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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

SCHOFIELD BARRACKS
WAHIAWA, HONOLULU COUNTY, HAWAII


TABLES

Table 1.

Table 1. Evaluation of Potential Public Health Hazards
OU 1: Potential Sources of TCE Groundwater Contamination
Site Site Description/Waste Disposal History Investigation Results/Environmental Monitoring Results* Corrective Activities and/or Current Status Evaluation of Public Health Hazard
Directorate of Logistics Vehicle Maintenance Motor Pool (Building 1029)
[Site 17]
Vehicle storage and maintenance; solvents to clean engine parts; possible spillage of solvents. Shallow gas: Low levels of total volatile hydrocarbons (TVH) and some volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected. However, no trichloroethylene (TCE) or other solvents were detected.

Surface soil: No semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were detected. Metals were detected above background and sporadically or slightly above comparison values (CVs).

Subsurface soil: No VOCs were detected. No SVOCs were detected above CVs. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)--diesel--were detected at 17 parts per million (ppm). Metals were detected above background and sporadically or slightly above CVs.

Industrial site.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exists. Subsurface soils are inaccessible. Furthermore, contaminants in soils were detected at levels that do not pose a health hazard.
Distribution Warehouse (Building 1052)
[Site 18]
Storage of auto parts from 1950 to 1985; including drums of solvents since 1985; observed paint thinner, acetone, lube oil, antifreeze, grease, acids, and petroleum naphtha in 1991. Shallow and deep soil gas: Low levels of TVH and some VOCs were detected. However, no TCE or other solvents were detected.

Surface soil: No SVOCs were detected. Metals were detected above background and slightly above CVs.

Subsurface soil: TCE was detected in one sample below the CV; no other VOCs were detected. No SVOCs were detected above CVs. Metals were detected above background and sporadically or slightly above CVs.

Industrial site.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exists. Subsurface soils are inaccessible. Furthermore, contaminants in soils were detected at levels that do not pose a health hazard.
Petroleum, Oil, and Lubricants (POL) Area (Area R)
[Site 20]
Storage, including waste petroleum, oil, and lubricants (POL) and solvents. Shallow and deep soil gas: Low levels of TVH and VOCs were detected. However, no TCE or other solvents were detected.

Surface soil: No SVOCs were detected. Metals were detected above background and sporadically or slightly above CVs.

Subsurface soil: No SVOCs were detected. No VOCs were detected above CVs. Aroclor 1260 was detected in one sample slightly above the maximum contaminant level (MCL). Metals were detected above background and sporadically or slightly above CVs.

Industrial site.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exists. Subsurface soils are inaccessible. Furthermore, contaminants in soils were detected at levels that do not pose a health hazard.
Automobile Craft Shop (Building 910)
[Site 25]
Built 1977; leaking hydraulic lifts; waste oil storage; storage of solvents and antifreeze. Shallow soil gas: Low levels of TVH and toluene were detected. No other VOCs were detected.

Subsurface soil: No VOCs or SVOCs were detected above CVs. Metals were detected above background and sporadically or slightly above CVs.

Industrial site.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exists. Subsurface soils are inaccessible. Furthermore, contaminants in soils were detected at levels that do not pose a health hazard.
Maintenance Area (Building 387)
[Site 42]
Built 1924. Before 1960, solvents used at site for dust control; before 1980, waste storage, including chlorinated solvents mixed with other solvents. From 1980 to 1982, waste oil drum storage; small volumes of solvents for weed control. Shallow and deep soil gas: Low levels of TVH were detected. No TCE or other VOCs were detected.

Subsurface soil: No VOCs were detected. No SVOCs were detected above CVs. Metals were detected above background and sporadically or slightly above CVs.

Industrial site.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exists. Subsurface soils are inaccessible. Furthermore, contaminants in soils were detected at levels that do not pose a health hazard.
Old Burn Area
[Site 50]
Incineration of unknown refuse possibly since 1942, likely from 1950 to 1960, and in 1985. In 1965, training area. Landfill; trenches and pits for possible solvent disposal; unexploded ordnance (UXO) clearance. Shallow and deep soil gas: Low levels of TVH and some VOCs were detected. However, no TCE or other solvents were detected.

Surface soil: No SVOCs were detected above CVs. Aroclor 1260 was detected slightly above MCLs. Metals were detected above background and sporadically or slightly above CVs.

Subsurface soil: No VOCs or SVOCs were detected above CVs. Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans were detected at very low concentrations. Metals were detected above background and sporadically or slightly above CVs.

Disposal area.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exists. Subsurface soils are inaccessible. Furthermore, contaminants in soils were detected at levels that do not pose a health hazard.
East Range Drum Disposal Area
[Site 51]
Since 1940s, wastes include building debris and empty, unmarked 55-gallon drums. Shallow and deep soil gas: Low levels of TVH were detected. No VOCs were detected.

Surface soil: No SVOCs were detected above CVs. Metals were detected above background and sporadically or slightly above CVs.

Subsurface soil: No VOCs, SVOCs, or TPH were detected. Metals were detected above background and sporadically or slightly above CVs.

Filtered surface water samples and stream sediment: No target analytes were detected above CVs.

Disposal area.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exists. Subsurface soils are inaccessible. Furthermore, contaminants in soils were detected at levels that do not pose a health hazard. No surface water contaminants were above CVs.
Aircraft Fuselage Dumping and Cleaning Area
[Site 54a]
Cleaning of airplane fuselages, possibly involving large quantities of dilute solvents. Shallow and deep soil gas: Low levels of TVH and benzene were detected. No other VOCs were detected.

Surface soil: No SVOCs were detected above CVs. Metals were detected above background and sporadically or slightly above CVs.

Subsurface soil: No VOCs or SVOCs were detected above CVs. Metals were detected above background and sporadically or slightly above CVs.

No surface water or stream sediment samples were taken because no surface water was located at the site at the time of sampling.

No current land use.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exists. Subsurface soils are inaccessible. Furthermore, contaminants in soils were detected at levels that do not pose a health hazard.
Aircraft Storage Area
[Site 54b]
Aircraft storage, possibly aircraft cleaning and degreasing. Shallow and deep soil gas: Low levels of TVH and carbon tetrachloride were detected. No other solvents were detected. Some aromatic VOCs were detected.

Subsurface soil: No VOCs were detected. No SVOCs were detected above CVs. Metals were detected above background and sporadically or slightly above CVs.

Groundwater: No target analytes were detected above CVs.

Wheeler Air Force Base and a golf course currently occupy parts of the site.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exists. Subsurface soils are inaccessible. Furthermore, contaminants in soils were detected at levels that do not pose a health hazard. No groundwater contaminants were above CVs.
Aircraft Engine Rebuild Area
[Site 54c]
From 1942 to 1945, aircraft engine maintenance using solvents, including carbon tetrachloride. Shallow and deep soil gas: Low levels of TVH and VOCs were detected. However, no TCE or other solvents were detected.

Surface soil: No SVOCs were detected above CVs. Metals were detected above background and slightly above CVs.

Subsurface soil: No VOCs or SVOCs were detected above CVs. Metals were detected above background and sporadically or slightly above CVs.

Stream sediment: Metals were detected above background and sporadically or slightly above CVs.

Perched, unfiltered groundwater: No VOCs or SVOCs were detected above CVs. TPH was detected in one groundwater sample at 110 parts per billion (ppb). Metals were detected sporadically or slightly above the MCL.

Filtered and unfiltered surface water: No VOCs or SVOCs were detected above CVs. Antimony was detected in one of 12 samples slightly above the MCL.

No current land use.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exists. Subsurface soils are inaccessible. Furthermore, contaminants in soils were detected at levels that do not pose a health hazard.

Levels of contaminants in the groundwater and surface water are sporadic or within an order of magnitude of the MCLs, which are drinking water standards. Further, no production wells are located near this area; therefore, no exposure to groundwater exists.

Old Laundry
[Site 53]
Possibly dry cleaning occurred from 1943 to 1971. Limited sampling before the RI indicated no contamination at site. There was no indication of on-site dry-cleaning equipment or solvent storage tanks; therefore, past activities do not present a potential for release of contamination. Toluene was detected in 3/35 samples; an unknown hydrocarbon was detected in one sample. This site was dropped during the RI; no further action required. No public health hazard exists. Past activities do not present a potential for release of contamination and limited sampling does not indicate any contamination.
Shaft Pump Chamber and Storage Chambers
[Site 53]
Underground storage and pump chamber where the water supply wells are located. Oil used to lubricate; history of pump motors failing and spraying machine oil on walls; storage of drums of waste oil. Past activities do not present a potential for release of contamination; no samples were taken. This site was dropped before the RI; no further action required. No public health hazard exists. Past activities do not present a potential for release of contamination.

Table 1 (continued), Evaluation of Potential Public Health Hazards
OU 2: Groundwater
Site Waste Disposal History Investigation Results/Environmental Monitoring Results* Corrective Activities and/or Current Status Evaluation of Public Health Hazard
Groundwater: Drinking Water Wells TCE contamination discovered in 1985. TCE (7.8-53 ppb) was detected in all samples above the MCL. No other VOCs, SVOCs, or metals were detected above MCLs. Since 1986, drinking water has been treated at the wellhead using air stripper technology. After a thorough investigation, the source of the TCE contamination was not determined. Past: Exposure to TCE in drinking water occurred between the time of contamination (undetermined) and the time that the treatment system was fully operational. Potential exposure pathways were ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact.

Present and future: No exposures are expected due to the operation of an air stripper treatment system.

Groundwater: Monitoring Wells TCE contamination discovered in 1985. TCE (not detected [nd]-65 ppb) was detected above the MCL in some monitoring well samples, but not at any off-site production or irrigation wells. Carbon tetrachloride (nd-8.2 ppb) was detected above the MCL in one sample at a landfill monitoring well. Pentachlorophenol (nd-25 ppb) was detected above the MCL in one sample at an off-site production well. Antimony (nd-55.1 ppb), cadmium (nd-11.2 ppb), chromium (nd-364 ppb), and nickel (nd-309 ppb) were detected above MCLs in some monitoring and off-site production and irrigation wells. No other VOCs, SVOCs, metals, or pesticides/polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected above MCLs. Monitoring continues in order to track contaminant movement. No treatment is being performed. No public health hazard exists. No other drinking water wells are located on site.

Table 1 (continued), Evaluation of Potential Public Health Hazards
OU 3: Other Contaminated Sites
Site Site Description/Waste Disposal History Investigation Results/Environmental Monitoring Results* Corrective Activities and/or Current Status Evaluation of Public Health Hazard
Pest Control Shop
(Buildings 368 and 368F)
[Site 21]
Pesticide mixing area (from 1969 to 1984); pesticides still stored in buildings 368, 368F (pesticide storage shed), and 380; past surface spills, surface runoff, and water damage to containers are suspected. Soil: Dieldrin was detected in one of 11 samples above the CV. The sample depth was 6" (this contaminant was also found in the method blank). Industrial site, but future plans for construction of barracks.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exists. Contaminants in soil were detected at concentrations that do not pose a health hazard.
Car Care Center
(Building 80)
[Site 26]
Active automobile fueling and servicing facility; stored and dispensed fuel products since 1957; former drum storage and tank basin outside fencing, leaking underground storage tank (1992); existing service bay sump, and temporary battery storage area. Soil gas: TVH and aromatic VOCs related to fuel products were detected.

Soil and sediment: No target analytes were detected above CVs.

Surface water: No VOCs or SVOCs were detected. Cyanide and nickel were detected sporadically and slightly above MCLs.

Industrial site, but surface water runoff may flow to areas accessible to residential populations.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exists. Contaminants in soils and sediment were detected at concentrations that do not pose a health hazard.

Metals detected in water were at levels that do not pose a health hazard. Although cyanide and nickel were detected above MCLs, the MCL is a drinking water standard; samples were taken in open drainage ditches from which consumption does not occur.

Optical Repair Building
(Building 1054)
[Site 35]
1942-1987: vehicle maintenance. 1950-1987: optical repair; welding, machining, canvas repair, radiator repair, glass replacement, vehicle body and fender repair; maintenance shops, oil storage, steam wash rack, grease rack, 750-gallon diesel fuel tank (removed 1992). Soil gas: Low levels of TVH, aromatic VOCs related to fuel products, and one solvent were detected.

Soil and sediment: No VOCs or SVOCs were detected above CVs. Metals were detected sporadically or slightly above CVs.

Surface water: No VOCs or SVOCs were detected. Cyanide was detected slightly above the MCL.

Industrial site, but surface water runoff may flow to areas accessible to residential populations.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exists. Subsurface soils are inaccessible. Furthermore, contaminants in soils and sediment were detected at levels that do not pose a health hazard.

Cyanide was detected at a level that does not pose a health hazard. The MCL is a drinking water standard; water sample was taken in open drainage ditch from which consumption does not occur.

Acid Pit (between Buildings 2138H and 2140)
[Site 46]
Draining of batteries: acid drained and mixed with sodium bicarbonate and then washed into drainage ditch or sanitary sewer (150-2,000 liters per year); waste oil and solvents possibly also released. Surface and subsurface soil: No VOCs or SVOCs were detected above CVs. Metals were detected sporadically or slightly above CVs.

Sediment: Benzo(a)pyrene (<0.33-1 ppm) was detected in only one sample slightly above the CV. No other VOCs or SVOCs were detected. Metals were detected sporadically or slightly above CVs.

Industrial site.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exists. Subsurface soils are inaccessible. Furthermore, contaminants in soils and sediment were detected at levels that do not pose a health hazard.
Pits (1942)
[Site 57]
Four pits visible in only one 1942 photo. Undeveloped site; no evidence of hazardous waste disposal but preliminary assessment detected contaminants. Surface soil: No target analytes were detected above CVs.

Subsurface soil: Barium (159 ppm) was detected in one soil sample slightly above the CV. No other metals, VOCs, or SVOCs were detected above CVs.

Industrial site.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exists. Subsurface soils are inaccessible. Furthermore, contaminants in soils were detected at levels that do not pose a health hazard.
Two Trenches (1942)
[Site 59]
Trenches located at the golf course in 1942; no history of hazardous material disposal but preliminary assessment detected contaminants. Surface and subsurface soil: No VOCs or SVOCs were detected above CVs. Metals were detected sporadically or slightly above CVs. Industrial site.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exists. Subsurface soils are inaccessible. Furthermore, contaminants in soils were detected at levels that do not pose a health hazard.
Pits and Trenches (1953-1977)
[Site 61]
Pits and trenches that existed from 1953 to 1977; preliminary assessment detected contaminants. Surface and subsurface soil: No VOCs or SVOCs were detected above CVs. Chromium was detected slightly above CVs. Industrial site.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exists. Contaminants in soil were detected at concentrations that do not pose a health hazard.
Pits (1962)
[Site 63]
Three pits reported to exist in 1962; preliminary assessment detected contaminants. Surface and subsurface soil: No target analytes were detected above CVs. Industrial site.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exists. Contaminants in soil were detected at concentrations that do not pose a health hazard.
Pits (1962)
[Site 64B]
Two pits reported to exist in 1962; preliminary assessment detected contaminants. Surface soil: No target analytes were detected above CVs.

Subsurface soil: No VOCs or SVOCs were detected above CVs. Mercury was detected in one sample slightly above CVs.

Industrial site.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exists. Contaminants in soil were detected at concentrations that do not pose a health hazard.
Maintenance Area
(Building 368)
[Site 72B]
Includes several buildings, hazardous material storage area, POL drum storage shed, wash rack, underground storage tanks. Vehicle and equipment maintenance and repair since 1940s. POL, waste oil, and diesel used and stored there; no reported spills or leaks. Soil gas: TVH, aromatic VOCs related to fuel products, and solvents were detected.

Surface soil: No VOCs or SVOCs were detected above CVs. Barium was detected sporadically and slightly above CVs. No other metals were detected above CVs.

Subsurface soil: One sample contained 1,1,2,2,-tetrachloroethane slightly above the CV at a depth of 19 feet. One sample detected barium slightly above the CV at 100 feet. No other VOCs, SVOCs, or metals were detected above CVs.

Industrial site, but future plans for construction of barracks.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exits. Subsurface soils are inaccessible. Furthermore, contaminants in soils were detected at levels that do not pose a health hazard.
Motor Pool (1942)
[Site 73]
Former location of buildings that were part of motor pool and vehicle maintenance area from 1942 to 1950; probably discharge of waste oil, solvents, and wastewater from wash racks into storm drainage ditches. Soil gas: TVH and aromatic VOCs related to fuel products were detected.

Surface and subsurface soil: No VOCs or SVOCs were detected above CVs. Metals were detected sporadically or slightly above CVs.

Industrial site.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exits. Subsurface soils are inaccessible. Furthermore, contaminants in soils were detected at levels that do not pose a health hazard.
Open Storage (1977)
[Site 74]
Open storage of unspecified materials in 1977; two empty rusty drums marked "fog oil" observed during preliminary assessment. Soil gas: TVH was detected, but there was no indication of potential contamination. Industrial site.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exists. Contaminants were not detected.
Possible Trench (1953)
[Site 80]
Part of maintenance area from 1942 to 1958. Trench observed in 1953. No record of hazardous waste disposal into trench but preliminary assessment detected TPH concentrations. Surface soil: No target analytes were detected above CVs.

Subsurface soil: No VOCs or SVOCs were detected above CVs. Barium was detected sporadically and slightly above the CV.

Residential site.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exits. Subsurface soils are inaccessible. Furthermore, contaminants in soils were detected at levels that do not pose a health hazard.
Industrial Operation, Light-Toned Material, Open Storage, and Dark Stains (1942)
[Site 81B]
Maintenance and repair facility during 1950s to mid-1970s. Possible that wash rack wastewater, which may have contained oil and solvents, was routinely discharged into storm drainage. Soil gas: TVH and aromatic VOCs related to fuel products were detected.

Surface and subsurface soil: No VOCS or SVOCs were detected above CVs. Barium, chromium, and nickel were detected sporadically or slightly above CVs.

Industrial site.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exits. Subsurface soils are inaccessible. Furthermore, contaminants in soils were detected at levels that do not pose a health hazard.
Open Storage/ Motor Pool Area
(1950-1970)
[Site 83]
Five warehouses and a battery storage maintenance shed. Warehouses and maintenance and repair facilities from 1950 to 1970. Wastewater from vehicle steam cleaning, possibly containing oil and solvents, may have been discharged onto ground. Soil gas: TVH was detected.

Surface and subsurface soil: No target analytes were detected.

Industrial site.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exists. Contaminants were not detected in soils.
Motor Pool (1955-1978)
[Site 88]
Maintenance facility since 1950. Storage of drums of hazardous waste and POL; storage of fuel in 12,000-gallon underground storage tank (UST) from 1946 to 1991. Wastewater from vehicle steam cleaning discharged to drainage ditches. Soil gas: No contaminants were detected.

Surface and subsurface soil: No target analytes were detected above CVs.

Industrial site.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exists. Contaminants were not detected at levels that are likely to pose a health hazard.
Motor Pool (1959-1969) and Dark Stains (1970)
[Site 90]
Motor pool from 1950 to 1969. Soil gas: TVH and aromatic VOCs related to fuel products were detected.

Surface and subsurface soils: No VOCs or SVOCs were detected above CVs. Metals were detected at or below background concentrations.

Residential site.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exists. Subsurface soils are inaccessible. Furthermore, contaminants in soils were detected at levels that do not pose a health hazard.
Open Fire (1951) and Open Storage/ Light Material/ Dark Stains (1955)
[Site 93]
1955: possibly associated with maintenance facility. Soil gas: Toluene was detected.

Surface and subsurface soils: No VOCs or SVOCs were detected above CVs. Metals were detected at or below background concentrations.

Residential site.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exits. Subsurface soils are inaccessible. Furthermore, contaminants in soils were detected at levels that do not pose a health hazard.
Maintenance Area
(Building 940)
[Site B]
Since 1960s: used for vehicle and armament maintenance and storage; POL storage; hazardous material storage area. Concrete-lined wash rack with associated weir-type oil skimmer and separate waste-oil UST. Grease rack, with associated waste-oil UST. Fueling facilities. Two grease racks that were removed in 1985. One suspected leaking UST, removed in 1991; one UST removed in 1993. Soil gas: TVH and benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and total xylenes (BTEX) were detected.

Soil and sediment: No VOCs or SVOCs were detected above CVs. Metals were detected sporadically or slightly above CVs.

Industrial site.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exists. Subsurface soils are inaccessible. Furthermore, contaminants in soils and sediment were detected at levels that do not pose a health hazard.
Maintenance Area
(Building 955)
[Site C]
Vehicle and armament maintenance and storage area. Oval race track from 1942 to 1955. Vehicle storage from 1959 to 1985. During preliminary assessment, observed oil sump overflowing during heavy rains; storage of hazardous materials; malfunction of wash rack oil-water separator; no documentation of leak testing for two waste-oil USTs. Soil gas: TVH and BTEX were detected.

Soil and sediment: No VOCs or SVOCs were detected above CVs. Metals were detected sporadically or slightly above CVs.

Industrial site.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exists. Subsurface soils are inaccessible. Furthermore, contaminants in soils and sediment were detected at levels that do not pose a health hazard.
Maintenance Area
(Building 968)
[Site D]
Vehicle and armament maintenance since 1987. Residences present in 1951; warehouse in 1960. Grease rack visible in 1970. Two permanent grease racks in 1978, only one currently. Use and storage of POL and hazardous material; possible releases from grease rack and waste-oil UST; overflow from wash rack oil-water separator; evidence of leakage and/or spills. Soil gas: TVH and BTEX were detected.

Soil and sediment: No VOCs or SVOCs were detected above CVs. Metals were detected sporadically or slightly above CVs.

Industrial site.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exists. Subsurface soils are inaccessible. Furthermore, contaminants in soils and sediment were detected at levels that do not pose a health hazard.
Maintenance Area
(Building 986)
[Site E]
Vehicle and armament maintenance and storage area. Motor pool from 1960. Buildings built in 1970. Wash racks and grease racks without associated waste oil USTs at different times, currently connected to oil-water separators. Use and storage of POL and hazardous materials; 1,000 gallon waste-oil UST that failed leak test; discharge of wastewater to surface drainage; reported overfilling of UST. Soil gas: TVH was detected.

Surface soil: No VOCs or SVOCs were detected above CVs. Metals were detected sporadically or slightly above CVs.

Subsurface soil: VOCs, SVOCs, and metals were detected sporadically or slightly above CVs.

Sediment: No VOCs or SVOCs were detected above CVs. Metals were detected sporadically or slightly above CVs.

Surface water: No target analytes were detected.

Industrial site.

No further action required.

NOTE: According to the RI, concentrations of TPH--diesel--and TPH--gas--were above Hawaii Department of Health clean-up criteria. Further investigation and cleanup of the contamination in this area were undertaken as part of the installation's UST compliance program and completed before the signing of the OU 3 ROD.

No public health hazard exists. Subsurface soils are inaccessible. Furthermore, contaminants in soil and sediment were detected at levels that do not pose a health hazard. No contaminants were detected in surface water.
Maintenance Area
(Building 1080)
[Site H]
Vehicle storage since 1950 and possibly part of motor pool by 1978; two USTs installed in 1982; observation of soil discoloration. Soil gas: TVH and BTEX were detected.

Soil and sediment: No VOCs or SVOCs were detected above CVs. Metals were detected sporadically and slightly above CVs.

Surface water: No target analytes were detected above CVs.

Industrial site, but surface water runoff may flow to areas accessible to residential populations.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exists. Subsurface soils are inaccessible. Furthermore, contaminants in soils and sediment were detected at levels that do not pose a health hazard.

Contaminants were not detected in surface water at levels that pose a health hazard.

Maintenance Area
(Building 1124)
[Site I]
Intermittently used by grounds maintenance personnel since 1975. Motor pool and vehicle storage yard since 1960. Firing range possibly from 1942 to 1955. 23 unauthorized drums removed in 1992; 55-gallon drums of hazardous waste stored for an unknown period. 1969 photo indicates the area may have been sprayed with oil. Soil gas: TVH and BTEX were detected.

Soils and sediment: No VOCs or SVOCs were detected above CVs. Barium was detected sporadically or slightly above CVs.

Industrial site.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exists. Subsurface soils are inaccessible. Furthermore, contaminants in soils and sediments were detected at levels that do not pose a health hazard.
Maintenance Area
(Building 1180)
[Site J]
Maintenance, repair, and storage for construction and power equipment including heavy vehicles since 1950. Wash rack with associated oil-water separator and sanitary sewer connection; sandblasting area; wrecked vehicle and scrap yard. UST removed without soil remediation in 1991 was found to be leaking. Wash rack without oil-water-separator; storage of 100 used batteries; possible use of solvents at paint booth. Soil gas: TVH and BTEX were detected.

Surface and subsurface soils: No VOCs or SVOCs were detected above CVs. Barium was detected sporadically or slightly above CVs.

Sediment: No VOCs, SVOCs, or metals were detected above CVs.

Industrial site.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exists. Subsurface soils are inaccessible. Furthermore, contaminants in soils and sediments were detected at levels that do not pose a health hazard.
Maintenance Area
(Building 1611)
[Site K]
Tactical equipment maintenance facility and vehicle storage and maintenance since 1960. Motor pool from 1962 to 1979. Buildings are maintenance shops and fueling facility with four fuel USTs. Diesel spill from tractor in 1990 and waste-oil tank overflow in 1991; waste oil UST failed a leak test in 1991; possible releases of POL or solvents from wash and grease racks. Soil gas: TVH, BTEX, and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) were detected.

Surface soil: No VOCs, SVOCs, or metals were detected above CVs.

Subsurface soil: No VOCs or SVOCs were detected above CVs. Arsenic was detected sporadically or slightly above CVs.

Sediment: No VOCs or SVOCs were detected above CVs. Arsenic was detected sporadically or slightly above CVs.

Surface water: No VOCs or SVOCs were detected above CVs. Cyanide was detected slightly above the MCL.

Industrial site, but surface water runoff may flow to areas accessible to residential populations.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exists. Subsurface soils are inaccessible. Furthermore, contaminants in soils and sediments were detected at levels that do not pose a health hazard.

Cyanide was detected in water at a level that does not pose a health hazard. The MCL is a drinking water standard; water sample was taken in open drainage ditch from which consumption does not occur.

Maintenance Area
(Building 1621)
[Site L]
Vehicle storage and maintenance since 1960s. Motor pool once occupied the site. Reported diesel fuel leak for tractor in 1991; used oil overflowed during rainy period; six inactive USTs not leak tested; possible release of oily waste from wash rack to storm drainage system; hazardous waste storage in metal sheds. Soil gas: TVH and/or aromatic VOCs were detected.

Surface soil: No target analytes were detected above CVs.

Subsurface soil: No VOCS or SVOCs were detected above CVs. Barium was detected sporadically and slightly above CVs.

Sediment: No target analytes were detected above CVs.

Industrial site.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exists. Subsurface soils are inaccessible. Furthermore, contaminants in soils were detected as levels that do not pose a health hazard.
Maintenance Area
(Building 2400)
[Site O]
Vehicle storage and tactical equipment maintenance. Part of motor pool from 1950s to 1966. Possible discharge of oil, grease, and solvents into drainage ditches from oil/water separators at wash racks before 1984; potential releases of solvents and POL from clogging and overspill at the oil-water separator. Soil gas: TVH and aromatic hydrocarbons were detected.

Soil and sediment: No VOCs or SVOCs were detected above CVs. Metals were detected sporadically and slightly above CVs.

Surface water: No target analytes were detected.

Industrial site.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exists. Subsurface soils are inaccessible. Furthermore, contaminants in soils, sediments, and surface water were detected at levels that do not pose a health hazard.
Maintenance Area
(Building 2420)
[Site P]
Vehicle storage and tactical equipment maintenance. Occupied by warehouse and shooting range during 1940s and 1950s. Possible leaks from two waste oil USTs; possible releases from POL and solvent use. Soil gas: TVH, TCE, trichloroethane, and carbon tetrachloride were detected.

Soil and sediment: No VOCs or SVOCs were detected above CVs. Metals were detected sporadically or slightly above CVs.

Surface water: No target analytes were detected above CVs.

Industrial site, but surface water runoff may flow to areas accessible to residential populations.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exists. Subsurface soils are inaccessible. Furthermore, contaminants in soils, sediments, and surface water were detected at levels that do not pose a health hazard.
Maintenance Area
(Building 2460)
[Site R]
Consolidated vehicle storage and maintenance area. Motor pool until 1960s. Possible leak from two fuel USTs; possible overflow of POL or solvents from wash rack oil-water separator to nearby drainage ditch. Soil gas: TVH and toluene were detected.

Soil and sediment: No VOCS or SVOCs were detected above CVs. Barium was detected sporadically and slightly above CVs.

Surface water: No target analytes were detected above CVs.

Industrial site, but surface water runoff may flow to areas accessible to residential populations.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exists. Subsurface soils are inaccessible. Furthermore, contaminants in soils, sediments, and surface water were detected at levels that do not pose a health hazard.
Maintenance Area
(Building 2480)
[Site S]
Vehicle maintenance and storage area since 1950s. Possible leaks or spills from waste-oil and fuel USTs; possible overflow of POL or solvents from wash rack oil-water separator to nearby drainage ditch. Soil gas: TVH, BTEX, and PCE were detected.

Soil and sediment: No VOCS or SVOCs were detected above CVs. Metals were detected sporadically and slightly above CVs.

Surface water: No target analytes were detected above CVs.

Industrial site, but surface water runoff may flow to areas accessible to residential populations.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exists. Subsurface soils are inaccessible. Furthermore, contaminants in soils, sediments, and surface water were detected at levels that do not pose a health hazard.
Maintenance Area
(Building 2600)
[Site U]
Vehicle maintenance and storage area from 1953 to 1969. Possible leaks from waste oil and fuel USTs; possible overflow of POL or solvents from wash rack oil-water separator to nearby drainage ditch; possible releases from POL and solvent use. Hazardous waste storage area. Soil gas: TVH, BTEX, and PCE were detected.

Surface soil: No target analytes were detected.

Subsurface soil: No VOCs or SVOCs were detected. Barium was detected sporadically and slightly above CVs.

Sediment: No VOCs or SVOCs were detected. Metals were detected sporadically and slightly above CVs.

Industrial site.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exists. Subsurface soils are inaccessible. Furthermore, contaminants in soils and sediments were detected at levels that do not pose a health hazard.
Maintenance Area
(Building 2620)
[Site V]
Vehicle storage area since 1991. Possible release at storage point suggested by distressed vegetation. Soil gas: TVH and BTEX were detected.

Surface and subsurface soil: No VOCs or SVOCs were detected above CVs. Metals were detected sporadically or slightly above CVs.

Industrial site.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exists. Subsurface soils are inaccessible. Furthermore, contaminants in soils and sediment were detected at levels that do not pose a health hazard.
Maintenance Area
(Building 2640)
[Site W]
Vehicle storage area. Possible contamination near abandoned fuel dispenser islands; possible overflow of POL or solvents from wash rack to nearby drainage ditch; possible releases from POL and solvent use and storage. Soil gas: TVH and BTEX were detected.

Soil and sediment: No VOCs or SVOCs were detected above CVs. Metals were detected sporadically and slightly above CVs.

Industrial site.

No further action required.

No public health hazard exists. Subsurface soils are inaccessible. Furthermore, contaminants in soils and sediment were detected at levels that do not pose a health hazard.

Table 1 (continued), Evaluation of Potential Public Health Hazards
OU 4: Former Landfill
Site Site Description/Waste Disposal History Investigation Results/Environmental Monitoring Results* Corrective Activities and/or Current Status Evaluation of Public Health Hazard
Former Landfill 1942-1967: open burn dump. 1967-1983: sanitary landfill. Domestic refuse, various industrial operations wastes, medical wastes; reportedly organic solvents, sewage sludge, asbestos, pesticide containers, unusable paints, metallic debris, and hazardous materials including live munitions, acids, and solvents were dumped. Shallow and deep soil gas: VOCs were detected.

Surface soil: Very low concentrations of one explosive, one pesticide, one PCB, and metals were detected, all below EPA preliminary remediation goals.

Subsurface soil: No VOCs or SVOCs were detected above CVs. PCB 1016 (nd-0.287 ppm) and PCB 1260 (nd-0.536 ppm) were detected sporadically and slightly above CVs. Metals were detected sporadically or slightly above CVs.

Sediment: No VOCs or SVOCs were detected above CVs. Metals were detected sporadically or slightly above CVs.

Leachate: VOCs were detected sporadically or slightly above CVs. TCE was detected in one sample at 3,000 ppb.

Groundwater: TCE (1.3-44 ppb) and carbon tetrachloride (nd-8.2 ppb) were detected above CVs. No other VOCs or SVOCs were detected above CVs. Chromium was detected sporadically and slightly above the CV.

Surface water: No target analytes were detected above CVs.

Ambient air: No organic compounds were detected.

In 1983, the landfill was capped with 2-2½ foot compacted layer of silty clay soil; no monitoring records exist.

The ROD calls for the following corrective activities for the landfill:
• regrade existing landfill cover
• remove existing guinea grass (with herbicide) and revegetate
• perform long-term maintenance of landfill cover
• maintain existing passive landfill gas venting
• install additional gas monitoring points at perimeter of landfill
• institutional controls:
- long-term groundwater monitoring using existing monitoring wells
- 5-year site review
- access restriction and site security

No public health hazard exists.

Soils and sediment: Subsurface soils are inaccessible. Furthermore, contaminants were detected at levels that do not pose a health hazard.

Leachate: Exposure to contaminants in leachate is unlikely.

Groundwater: No drinking water wells are located at or near this site. Therefore, exposure to groundwater contaminants from this site is unlikely. OU 2 covers groundwater in detail.

Surface water and air: Contaminants were not detected at levels that pose a health hazard.

* See Appendix B for an explanation of CVs.


Table 2.

TCE Concentrations in Schofield Army Barracks Groundwater
Sampling Phase Minimum Concentration (ppb) Maximum Concentration (ppb) Number of Detections/ Total Samples Number of Detections Above MCL/ Total Samples
Schofield Water Supply Wells (pretreatment concentrations)
Phases I and II
(March 1993 - May 1994)
7.8 53 12/12 12/12
Interim Long-Term
(June 1996 - January 1997)
4.9 48 8/8 8/8
On-site Monitoring Wells: East Range and Former Landfill
Phases I and II
(March 1993 - May 1994)
nd 65 17/19 12/19
Interim Long-Term
(June 1996 - January 1997)
0.32 37 22/22 12/22
Off-site Production and Irrigation Wells
Phases I and II
(March 1993 - May 1994)
nd 4.7 9/57 0/57
Interim Long-Term
(June 1996 - January 1997)
nd 3.3 11/44 0/44
MCL: maximum contaminant level
nd: not detected
ppb: parts per billion


Table 3.

Population Data: Schofield Army Barracks and Surrounding Areas, 1990
  Schofield Army Barracks Wheeler Army Airfield Wahiawa Kunia Tract 86.03 Block Group 9 Mililani Town Waipio Acres
Total persons
Total area (square miles)
Persons per square mile
19,597
2.75
7,133
2,600
2.29
1,136
17,386
2.11
8,226
602
0.16
3,802
246
30.44
8
29,359
3.91
7,506
5,304
1.05
5,067
% Male
% Female
64.1
35.9
52.5
47.5
49.7
50.3
54.2
45.8
57.3
42.7
50.4
49.6
51.5
48.5
% White
% Black
% American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut
% Asian or Pacific Islander
% Other Races
60.8
25.3
0.9
5.8
7.1
74.3
12.4
0.4
9.1
3.7
23.0
4.1
0.6
69.1
3.2
4.0
0.2
0.0
95.5
0.3
28.0
0.8
0.8
68.7
1.6
34.2
2.9
0.3
61.2
1.4
37.7
9.6
0.9
47.7
4.0
% Hispanic Origin 10.7 6.5 10.7 5.0 15.4 5.4 9.9
% Under Age 10
% Age 65 and Over
23.8
0.1
27.0
0.3
16.7
13.1
20.8
9.0
19.1
5.3
17.6
3.8
17.7
5.1

Source: Census of Population and Housing, 1990: Summary Tape File 1A (Hawaii) [machine-readable data files]. Prepared by the Bureau of the Census. Washington, DC. The Bureau [producer and distributor], 1991.


Table 4.

Housing Data: Schofield Army Barracks and Surrounding Areas, 1990
  Schofield Army Barracks Wheeler Army Airfield Wahiawa Kunia Tract 86.03 Block Group 9 Mililani Town Waipio Acres
Households*
Persons per household
3,504
3.86
702
3.38
5,619
3.09
139
4.33
53
3.92
8,776
3.35
1,789
2.96
% Households owner-occupied
% Households renter-occupied
0.6
99.4
0.6
99.4
47.3
52.7
2.2
97.8
20.8
79.2
77.7
22.3
53.2
46.8
% Households mobile homes 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1
% Persons in group quarters 31.1 8.8 0.3 0.0 15.4 0.0 0.0
Median value, owner-occupied households ($)
Median rent paid, renter-occupied households ($)
175,000
402
80,000
614
189,000
494
162,500
141
258,300
367
285,300
990
242,000
734

* A household is an occupied housing unit, but does not include group quarters such as military barracks, prisons, and college dormitories.

Source: Census of Population and Housing, 1990: Summary Tape File 1A (Hawaii) [machine-readable data files]. Prepared by the Bureau of the Census. Washington, DC. The Bureau [producer and distributor], 1991.


Table 5.

Exposure Pathways
Pathway Name Exposure Pathway Elements Comments
Source of Contamination Environmental Medium Point of Exposure Route of Exposure Time of Exposure Exposed Population
COMPLETED EXPOSURE PATHWAYS
Schofield Army Barracks Water Supply Wells Solvents used at Schofield (trichloro-ethylene [TCE]) Groundwater Drinking water wells Ingestion

Inhalation

Dermal

Past:
• TCE contamination was reported at 30 parts per billion (ppb) in April 1985. Although the exact time of contamination is unknown, it has been postulated that it could have been as early as 1966 or as late as 1984.
• Schofield drinking water supply was switched to Honolulu water on May 2, 1985.
• Schofield water supply has been treated with air stripper technology since September 1986.

Present and Future:
• None.

Residents and employees at Schofield Army Barracks (approximately 20,000 persons in 1990), parts of Wheeler Army Airfield, Helemano Military Reservation, and NCTAMS. Past:
• In April 1985, Hawaii Department of Health reported that TCE was detected in Schofield's drinking water supply at a level associated with a public health hazard. The time and source of contamination is unknown.
• Levels of TCE and duration of exposure are not likely to pose a significant exposure concern.

Present and Future:
• Water is currently treated at the wellhead with air stripper technology.
• This pathway poses no apparent exposure concern.

Off-site Water Supply Wells Solvents used at Schofield (TCE) Groundwater Drinking water wells Ingestion
Inhalation
Dermal
Past: TCE was detected below the MCL in Kunia drinking water supply wells.

Current and Future: Kunia drinking water supply wells are treated with air stripper technology. No further off-site contamination has occurred or is expected to occur.

Residents of Wahiawa, Kunia, Mililani Town, Waipio Acres, and Whitmore Village. In the past, contaminants were not detected in the Kunia wells at levels that pose a health hazard. Kunia drinking water is currently treated. No further off-site contamination has occurred or is expected to occur.
Surface Soil Light industrial activities at Schofield Surface soil Various sites in OU 1 and OU 3 and at the Former Landfill. Ingestion

Dermal

Past, Present, and Future: Contaminants exist sporadically and at low levels at some sites. Residents and employees at Schofield Contaminants are not detected at levels that are likely to pose a health hazard.
Surface Water Runoff to Residential Areas Light industrial activities at Schofield Surface water Various sites in OU 3 Ingestion Past, Present, and Future: Contaminants were detected at low levels in surface water runoff ditches at some sites. Residents at Schofield Contaminants are not detected at levels that are likely to pose a health hazard.


Table 6.

Target Analyte List for Groundwater, Soil, Surface Water, and Sediment Sample Analysis
Schofield Army Barracks
Volatile Organic Compounds Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds

1,1,1-Trichloroethane
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane
1,1,2-Trichloroethane
1,1-Dichloroethane
1,1-Dichloroethene
1,2-Dichloroethane
1,2-Dichloroethene (reported as sum of cis and trans) [2,3]
1,2-Dichloropropane
2 Butanone‡
2-Hexanone‡
4-Methyl-2-pentanone‡
Acetone‡
Benzene
Bromodichloromethane
Bromoform
Bromomethane
Carbon tetrachloride
Carbon disulfide
Chlorobenzene
Chloroethane
Chloroform
Chloromethane
cis-1,3-Dichloropropene
Dibromochloromethane
Ethyl benzene
Methylene chloride‡
Styrene
Tetrachloroethene
Toluene

1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene
1,2-Dichlorobenzene
1,3-Dichlorobenzene
1,4-Dichlorobenzene
2,4,5-Trichlorophenol
2,4-6-Trichlorophenol
2,4-Dichlorophenol
2,4-Dimethylphenol
2,4-Dinitrophenol
2,4-Dinitrotoluene
2,6-Dinitrotoluene [1, 2]
2-Chloronapthalene
2-Chlorophenol
2-Methylnaphthalene
2-Methylphenol
2-Nitroaniline
2-Nitrophenol
3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine
3-Nitroaniline
4,6-Dinitro-2-methylphenol
4-Bromophenyl phenyl ether
4-Chloroanaline
4-Chlorophenyl phenyl ether
4-Methylphenol
4-Nitroaniline
4-Nitrophenol
Acenaphthalene/Acenapthylene
Acenapthene [1, 2]
Anthracene
Benzo(a) pyrene
Benzo(a)anthracene
Benzo(g,h,i) perylene
Benzo(k) fluoranthene
bis(2-Chloroethoxy) methane
bis(2-Chloroethyl) ether
bis(2-Chloroisopropyl) ether
bis(2-Ethylhexyl) phthalate
Butyl benzyl phthalate
Carbazole
Chrysene
Dibenz(a,h) anthracene
Dibenzofuran
Diethyl phthalate
Dimethyl phthalate [1, 2]
Di-n-butyl phthalate
Di-n-octyl phthalate
Fluoranthene
Fluorene/Fluoroene
Hexachlorobenzene
Hexachlorobutadiene
Hexachlorocyclopentadiene
Hexachloroethane
Ideno(1,2,3-cd) pyrene
Isophorone
Naphthalene
Nitrobenzene
N-nitrosodiphenylamine
N-nitrosodipropylamine
p-Chloro-m-cresol
Pentachlorophenol
Phenanthrene
Phenol
Inorganic Chemicals Pesticides and PCBs Other
Aluminum
Antimony
Arsenic
Barium
Beryllium
Cadmium
Calcium
Chromium
Cobalt
Copper
Cyanide
Iron
Lead
Magnesium
Manganese
Mercury
Nickel
Potassium
Selenium
Silver
Sodium
Thallium
Vanadium
Zinc

4,4'-DDD/Rhothane
4,4'-DDE/2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene
4,4'-DDT/2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-Trichloroethane
Aldrin
Alpha-benzene hexachloride
Alpha-chlordane
Aroclor 1016
Aroclor 1221
Aroclor 1232
Aroclor 1242 [1,2]
Aroclor 1248
Aroclor 1254
Aroclor 1260
Beta-benzene hexachloride
Delta-benzene hexachloride
Dieldrin
Endosulfan I
Endosulfan II
Endosulfan sulfate
Endrin
Endrin aldehyde
Endrin ketone [1,2]
Gamma chlordane
Gamma-benzene hexachloride/Lindane
Heptachlor
Heptachlor epoxide
Methoxychlor
Toxaphene

Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins and Dibenzofurans [1]:
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Heptachlorodibenzofuran
1,2,3,4,7,8,9-Heptachlorodibenzofuran
1,2,3,4,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
1,2,3,4,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
1,2,3,7,8,9-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
1,2,3,7,8,9-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
1,2,3,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran
1,2,3,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
2,3,4,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
2,3,4,7,8- Pentachlorodibenzofuran
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzofuran
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
Octachlorodibenzofuran
Octachlorodizenzo-p-dioxin

Explosives
[1, 3]:
1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene
1,3-Dinitrobenzene
2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene
2,4-Dinitrotoluene
2,6-Dinitrotoluene
Cyclonite (RDX)
Cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX)
Nitramine
Nitrobenzene

Anion Parameter List
[2]:
Bromide
Chloride
Fluoride
Nitrate-N
Nitrite-N
Sulfate

Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons:

Diesel [1,3]
Gasoline [1,3]
Oil [3]


FIGURES

Location Map
Figure 1. Location Map

Regional Groundwater Systems of Oahu, Hawaii
Figure 2. Regional Groundwater Systems of Oahu, Hawaii

Generalized Regional Cross Section
Figure 3. Generalized Regional Cross Section

ATSDR's Exposure Evaluation Process
Figure 4. ATSDR's Exposure Evaluation Process


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