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HEALTH CONSULTATION

Evaluation of Metals in Bullhead, Bass, and Kokanee from Lake Coeur D'Alene

COEUR D'ALENE RIVER BASIN
COEUR D'ALENE, KOOTENAI COUNTY, IDAHO


APPENDIX B:

SUMMARY OF As, Cd, Pb, and Hg RESULTS FOR FISH SAMPLES COLLECTED FROM LAKE COEUR D'ALENE IN 2002 (MG/KG, WET WEIGHT)
Bass Gutted Carcass
Entire Lake Coeur d'Alene Arsenic (As) Cadmium (Cd) Lead (Pb) Mercury (Hg)
Total Number of Samples30303030
Number of Detects28142530
Maximum Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.2350.0670.4670.357
Median Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.1260.00650.1050.124
Mean Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.1290.01460.1290.152
Standard Deviation of the Mean0.05520.01390.1240.0755
Standard Error of the Mean0.01010.002540.02260.0138
Coefficient of Variation of the Mean0.4280.9540.9590.496
Upper 95% CL of the Mean (mg/kg wet)0.1490.01970.1750.18
Lower 95% CL of the Mean (mg/kg wet)0.1080.009360.08280.124
North Lake Coeur d'Alene Arsenic Cadmium Lead Mercury
Total Number of Samples10101010
Number of Detects981010
Maximum Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.2150.0440.4670.357
Median Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.1210.0210.120.126
Mean Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.1260.02090.1560.174
Standard Deviation of the Mean0.06480.01220.1450.0992
Standard Error of the Mean0.02050.003870.04580.0314
Coefficient of Variation of the Mean0.5130.5870.9270.571
Upper 95% CL of the Mean (mg/kg wet)0.1730.02960.260.245
Lower 95% CL of the Mean (mg/kg wet)0.07990.01210.05260.103
Center Lake Coeur d'Alene Arsenic Cadmium Lead Mercury
Total Number of Samples10101010
Number of Detects921010
Maximum Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.2110.0170.3340.341
Median Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.1160.0060.2090.145
Mean Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.1150.007650.1970.171
Standard Deviation of the Mean0.04770.004310.1010.0704
Standard Error of the Mean0.01510.001360.03210.0223
Coefficient of Variation of the Mean0.4160.5640.5160.411
Upper 95% CL of the Mean (mg/kg wet)0.1490.01070.2690.221
Lower 95% CL of the Mean (mg/kg wet)0.08070.004560.1240.121
South Lake Coeur d'Alene Arsenic Cadmium Lead Mercury
Total Number of Samples10101010
Number of Detects104510
Maximum Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.2350.0670.1530.17
Median Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.1460.006250.008750.11
Mean Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.1460.01520.03420.111
Standard Deviation of the Mean0.0530.01890.04630.0281
Standard Error of the Mean0.01670.005960.01460.0089
Coefficient of Variation of the Mean0.3641.241.360.253
Upper 95% CL of the Mean (mg/kg wet)0.1830.02860.06730.132
Lower 95% CL of the Mean (mg/kg wet)0.1080.001670.001030.0913


Bass Fillets
Entire Lake Coeur d'Alene Arsenic (As) Cadmium (Cd) Lead (Pb) Mercury (Hg)
Total Number of Samples10101010
Number of Detects71810
Maximum Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.1150.1080.0470.386
Median Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.0580.0050.0190.151
Mean Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.06390.01510.01980.188
Standard Deviation of the Mean0.03430.03270.01220.0823
Standard Error of the Mean0.01090.01030.003860.026
Coefficient of Variation of the Mean0.5372.170.6180.439
Upper 95% CL of the Mean (mg/kg wet)0.08840.03840.02850.246
Lower 95% CL of the Mean (mg/kg wet)0.0393-0.00830.0110.129


Kokanee Gutted Carcass
Entire Lake Coeur d'Alene Arsenic (As) Cadmium (Cd) Lead (Pb) Mercury (Hg)
Total Number of Samples11111111
Number of Detects11111111
Maximum Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.1940.2050.20.0853
Median Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.140.1230.1040.0734
Mean Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.1450.1390.1150.0752
Standard Deviation of the Mean0.02720.02960.04490.00576
Standard Error of the Mean0.008190.008920.01350.00174
Coefficient of Variation of the Mean0.1870.2130.390.0766
Upper 95% CL of the Mean (mg/kg wet)0.1630.1590.1450.079
Lower 95% CL of the Mean (mg/kg wet)0.1270.1190.08480.0713


Kokanee Fillets
Entire Lake Coeur d'Alene Arsenic (As) Cadmium (Cd) Lead (Pb) Mercury (Hg)
Total Number of Samples10101010
Number of Detects108910
Maximum Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.1170.0290.0460.104
Median Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.08150.0190.0170.0939
Mean Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.08310.01770.02030.0917
Standard Deviation of the Mean0.01980.006980.01190.00846
Standard Error of the Mean0.006260.002210.003760.00268
Coefficient of Variation of the Mean0.2380.3940.5860.0922
Upper 95% CL of the Mean (mg/kg wet)0.09730.02270.02880.0978
Lower 95% CL of the Mean (mg/kg wet)0.06890.01270.01180.0857


Bullhead Gutted Carcass
Entire Lake Coeur d'Alene Arsenic (As) Cadmium (Cd) Lead (Pb) Mercury (Hg)
Total Number of Samples30303030
Number of Detects22263030
Maximum Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.5110.16414.120.0752
Median Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.06550.0310.8020.043
Mean Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.1130.04361.920.0417
Standard Deviation of the Mean0.1360.0382.880.0149
Standard Error of the Mean0.02480.006940.5260.00272
Coefficient of Variation of the Mean1.20.8721.50.357
Upper 95% CL of the Mean (mg/kg wet)0.1640.05782.990.0473
Lower 95% CL of the Mean (mg/kg wet)0.06250.02940.8410.0361
North Lake Coeur d'Alene Arsenic Cadmium Lead Mercury
Total Number of Samples10101010
Number of Detects9101010
Maximum Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.0990.0563.6960.0512
Median Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.07450.0311.090.0254
Mean Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.07150.03421.420.0283
Standard Deviation of the Mean0.02250.01110.0107
Standard Error of the Mean0.007110.003480.3170.00337
Coefficient of Variation of the Mean0.3150.3220.7050.377
Upper 95% CL of the Mean (mg/kg wet)0.08760.04212.140.0359
Lower 95% CL of the Mean (mg/kg wet)0.05540.02630.7050.0206
Center Lake Coeur d'Alene Arsenic Cadmium Lead Mercury
Total Number of Samples10101010
Number of Detects8101010
Maximum Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.5110.16414.120.0752
Median Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.1590.0793.410.042
Mean Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.2180.07713.850.0451
Standard Deviation of the Mean0.1990.04684.330.0143
Standard Error of the Mean0.06310.01481.370.00453
Coefficient of Variation of the Mean0.9150.6061.130.318
Upper 95% CL of the Mean (mg/kg wet)0.3610.1116.950.0553
Lower 95% CL of the Mean (mg/kg wet)0.07540.04370.750.0348
South Lake Coeur d'Alene Arsenic Cadmium Lead Mercury
Total Number of Samples10101010
Number of Detects561010
Maximum Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.110.0561.3530.0708
Median Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.04030.0150.2870.0511
Mean Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.05030.01950.4790.0518
Standard Deviation of the Mean0.02850.01880.480.00836
Standard Error of the Mean0.009020.005940.1520.00264
Coefficient of Variation of the Mean0.5670.96610.162
Upper 95% CL of the Mean (mg/kg wet)0.07060.03290.8220.0577
Lower 95% CL of the Mean (mg/kgwet)0.02990.006010.1350.0458
Bullhead Fillets
Bullhead Fillets
Entire Lake Coeur d'Alene Arsenic (As) Cadmium (Cd) Lead (Pb) Mercury (Hg)
Total Number of Samples30303030
Number of Detects783030
Maximum Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.3280.0341.4940.138
Median Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.02450.0050.02350.0523
Mean Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.0560.009180.09550.0554
Standard Deviation of the Mean0.07480.008240.2780.0215
Standard Error of the Mean0.01370.001510.05070.00393
Coefficient of Variation of the Mean1.340.8982.910.389
Upper 95% CL of the Mean (mg/kg wet)0.08390.01230.1990.0635
Lower 95% CL of the Mean (mg/kg wet)0.0280.00611-0.00820.0474
North Lake Coeur d'Alene Arsenic Cadmium Lead Mercury
Total Number of Samples10101010
Number of Detects021010
Maximum Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.049 U0.0150.0760.052
Median Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.0240.004750.0220.0351
Mean Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.02410.006450.02880.0385
Standard Deviation of the Mean0.0004970.003790.01830.00936
Standard Error of the Mean0.0001570.00120.00580.00296
Coefficient of Variation of the Mean0.02070.5870.6370.243
Upper 95% CL of the Mean (mg/kg wet)0.02440.009160.04190.0452
Lower 95% CL of the Mean (mg/kg wet)0.02370.003740.01570.0318
Center Lake Coeur d'Alene Arsenic Cadmium Lead Mercury
Total Number of Samples10101010
Number of Detects661010
Maximum Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.3280.0341.4940.138
Median Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.07950.01650.03250.0593
Mean Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.1160.01610.2320.0646
Standard Deviation of the Mean0.1090.01110.4660.0299
Standard Error of the Mean0.03450.003520.1470.00946
Coefficient of Variation of the Mean0.9390.6912.010.463
Upper 95% CL of the Mean (mg/kg wet)0.1940.02410.5650.086
Lower 95% CL of the Mean (mg/kg wet)0.03820.00815-0.10.0432
South Lake Coeur d'Alene Arsenic Cadmium Lead Mercury
Total Number of Samples10101010
Number of Detects101010
Maximum Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.0520.0110.080.0721
Median Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.02530.0050.01750.0646
Mean Concentration (mg/kg wet)0.02760.0050.0260.0632
Standard Deviation of the Mean0.008280.0002360.02190.00587
Standard Error of the Mean0.002620.00007450.006910.00186
Coefficient of Variation of the Mean0.30.04710.8410.0929
Upper 95% CL of the Mean (mg/kg wet)0.03350.005170.04160.0674
Lower 95% CL of the Mean (mg/kg wet)0.02160.004830.01040.059


APPENDIX C:

METALS ELIMINATED AS CONTAMINANTS OF CONCERN
Metals Detected Maximum Concentration
(mg/kg, wet weight)
Exposure Dose (mg/kg/d) Oral MRL (mg/kg/d) Oral RfD (mg/kg/d)
Antimony (Sb) No Not Applicable --- No 0.0004
Barium (Ba) Yes 5.328 0.04 No 0.07
Beryllium (Be) No Not Applicable --- 0.002 0.005
Chromium III (Cr) Yes 7.566 0.058 No 1.5
Cobalt (Co) Yes 0.078 0.0006 0.01 (I) No
Copper (Cu) Yes 2.009 0.002 0.02 (A) No
Manganese (Mn) Yes 17.917 0.138 No 0.14
Molybdenum (Mo) Yes 0.152 0.001 No 0.005
Nickel (Ni) Yes 3.493 0.027 No 0.02
Silver (Ag) Yes 0.243 0.002 No 0.005
Selenium (Se) Yes 0.748 0.006 0.005 0.005
Thallium (Tl) No Not Applicable --- No 0.0008
Vanadium (V) Yes 0.206 0.002 0.003 (I) 0.009
Zinc (Zn) Yes 35.956 0.277 0.300 0.300

Maximum values are from Table A-2, USEPA (2003). MRLs are from the ATSDR internet site (http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html). Chronic oral MRLs are shown unless noted with an A (acute) or I (intermediate). Chronic oral RfDs are from the USEPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) internet site (http://www.epa.gov/iris/ ). There are no FDA action levels for these metals in fish.

Chromium was assumed to be 100% trivalent (Cr III) because available literature indicates this is the form most likely to be present in fish. For thallium, the RfDs for thallium chloride and thallium sulfate are shown. For vanadium, the RfD for vanadium pentoxide is shown.

Screening exposure doses for adults were calculated using the maximum metal concentration reported, an ingestion rate of 0.540 kg/day (traditional subsistence fish consumer), an annual exposure factor of 1 (365 days per year), an absorption factor of 1 (100%), and a body weight of 70 kg. Bioavailability was assumed to be 100%. In most cases, the maximum estimated exposure dose did not surpass the applicable MRL or RfD. and were not given further consideration in this consultation. Estimated adult exposure doses for Ni and Se were in the same concentration range, but slightly (1.2-1.3 times) greater than the respective MRL. Repeating screening exposure dose calculations for nickel and selenium using an ingestion rate of 0.170 kg/day and a body weight of 35 kg (for children) indicated that conservative exposure dose estimates for children were below the MRL or the RfD.

USEPA's IRIS web site lists the cancer classification as unknown or D (unclassifiable) for these metals.

USEPA has developed a screening level of 1.5 mg/kg for selenium (USEPA 2001). For fish with selenium levels 1.5 mg/kg, the monthly consumption limit is unrestricted (meaning more than 16 eight-oz. meals per month). The monthly consumption limit decreases to 12 meals/month when selenium levels are between 1.5 and 2.9 mg/kg. Selenium values in Lake Coeur d'Alene fish samples were below, or within, the range of those found in the upper Blackfoot River watershed where no fish consumption restriction exists (IDOH 2003).


APPENDIX D: TOXICITY INFORMATION FOR ARSENIC, CADMIUM, LEAD, AND MERCURY

Arsenic (ATSDR 2000b)

ATSDR has established a provisional acute oral minimal risk level (MRL) for arsenic at 0.005 mg/kg/day. The acuteLOAEL is 0.05 mg/kg/day. This dose is associated with edema of the face, and gastrointestinal and upper respiratorysymptoms, skin lesions and hepatic dysfunction, abnormal electrocardiograms, and ocular lesions. No intermediateexposure duration oral MRLs have been established. The chronic exposure duration oral MRL is 0.0003 mg/kg/day.The human chronic no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) is 0.0008 mg/kg/day.

EPA classifies arsenic as a Class A known human carcinogen by the oral and inhalation routes. Epidemiologicstudies of people exposed to arsenic in Taiwan indicate that exposure to arsenic is associated with skin cancer. Basedon that and other studies, USEPA considers arsenic to be a human carcinogen. USEPA has calculated a cancer unitrisk factor, 1.5 (mg/kg/day)-1, which can be used to estimate the probability of excess risk for a lifetime of exposureto arsenic. Cancer risk was estimated based on the maximum concentration of arsenic in the contaminated surfacesoils at each of the locations. The cancer effect level (CEL) for arsenic in humans is 0.0011 mg/kg/day which isassociated with lung cancer.

No studies were found regarding populations unusually sensitive to arsenic. Since arsenic toxicity may be influencedby the rate and extent of methylation in the liver, some population might be especially susceptible because of lowermethylating capacity. This reduced capacity could result from dietary deficiency of methyl donors (choline ormethionine). Liver disease does not appear to decrease methylation capacity in humans for low levels of arsenic exposure.

Cadmium (ATSDR 1999b)

MRLs for acute and intermediate exposures have not been established. ATSDR has established a chronic oral MRL(0.0002 mg/kg/day) for cadmium. The NOAEL for humans is 0.0021 mg/kg/day. Doses exceeding this level areassociated with symptoms such as protein in the urine.

Cadmium is classified by EPA as a probable human carcinogen based on epidemiological studies of humans. Thesestudies indicate that cadmium may be a carcinogen when inhaled, with the resulting condition being lung cancer.These conditions occurred in occupational settings at concentrations which are generally higher than those found inthe outdoors environment.

Lead (ATSDR 1999c)

ATSDR has no MRL and EPA has no RfD for lead. Exposure to lead can cause a wide range of effects. The lack ofa clear threshold for health effects and the need to consider multi-media routes of exposure makes evaluating therisks from exposure to lead in the environment difficult. Blood lead concentrations are a good measure of recentexposure, and also correlate well with health effects. Children are especially sensitive to lead, and many of its effectsare observed at lower concentrations in children than in adults. Levels of 10 g/dL, and perhaps lower in children'sblood, have been associated with decreased IQ, impaired hearing and growth, and neurobehavioral effects. Theneurological effects have been shown to persist after exposure has ceased and blood lead levels have returned tonormal.

Other reported neurological effects include poor memory, difficulty reading and concentrating, depression, and sleepdisturbances. Lead can significantly affect both the reproductive process and the development of the fetus in womenwith blood lead levels as low as 10 g/dL. Effects include premature birth and low birth weight. In adults levels aslow as 15 g/dL are linked to increased blood pressure, reduced production of sperm, earlier onset of menopause,and inhibition of enzymes responsible for the production of hemoglobin.

The increased vulnerability of children results from a combination of factors, including:

  1. the increased susceptibility of developing nervous system to neurotoxic effects of lead,
  2. a higher average rate of soil/dust ingestion among children,
  3. the greater efficiency of lead absorption in the gastrointestinal tract of children,
  4. a greater prevalence of iron or calcium deficiencies (can increase absorption of lead), and
  5. the ready transfer of lead across the placenta to the developing fetus.

Foods such as fruits, grains, meat, seafood, soft drinks, vegetables and wine may contain lead. Cigarettes alsocontain small amounts of lead. More than 99% of all drinking water contains less than 0.005 milligrams of lead perliter. However the amount of lead taken into the body through drinking water can be higher in communities withacidic water supplies. Children residing in older dwellings may be exposed to lead by eating lead-based paint chipsfrom peeling surfaces. The normal wear of lead-based point surfaces such as that which might occur raising andlowering windows, can lead to the creation of lead dust which can also be ingested by small children during normalhand-to-mouth activities. Lead-based paint is particularly a problem in lower income communities. Foroccupationally exposed individuals the usual route of exposure is through the inhalation of lead particles.

Lead is classified by EPA as a Class B2 probable human carcinogen based on animal studies. This means that thereis inadequate evidence to determine lead's carcinogenicity in humans. The National Toxicology Program (NTP)classifies lead phosphate and lead acetate as Group 2 carcinogens (probable human carcinogens).

Studies regarding exposure to lead and possible adverse health effects are discussed more extensively in the publichealth implications section of this document.

Mercury (ATSDR 1999a)

ATSDR has developed a chronic oral MRL for methyl mercury (0.0003 mg/kg/day). The RfD for methyl mercury is0.0001 mg/kg/day. NOAEL for methyl mercury is 0.0013 mg/kg/day. The FDA has established an action level ofone mg/kg for methyl mercury in fish.

Methyl mercury is the form of mercury most easily absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract (about 95% absorbed).Exposure to methyl mercury can come from foods contaminated with mercury on the surface (for example, fromseed grain treated with methyl mercury to kill fungus) or from foods that contain toxic levels of methyl mercury (asin some fish, wild game, and marine mammals). Mothers who are exposed to methyl mercury and breast-feed theirinfant may also expose the child through the milk.

Critical periods of neonatal development and the early months after birth are times that are particularly sensitive tothe harmful effects of methyl mercury on the nervous system. Exposure to methyl mercury is more dangerous foryoung children than for adults because methyl mercury more easily passes into the developing brain of youngchildren and may interfere with the development process. Methyl mercury can accumulate in fetal blood toconcentrations higher than in the mother. Abnormal heart rhythms have been seen in children who ate grainscontaminated with very high levels of methyl mercury. Methyl mercury that enters the body can be converted toinorganic mercury and result in kidney damage.

Individuals with diseases of the liver, kidneys, lungs, and nerves are considered to be at a greater risk of sufferingfrom the toxic effects of organic mercury. Individuals with a dietary insufficiency of zinc, glutathione, antioxidants,or selenium or those who are malnourished may be more susceptible to the toxic effects of mercury poisoningbecause of the diminished ability of these substances to protect against mercury toxicity.


APPENDIX E: LIMITED FISH MEALS CALCULATED BY THE STATE OF IDAHO BASED ON BASS, BULLHEAD AND KOKANEE SAMPLES COLLECTED FROM LAKE COEUR D'ALENE IN 2002

Table 1.

Limited Fish Meals Per Month for Bass
Sample Type, Location Chemical Concentrations (mg/kg wet) Meals Per Month*
Range Arithmetic Mean General
(8 oz)
Pregnant Women
(8 oz)
Children
(4 oz)
GC
(North)
Mercury 0.075-0.357 0.174 NA 5.4 3.1
Arsenic 0.034 (U)-0.215 0.126 13.3 11.6 6.6
Lead 0.01-0.467 0.156 185 40 25
Cadmium 0.006 (U)-0.044 0.0209 514 450 257
Zinc 12.686-24.227 17.4 185 162 93
Lowest Meals     13 5 3
GC
(Center)
Mercury 0.108-0.341 0.171 NA 5.5 3.1
Arsenic 0.062 (U)-0.211 0.115 14.5 12.7 7.3
Lead 0.035-0.334 0.197 146 32 20
Cadmium 0.006 (U)-0.017 0.00765 1403 1228 702
Zinc 8.821-14.672 12.3 262 229 131
Lowest Meals     15 6 3
GC
(South)
Mercury 0.0635-0.17 0.111 NA 8.5 4.8
Arsenic 0.073-0.235 0.146 11.4 10.0 5.7
Lead 0.011-0.153 0.0342 843 183 >26
Cadmium 0.012 (U)-0.067 0.0152 706 618 353
Zinc 10.663-19.302 13.5 238 209 119
Lowest Meals     11 9 5
FL
(Center)
Mercury 0.121-0.386 0.188 NA 5.0 2.9
Arsenic 0.048 (U)-0.115 0.0639 26.1 22.9 13.1
Lead 0.009 (U)-0.047 0.0198 1456 316 >26
Cadmium 0.005 (U)-0.108 0.0151 711 622 356
Zinc 3.302-5.744 4.87 661 579 331
Lowest Meals     26 5 3
  • Meal Size: 8 oz for general population and women of childbearing age, 4 oz for children under seven
  • >26: more than 26 meals per month
  • NA: there is no methyl mercury RfD for general population to calculated the corresponding limited meals.


Table 2.

Limited Fish Meals Per Month for Bullhead
Sample Type, Location Chemical Concentrations (mg/kg wet) Meals Per Month*
Range Arithmetic Mean General
(8 oz)
Pregnant Women
(8 oz)
Children
(4 oz)
GC
(North)
Mercury 0.0172-0.0512 0.0283 NA 33.2 19
Arsenic 0.048 (U)-0.099 0.0715 23.4 20.4 11.7
Lead 0.517-3.696 1.42 20.3 4.4 2.7
Cadmium 0.02-0.056 0.0342 314 275 157
Zinc 15.299-22.422 17.9 180 157 90
Lowest Meals     20 4 3
GC
(Center)
Mercury 0.0246-0.0752 0.0451 NA 20.8 11.9
Arsenic 0.046 (U)-0.511 0.218 7.7 6.7 3.8
Lead 0.07-14.12 3.85 7.5 1.6 0
Cadmium 0.009-0.164 0.0771 139 122 70
Zinc 10.328-39.956 19.7 164 143 82
Lowest Meals     8 2 0
GC
(South)
Mercury 0.0398-0.0708 0.0518   18.1 10.4
Arsenic 0.051 (U)-0.11 0.0503 33.2 29.1 16.6
Lead 0.038-1.353 0.479 60.2 13 8
Cadmium 0.01 (U)-0.056 0.0195 551 482 275
Zinc 12.738-19.907 14.8 218 190 109
Lowest Meals     33 13 8
FL
(North)
Mercury 0.0263-0.052 0.0385 NA 24.4 13.9
Arsenic 0.046 (U)-0.049 0.0241 69 61 35
Lead 0.016-0.076 0.0288 1001 217 >26
Cadmium 0.009 (U)-0.015 0.00645 1665 1457 832
Zinc 4.792-6.215 5.52 584 511 292
Lowest Meals     69 24 14
FL
(Center)
Mercury 0.0344-0.138 0.0646 NA 14.5 8.3
Arsenic 0.045 (U)-0.328 0.116 14.4 12.6 7.2
Lead 0.01-1.494 0.232 124 27 16.8
Cadmium 0.009 (U)-0.034 0.0161 667 584 333
Zinc 4.199-7.171 5.29 609 533 304
Lowest Meals     14 13 7
FL
(South)
Mercury 0.0526-0.0721 0.0632 NA 14.9 8.5
Arsenic 0.048 (U)-0.052 0.0276 61 53 30
Lead 0.010-0.080 0.026 1109 241 >26
Cadmium 0.009(U)-0.011(U) 0.005 2147 1879 1073
Zinc 4.522-5.335 5.03 640 560 320
Lowest Meals     61 15 9
  • Meal Size: 8 oz for general population and women of childbearing age, 4 oz for children under seven
  • >26: more than 26 meals per month
  • NA: there is no methyl mercury RfD for general population to calculated the corresponding limited meals.


Table 3.

Limited Fish Meals Per Month for Kokanee
Sample Type, Location Chemical Concentrations (mg/kg wet) Meals Per Month*
Range Arithmetic Mean General
(8 oz)
Pregnant Women
(8 oz)
Children
(4 oz)
GC
(Whole Lake)
Mercury 0.067-0.0853 0.0752 NA 12.5 7.1
Arsenic 0.105-0.194 0.145 11.5 10.1 5.8
Lead 0.061-0.2 0.115 251 54 >26
Cadmium 0.112-0.205 0.139 77 68 39
Zinc 17.292-27.361 20 161 141 81
Lowest Meals     12 10 6
FL
(Whole Lake)
Mercury 0.0787-0.104 0.0917 NA 10.2 5.9
Arsenic 0.051-0.117 0.0831 20.1 17.6 10
Lead 0.011 (U)-0.046 0.0203 1420 308 >26
Cadmium 0.012 (U)-0.029 0.0177 607 531 303
Zinc 5.628-10.746 7.05 457 400 228
Lowest Meals     20 10 6
  • Meal Size: 8 oz for general population and women of childbearing age, 4 oz for children under seven
  • >26: more than 26 meals per month
  • NA: there is no methyl mercury RfD for general population to calculated the corresponding limited meals.

APPENDIX F:

JOINT FISH CONSUMPTION ADVISORY ISSUED BY THE STATE OF IDAHO AND THE COEUR D'ALENE TRIBE
Idaho Department of Health & Welfare logo

Coeur D'Alene Tribe logo JOINT ADVISORY

DIRK KEMPTHORNE - Governor

KARL B. KURTZ - Director
450 West State, 10th Floor
P.O. Box 83720
Boise, ID 83720-0036
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Lake Coeur d'Alene Fish Advisory 2003

Fish were collected from Lake Coeur d'Alene in May and August of 2002 as described in the Coeur d'Alene LakeFish Investigation Plan (USEPA 2002a), and were analyzed for metals (mercury, arsenic, lead, cadmium and zinc)to determine if the fish are safe for consumption by members of the general public and the Coeur d' Alene Tribe.Sampling locations in the Lake are shown in Figure 1. The results of the laboratory analysis of the fish samples areprovided in the Coeur d'Alene Lake Fish Investigation Data Report (USEPA 2003).

Based on extensive discussions among scientists and interested parties, kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka), Bass(mostly largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides), and bullhead (mostly brown bullhead, Ameirus nebulosus) wereselected as the target species because of their use by both tribal and sport/recreational fishers. All three species areextensively used by tribal subsistence fishers. Notably, the three species are also of ecological importance to theLake Coeur d'Alene fishery and encompass a variety of feeding habits and exposure patterns to contaminants.

Kokanee are primarily planktivorous, feeding on microscopic plants and animals in the water column, whereaslargemouth bass are predatory on other fish. Kokanee range throughout the Lake, whereas bass are lurking predatorswith a relatively small home range compared to kokanee. The large home range of kokanee means that they shouldserve as a good indicator of contaminant concentrations throughout Lake Coeur d'Alene. Largemouth bass, whichprey on other fish and have a smaller home range, should be more indicative of contaminant concentrations inlocalized areas of the Lake. Some smallmouth bass were also collected during the field effort. Bullheads are mostlybottom feeders and are normally closely associated with bottom sediments.

The tissue types analyzed were intended to be representative of two of the major methods by which fish caught inLake Coeur d'Alene are prepared for consumption by subsistence and sport/recreational fishers, i.e. gutted wholefish and fillets. The gutted whole fish tissue type consisted of remaining tissue after the removal of the caudal (tail)fin, gills, and guts with the exception of the kidney. The gutted whole fish carcass tissue sample was intended torepresent the most commonly used preparation method for fish that are smoked, canned, and that are used in soupsor stews. Fillets are commonly consumed by tribal, sport and recreational fishers.

Data collected indicate that mercury, lead and arsenic are the three contaminants with high enough concentrations infish tissue to warrant a fish advisory. Table 1 shows the species-specific, limited meal (the amounts of fish the IdahoFish Consumption Advisory Program [IFCAP] considers safe to consume) advisory. Where applicable, species-specific consumption rates are given for sections of the Lake as opposed to a blanket statement about the entireLake.

Table 1.

The Species-specific, Limited Meal Advisory
Species Sample Type Location Consumption Advisory
(meals per month)
Contaminant of Concern
General Population
(8 oz. meal)
Pregnant Womena
(8 oz. meal)
Childrenb
(4 oz. meal)
Bass Gutted Whole Fish North 13 5 3 Arsenic: general population
Mercury: pregnant women & children
Center 15 6 3
South 11 9 5
Fillet Whole Lake 26 5 3
Bullheadc Gutted Whole Fish North 20 4 3 Lead
Center 8 2 0
South 33 13 8
Fillet North 69 24 14 Arsenic: general population
Mercury: pregnant women & children
Center 14 13 7 Arsenic
South 61 15 9 Arsenic: general population
Mercury: pregnant women & children
Kokanee Gutted Whole Fish Whole Lake 12 10 6 Arsenic
Fillet 20 10 6 Arsenic: general population
Mercury: pregnant women & children

a: Pregnant women, women planning to be pregnant, and nursing mothers.
b: Children 6 years old or younger.
c: People, especially children and pregnant women with increased blood lead levels, or living in an area with high concentrations of lead in the yard soil or house dust should eat less whole Bullhead than suggested in this advisory.

Due to the limited resources, only three representative fish species were sampled from Lake Coeur d'Alene as discussed above. Per Charles Corsi and Ned Horner (Idaho Department of Fish and Game), other fish species regularly caught in Lake Coeur d'Alene could be grouped according to behavior similarity to one of the three sampled species (bass, kokanee and bullhead) IFCAP currently has data for:

  • Predators: bass (largemouth and smallmouth), northern pike, chinook salmon (a pelagic predator feeding primarily on kokanee), Large (over 8 inches) crappie and perch, and northern pikeminnow.
  • Filter feeder/insectivore: kokanee, bluegill, smaller perch and crappie, pumpkinseed, cutthroat trout (no cutthroat trout between 8 inches and 16 inches long may be kept), rainbow trout, tench, and brook trout.
  • Bottom feeder: bullhead (mostly brown bullhead), channel catfish, and suckers.

Although there are no fish tissue metal data for fish species other than bass, bullhead and kokanee, IFCAP believes the metal concentrations in the same group of fish species should be similar. Therefore, IFCAP suggests people compare the game fish they catch to the appropriate species group (bass, bullhead, and kokanee) and limit their consumption accordingly. For instance, IFCAP suggests that children limit their consumption of bluegill to 6 meals per month, the same as kokanee.

Other Basic Information

This fish advisory delineates how much and which type of fish can be safely consumed from Lake Coeur d'Alene, and which populations are most affected by the advisory. An issued fish advisory does not mean that people should stop eating fish from the Lake. In fact, metals found in fish from the Lake are lower than metals found in some fish purchased from the grocery such as shark, swordfish, and tuna. There is no need to substitute grocery store purchased fish for Lake-caught fish. By following the advisory, it is unlikely any ill effects will result from eating the fish caught from Lake Coeur d'Alene. This fish advisory is not mandatory and is issued only as a precaution in the interests of public health and safety.

In general, consuming smaller, younger fish (within Tribal and State legal limits) and those lower on the food chain is advised because these fish tend to be less contaminated. Also, insectivores and filter feeders may be preferable to bottom feeders since they do not contact sediment as much as bottom feeders.

Future Actions

Bass, bullhead and kokanee were sampled and analyzed for mercury, arsenic, lead, cadmium and zinc concentrations in the edible tissue. Mercury, lead and arsenic are the three contaminants with high enough concentrations in fish tissue to warrant a fish advisory.

Because the fish samples from Lake Coeur d'Alene fulfill the IFCAP sampling protocols (more than 10 fish per species per sampling location), a formal fish advisory has been issued. The governments involved in the Lake Coeur d'Alene fish study suggest sampling more fish in the future when possible, to verify whether or not they continue to pose a public health threat.

The Idaho Department of Health and Welfare laboratory will analyze the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in all the fish tissue samples. When the data are available, the governments involved in the Lake Coeur d'Alene fish study will revisit this fish advisory if warranted by the PCB levels.

Table of Contents

  
 
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