the environment in order to assess any current or future impact on public health, develop health advisories or other recommendations, and identify studies or actions needed to evaluate and mitigate or prevent human health effects; also the document resulting from that evaluation.
Public Health Hazard
Sites that pose a public health hazard as the result of long-term exposures to hazardous substances.
Risk
In risk assessment, the probability that something will cause injury, combined with the potential severity of that injury.
Route of Exposure
The way in which a person may contact a chemical substance. For example, drinking (ingestion) and bathing (skin contact) are two different routes of exposure to contaminants that may be found in water.
Semi-volatile Organic Compounds (SVOC)
Compounds amenable to analysis by extraction of the sample with an organic solvent. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, benzo(a)pyrene, and chrysene, comprise one category of SVOCs. The term SVOCs is used synonymously with base/neutral and acid extractable compounds (BNAs).
Superfund
Another name for the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), which created ATSDR.
Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA)
The 1986 legislation that broadened ATSDR's responsibilities in the areas of public health assessments, establishment and maintenance of toxicologic databases, information dissemination, and medical education.
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
Substances containing carbon and different proportions of other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, sulfur, or nitrogen; these substances easily become vapors or gases. A significant number of the VOCs are commonly used as solvents (paint thinners, lacquer thinner, degreasers, and dry-cleaning fluids).

APPENDIX B: Comparison Values

The conclusion that a contaminant exceeds the comparison value does not mean that it will causeadverse health effects. Comparison values represent media-specific contaminant concentrationsthat are used to select contaminants for further evaluation to determine the possibility of adversepublic health effects.

Cancer Risk Evaluation Guides (CREGs)

CREGs are estimated contaminant concentrations that would be expected to cause no more thanone excess cancer in a million (10-6) persons exposed over lifetime. ATSDR's CREGs arecalculated from EPA's cancer potency factors.

Environmental Media Evaluation Guides (EMEGs)

EMEGs are based on ATSDR minimal risk levels (MRLs) and factors in body weight andingestion rates. An EMEG is an estimate of daily human exposure to a chemical (in mg/kg/day)that is likely to be without noncarcinogenic health effects over a specified duration of exposure.

Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL)

The MCL is the drinking water standard established by EPA. It is the maximum permissible levelof a contaminant in water that is delivered to the free-flowing outlet. MCLs are consideredprotective of public health over a lifetime (70 years) for people consuming 2 liters of water perday.

Reference Media Evaluation Guides (RMEGs)

ATSDR derives RMEGs from EPA's oral reference doses. The RMEG represents theconcentration in water or soil at which daily human exposure is unlikely to result in adversenoncarcinogenic effects.


APPENDIX C: Response to Comments Received During the Public Comment Period

The Naval Computer and Telecommunications Area Master Station, Pacific (NCTAMS PAC)public health assessment was available for public review and comment from September 25, 1998,through October 25, 1998. The public comment period was announced in a press release datedSeptember 21, 1998. Copies of the public health assessment were made available for review at theWahiawa Public Library and the Waianae Public Library. The public health assessment was alsosent to state and federal agencies and interested members of the general public.

ATSDR received the following comments/questions for the NCTAMS PAC public healthassessment. The specific comments that were received either identified new information;questioned specific sentences or paragraphs in the text or tables; or suggested additions orcorrections to improve the clarity, completeness, or accuracy of a specific sentence or paragraph.Those specific comments that were not repeated by other respondents are listed separately. Thislist of specific comments does not include editorial comments concerning word spelling, sentencesyntax, format, etc. If the accuracy of a statement was questioned, the statement was verified andcorrected. Comments which requested that information be added to the document withoutproviding document sources of that information were not addressed here.

  1. Comment: Page 20, PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION PLAN, Ongoing/Planned Actions, 2ndbullet: The cleanup goals are 1 ppm PCB or 10 ppm PCB, dependent on the site usage(residential or industrial).

    Response: Text amended.

  2. Comment: Page 25, Table 1, Old Wahiawa Landfill (Site 1) row, "Corrective Activitiesand/or Current Status" column: Note that the RI referred to here is the draft remedialinvestigation.

    Response: Text amended.

  3. Comment: Page 27, Table 1, Building 6 Disposal Area (Site 5) row, "Site" column: Note thatthe RI referred to here is the draft remedial investigation. The site was not expanded toinclude the Old Incinerator Site (Site 2) and the Building 293 Disposal Area (Site 22). Itwould be more correct to say that the investigation was expanded to include the other areas.The draft RI report covered what was believed to be the Burn Area, which was later realizedto be the Old Incinerator Site. The draft RI report also included the Building 293 DisposalArea.

    Response: Text amended.

  4. Comment: Page 27, Table 1, Building 6 Disposal Area (Site 5) row, "Corrective Activitiesand/or Current Status" column: Note that the RI referred to here is the draft remedialinvestigation.

    Response: Text amended.

  5. Comment: Page 31, Table 1, Building 293 Disposal Area (Site 22) row, "SiteDescription/Waste Disposal History" column: It would be more accurate to say, "Thediscussion on the site is included in the Building 6 Disposal Area (Site 5) discussion."

    Response: Text amended.

  6. Comment: Page 35, Table 1, Transformer at Building 67 (Site 20), "Corrective Activitiesand/or Current Status" column: Note that soil will be tested as part of the removal action in1998.

    Response: Text amended.

  7. Comment: More independent study is needed of EMF effect on children and women ofchildbearing-age.

    Response: While potential exposure to EMF is not subject to review under the provisions ofCERCLA, we incorporated our review of the EMF issue at NRTF Lualualei in this publichealth assessment to further public understanding of this issue. The data gathered by the EPA(1992) and the Hawaii Department of Health (Maskarinec et al., 1994) coupled with thefindings of the NAS (1996) is very strong evidence that no public health hazard has beencreated by the EMF emanating from the radio transmission towers at NCTAMS PAC.

1. Trichloroethylene (TCE) was detected above the EPA's maximum contaminant level inthe Schofield Army Barracks drinking water supply wells in 1985; the water has beensubsequently treated with an air stripper. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry(ATSDR) evaluated potential past exposure to TCE in drinking water from the Schofield wellsand concluded that no public health hazard existed (ATSDR, 1998).

2. The laboratory used by the contractor that collected the 1990 characterization samples was found to be using fraudulent practices; therefore, ATSDR used these data for screening purposes only. The data that ATSDR evaluated were also reported in the final removal action field report, but were collected by other contractors (PRC, 1992). Further information on these data, including maps, sampling locations, and field notes, was obtained through the Navy (Fukumoto, 1998).



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