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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

POWNAL TANNERY
POWNAL, BENNINGTON COUNTY, VERMONT


APPENDICES


APPENDIX A - Maps and Diagrams

Intro Map
Figure 1. Intro Map


APPENDIX B - Tables of Contaminants

Appendix B, Table 1

Contaminants Detected in On-site Surface Soil, Above Environmental Screening Values at the Pownal Tannery National Priorities List Site - Pownal, Bennington County, Vermont
Contaminant Concentration Range
(ppm)
Location
of
Maximum
Screening Value (ppm) Cancer
Class
Minimum Maximum Value Source
Arsenic 7.8 12.5 Central Tannery Building 0.5 CREG A
Barium 345 4,580 Central Tannery Building 4,000 RMEG  
Cadmium 22.8 33.4 Northern Building 10 EMEG B1
Chromium 10.7 64,000 Northern Building 80,000 RMEG  
Iron 20,800 424,000 Northern Building      
Lead 381 1,380 Central Tannery Building 400 SSL B2
Manganese 301 15,000 Clarifier Building 7,000 RMEG  
Vanadium 124 1,640 Northern Building 550 SSL  
2-Methylnaphthalene 0.34 9.1 Central Tannery Building      
4-Nitroaniline 0.58 0.58 Central Tannery Building      
4,4'-DDT 5.8 5.8 Northern Building 2 CREG B2
Benzo(a)pyreneEquivalents 3.29 80.36 Central Tannery Building 0.1 CREG B2
Bis(2-Ethylhexyl)phthalate 3.9 4,000 Block Building 50 CREG B2
Dibenzofuran 0.73 18 Central Tannery Building      
Endrin Ketone 0.017 0.018 Clarifier Building      
Pentachlorophenol 1.3 33 Northern Building 3 SSL  
2,3,7,8-TCDDTEQ 0.00003 0.000459 Central Tannery Building 0.00005 EMEG  

Legends for Appendix B Data Tables

SOURCES

CLHA Child Longer-Term Health Advisory
CREG Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide
EMEG Environmental Media Evaluation Guide
LTHA Lifetime Health Advisory
MCL Maximum Contaminant Level
MCLG Maximum Contaminant Level Goal
MRL Minimal Risk Level
RfD Reference Dose
RMEG Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guide
SSL Soil Screening Level
 

UNITS

mg/kg milligrams per kilogram
mg/kg/day milligrams per kilogram per day
ng/kg nanograms per kilogram
ppb parts per billion
ppm parts per million
ug/cm2 micrograms per square centimeter
ug/ft2 micrograms per square foot

CANCER CLASS

A Human carcinogen
B Probable human carcinogen (Group B is subdivided into two groups)
B1     Limited evidence of carcinogenicity from epidemiologic studies
B2     Sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals, but inadequate evidence or no data from epidemiologic studies
C Possible Human carcinogen
D Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity
E Evidence of noncarcinogenicity in humans


Appendix B, Table 2

Contaminants Detected in On-site Sludge, Above Environmental Screening Values at the Pownal Tannery National Priorities List Site - Pownal, Bennington County, Vermont
Contaminant Concentration Range
(ppm)
Location
of
Maximum
Screening Value (ppm) Cancer
Class
Minimum Maximum Value Source
Antimony 11.1 232 Central Tannery Building 20 RMEG  
Arsenic 10.5 63.5 Central Tannery Building 0.5 CREG A
Barium 329 8270 Central Tannery Building 4,000 RMEG  
Cadmium 14.5 16.2 Northern Building 10 EMEG B1
Chromium 5,710 126,000 Central Tannery Building 80,000 RMEG  
Iron 74,800 115,000 Central Tannery Building      
Lead 36.7 619 Central Tannery Building 400 SSL B2
2-Methylnaphthalene 57 57 Northern Building      
Benzo(a)pyreneEquivalents 0.17 0.76 Northern Building 0.1 CREG B2
2,3,7,8-TCDDTEQ 0.0000324 0.000191 Northern Building 0.00005 EMEG  


Appendix B, Table 3

Contaminants Detected in On-site Wood, Paint, and Concrete, Above Environmental Screening Values at the Pownal Tannery National Priorities List Site - Pownal, Bennington County, Vermont
Contaminant Concentration Range
(ppm)
Location
of
Maximum
Screening Value (ppm) Cancer
Class
Minimum Maximum Value Source
Barium 389 4,100 Central Tannery Building 4,000 RMEG  
Cadmium 2.6 98.3 Central Tannery Building 10 EMEG B1
Lead 23.2 9,500 Northern Building     B2
Aldrin 2.3 4.1 Northern Building 0.04 CREG B2
N-Nitroso-di-n-propylamine 1.8 42 Central Tannery Building 0.1 CREG B2
Pentachlorophenol 0.49 68 Northern Building 6 CREG B2
Benzo(a)pyrene Equivalents 7.44 13.47 Northern Building 0.1 CREG B2
Dieldrin 4.5 4.5 Central Tannery Building 0.04 CREG B2
4-Chlorophenyl phenyl ether 0.56 7.8 Central Tannery Building      
4-Nitroaniline 0.86 45 Central Tannery Building      
4-Nitrophenol 22 22 Central Tannery Building      
Dibenzofuran 0.45 0.45 Central Tannery Building      
Bis(2-Chloroethoxy)Methane 2.5 8.5 Central Tannery Building      
2,3,7,8-TCDDTEQ 6.41E-6 0.00017 Northern Building      


Appendix B, Table 4

Contaminants Detected in On-site Lagoon Sludge, Above Environmental Screening Values at the Pownal Tannery National Priorities List Site - Pownal, Bennington County, Vermont
Contaminant Concentration Range
(ppm)
Location
of
Maximum
Screening Value (ppm) Cancer
Class
Minimum Maximum Value Source
Antimony 36 78.6 Lagoon 1 20 RMEG  
Arsenic 1.7 9.6 Lagoon 1 0.5 CREG A
Cadmium 5.3 115 Lagoon 1 10 EMEG B1
Chromium 10.6 445,000 Lagoon 1 80,000 RMEG  
Lead 7.3 2,870 Lagoon 1 400 SSL B2
Mercury 1.6 85.2 Lagoon 1 23 SSL  
Thallium 4.3 15 Lagoon 1      
2-Methylnaphthalene 11 11 Lagoon 1      
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 0.012 0.012 Lagoon 4      
2-Hexanone 0.012 0.012 Lagoon 4      
4-methyl-2-pentanone 0.012 0.012 Lagoon 4      
2,3,7,8-TCDDTEQ ND 0.11564 Lagoon 1 0.00005 EMEG  


Appendix B, Table 5

Contaminants Detected in On-site Standing Water, Above Environmental Screening Values at the Pownal Tannery National Priorities List Site - Pownal, Bennington County, Vermont
Contaminant Concentration Range
(ppm)
Location
of
Maximum
Screening Value (ppm) Cancer
Class
Minimum Maximum Value Source
Aluminum 625 46,000 Northern Building      
Copper 12.7 5,480 Central Tannery Building 1,300 MCLG  
Iron 175 188,000 Northern Building      
Lead 3.6 650 Northern Building 15
0
Action Level
MCLG
B2
Magnesium 4,260 41,300 Northern Building      
Manganese 8.2 1,650 Northern Building 50 RMEG  
Mercury 1.2 4.8 Central Tannery Building 2 LTHA  
Nickel 3 112 Northern Building 100 LTHA  
Sodium 34,800 49,000 Northern Building 20,000 MCL  
Vanadium 1 119 Northern Building 30 iEMEG  
Zinc 208 7,530 Central Tannery Building 3,000 EMEG  
4-Methylphenol 2 2 Northern Building     C
Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate 8 8 Central Tannery Building 3 CREG B2
Carbazole 18 18 Northern Building      
Pentachlorophenol 2 2 Central Tannery Building 0.3 CREG B2
Benzo(a)pyreneEquivalents 168.3 168.3 Northern Building 0.005 CREG B2


Appendix B, Table 6

Contaminants Detected in On-site Lagoon Groundwater, Above Environmental Screening Values at the Pownal Tannery National Priorities List Site - Pownal, Bennington County, Vermont
Contaminant Concentration Range
(ppm)
Screening Value (ppm) Cancer
Class
Minimum Maximum Value Source
Aluminum 150 10,700      
Arsenic 13.5 19 0.02 CREG A
Manganese 5.2 12,600 50 RMEG  
Sodium 19,700 293,000 20,000 MCL  
Thallium 2.2 2.2 0.4 LTHA  
4-Methylphenol 6 6     C
4-Methyl-2-pentanone 1 1      
Chrysene 0.3 0.3 0 CLHA B2
Tetrachloroethene 6 6 0.7 CREG UR


Appendix B, Table 7

Contaminants Detected in On-site Landfill Groundwater, Above Environmental Screening Values at the Pownal Tannery National Priorities List Site - Pownal, Bennington County, Vermont
Contaminant Concentration Range
(ppm)
Screening Value (ppm) Cancer
Class
Minimum Maximum Value Source
Aluminum 6,640 71,100      
Arsenic ND 55.7 0.02 CREG A
Cobalt 8 95.5      
Iron 15,800 146,000      
Manganese 990 7,480 50 RMEG  
Nickel 200 597 100 LTHA  
Vanadium 7.4 74.2 30 EMEG  
4-Methylphenol 41 41     C
Endrin Aldehyde 0.021 0.021      


Appendix B, Table 8

Contaminants Detected in On-site Landfill Sediment, Above Environmental Screening Values at the Pownal Tannery National Priorities List Site - Pownal, Bennington County, Vermont
Contaminant Concentration Range
(ppm)
Location
of
Maximum
Screening Value (ppm) Cancer
Class
Minimum Maximum Value Source
Arsenic 1.1 10.5 Dewatered Sludge 0.5 CREG A
Cadmium 2.9 76.1 Dewatered Sludge 10 EMEG B2
Lead 11.5 975 Dewatered Sludge 400 SSL B2
Mercury 0.11 39.1 Dewatered Sludge 23 SSL  
Thallium 1.4 6.2 Dewatered Sludge      
4-Methylphenol 60 500 Dewatered Sludge      
Pentachlorophenol 32 100 Dewatered Sludge 6 CREG B2
2,3,7,8-TCDDTEQ 0.000755 0.007027 Dewatered Sludge 0.00005 EMEG  


Appendix B, Table 9

Contaminants Detected in On-site Landfill Run-off Area Surface Water, Above Environmental Screening Values at the Pownal Tannery National Priorities List Site - Pownal, Bennington County, Vermont
Contaminant Concentration Range
(ppm)
Screening Value (ppm) Cancer
Class
Minimum Maximum Value Source
Aluminum 1,200 25,400      
Arsenic ND 11.8 0.02 CREG A
Iron 2,730 53,300      
Lead 5.1 77.7 15
0
Action Level
MCLG
B2
Manganese 1,800 7,980 50 RMEG  
Vanadium 3.2 40.8 30 iEMEG  


Appendix B, Table 10

Contaminants Detected in Hoosic River Sediment, Above Environmental Screening Values at the Pownal Tannery National Priorities List Site - Pownal, Bennington County, Vermont
Contaminant Concentration Range
(ppm)
Screening Value (ppm) Cancer
Class
Minimum Maximum Value Source
Arsenic 1.7 7.7 0.5 CREG A


Appendix B, Table 11

Contaminants Detected in Hoosic River Surface Water, Above Environmental Screening Values at the Pownal Tannery National Priorities List Site - Pownal, Bennington County, Vermont
Contaminant Concentration Range
(ppm)
Screening Value (ppm) Cancer
Class
Minimum Maximum Value Source
Aluminum 163 25,400      
Arsenic 11.8 11.8 0.02 CREG  
Iron 2,730 53,300      
Lead 2.1 77.7 15
0
Action Level
MCLG
B2
Manganese 67.9 7,980 50 RMEG  
Vanadium 3.2 40.8 30 iEMEG  


Appendix B, Table 12

Contaminants Detected in the On-site Leachate Collection System, Above Environmental Screening Values at the Pownal Tannery National Priorities List Site - Pownal, Bennington County, Vermont
Contaminant Concentration Range
(ppm)
Screening Value (ppm) Cancer
Class
Minimum Maximum Value Source
Antimony 22.1 22.1 4 RMEG  
Arsenic 6 7.8 0.02 CREG A
Manganese 124 1,350 50 RMEG  
Sodium 104,000 333,000 20,000 MCL  


Appendix B, Table 13

Contaminants Detected in On-site Wipe Samples at the Pownal Tannery National Priorities List Site - Pownal, Bennington County, Vermont
Contaminant Concentration Range
(ppm)
Location
of
Maximum
Minimum Maximum
Aluminum 18.7 (ug/ft2) 4,220 (ug/ft2) Northern Building (1st Floor)
Antimony 21.2 (ug/ft2) 21.2 (ug/ft2) Northern Building (Basement)
Barium 2.4 (ug/ft2) 9,180 (ug/ft2) Tannery (1st Floor)
Beryllium 0.7 (ug/ft2) 0.7 (ug/ft2) Northern Building (Basement)
Cadmium 1.6 (ug/ft2) 175 (ug/ft2) Block Building
Chromium 4.3 (ug/ft2) 3,940 (ug/ft2) Tannery (Basement)
Cobalt 1.6 (ug/ft2) 33.4 (ug/ft2) Tannery (Basement)
Copper 1.6 (ug/ft2) 254 (ug/ft2) Northern Building (Basement)
Iron 41.9 (ug/ft2) 67,700 (ug/ft2) Tannery (Basement)
Lead 5.5 (ug/ft2) 4,640 (ug/ft2) Tannery (3rd Floor)
Magnesium 109 (ug/ft2) 4,200 (ug/ft2) Tannery (Basement)
Manganese 2.1 (ug/ft2) 312 (ug/ft2) Tannery (Basement)
Nickel 3.2 (ug/ft2) 82.1 (ug/ft2) Tannery (Basement)
Silver 1.8 (ug/ft2) 5.3 (ug/ft2) Tannery (3rd Floor)
Vanadium 1.5 (ug/ft2) 164 (ug/ft2) Northern Building (Basement)
Zinc 4 (ug/ft2) 14,800 (ug/ft2) Tannery (2nd Floor)
Bis(2-Ethylhexyl)phthalate 1 (ug/cm2) 9 (ug/cm2) Tannery (3rd Floor)
Bis(2-Chloroethoxy)Methane 1.7 (ug/cm2) 2 (ug/cm2) Northern Building (Basement)
Butylbenzylphthalate 3 (ug/cm2) 3 (ug/cm2) Tannery (Basement)
2,3,7,8-TCDDEquivalents 1.95 (ng/kg) 30.2 (ng/kg) Northern Building (Basement)


APPENDIX C - Exposure Pathways Tables

Appendix C, Table 1

Completed On-Site Exposure Pathways at the Pownal Tannery National Priorities List Site, North Pownal, Bennington County, Vermont
Pathway
Name
Source Medium Exposure
Point
Exposure
Route
Receptor
Population
Time of
Exposure
Exposure
Activities
Estimated
Number
Exposed
Chemicals
Trespassers in Buildings Former site operations Surface Soil On-site Buildings Incidental Ingestion, Dermal absorption, inhalation, Physical Hazards Trespassers Past, Current, Future Trespassing and playing in buildings on the site Less than 100 Metals, Dioxin, PAHs, SVOCs
(Table 1)
Hoosic River Recreational users Site runoff Surface water and sediments Surface water and sediments of the Hoosic River near site Direct contact, incidental ingestion, inhalation Recreational
users
Past, Current, Future Fishing, wading, and other recreational activities Children observed fishing in waters near site buildings Metals
(Tables 10 and 11)


Appendix C, Table 2

Potential On-Site Exposure Pathways at the Pownal Tannery National Priorities List Site, North Pownal, Bennington County, Vermont
Pathway
Name
Source Medium Exposure
Point
Exposure
Route
Receptor
Population
Time of
Exposure
Exposure
Activities
Estimated
Number
Exposed
Chemicals
On-site Groundwater Chemical discharges Groundwater None known at this time Ingestion,
direct contact,
inhalation
None known at this time Future Drinking, cooking, shower and other potable uses of contaminated water none known at this time Metal, VOCs
dioxins
(Tables 6 and 7)
Landfill Run-off Area Surface Water Chemicals buried in the on-site landfill Surface water On-site Landfills Direct contact, incidental ingestion, inhalation Trespassers Past, Current, Future Trespassing upon the Landfill Unknown Metals
(Table 9)
On-Site Buildings During Remedial Activities Chemical in and on the on-site buildings Surface soil, wood, standing water, paint, and concrete On-site buildings Direct Contact, inhalation, incidental ingestion Remediation Workers Past, Current, Future Remedial activities including sampling, excavation, and removal Unknown Metal, PAHs, dioxins, SVOCs
(Tables 1, 3, and 5)


Appendix C, Table 3

Considered and Eliminated On-site Exposure Pathways at the Pownal Tannery National Priorities List Site, North Pownal, Bennington County, Vermont
Pathway
Name
Source Medium Exposure
Point
Exposure
Route
Receptor
Population
Time of
Exposure
Exposure
Activities
Estimated
Number
Exposed
Chemicals
Building Sludge Past site operations Sludge Basement tanks and floor drains Direct contact, inhalation, incidental ingestion Trespassers Past, Current, Future None known at this time None Known Metals, PAHs, and dioxins
(Table 2)
On-site Building Components Past site operations Wood, paint, and concrete Building structures Direct contact Trespassers Past None known at this time None Known (Table 3)
Lagoon Sludge Chemicals in on-site lagoons Sludge None at this time Direct contact None known Past, Current, Future Digging down into the lagoons None Known Metals, VOCs, dioxins
(Table 4)
Building Standing Water Past site operations Standing Water Basement Direct contact None Known Past Trespassing in Buildings None Known (Table 5)
Landfill Sludge Chemicals in the on-site landfill Sludge None at this time Direct contact None Known Past, Current, Future Digging down into the landfill None Known Metals, dioxins, pentachloro-phenol
(Table 8)
Collection System Past site operations and buried wastes Leachate Leachate collection system Direct contact None Known Past, Current, Future None known at this time None Known Metals
(Table 12)


APPENDIX D - Health Guidelines, Exposure Dose Estimation, and Risk

Health Guidelines

Health guidelines provide a basis for comparing estimated exposures with concentrations of contaminants in different environmental media (soil and water) to which people might be exposed.

Non-Cancer Health Effects

ATSDR has developed a minimal risk level (MRL) for contaminants commonly found at hazardous waste sites. The MRL is an estimate of daily exposure to a contaminant below which non-cancer, adverse health effects are unlikely to occur. MRLs are developed for different routes of exposure, like inhalation and ingestion, and for lengths of exposure, such as acute (less than 14 days), intermediate (15-164 days), and chronic (365 days or greater). Oral MRLs are expressed in units of milligrams of contaminant per kilogram of body weight per day (mg/kg/day). Because ATSDR has no methodology to determine amounts of chemicals absorbed through the skin, the Agency has not developed MRLs for dermal exposure. The method of deriving MRLs does not include information about cancer, therefore, a MRL does not imply anything about the presence, absence, or level of cancer risk. If an ATSDR MRL is not available as a health value, then EPA's reference dose (RfD) is used. The RfD is an estimate of daily human exposure to a contaminant for a lifetime below which (non-cancer) health effects are unlikely to occur (9).

Cancer Health Effects

The EPA classifies chemicals as Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D, or Class E. This classification defines a specific chemical's ability to cause cancer in humans and animals. According to EPA, Class A chemicals are known human carcinogens, and Class B chemicals are probable human carcinogens. Class B is further subdivided into two groups: Group B1 consists of chemicals for which there is limited evidence of carcinogenicity from epidemiological studies in humans; and Group B2 consists of chemicals for which there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals, but inadequate evidence or no data available from epidemiologic studies in humans. Group C chemicals are possible human carcinogens. Group D chemicals are not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity and Group E chemicals are those for which there is evidence that they are not carcinogenic to humans. For carcinogenic substances, EPA has established the cancer slope factor (CSF) as a guideline. The CSF is used to determine the number of excess cancers resulting from exposure to a contaminant. The National Toxicology Program in its Annual Report on Carcinogens classifies a chemical as a "known human carcinogen" based on sufficient human data. Its classification of a chemical as being "reasonably anticipated to be a carcinogen" (RAC) is based on limited human or sufficient animal data. ATSDR considers the above physical and biological characteristics when developing health guidelines.

Exposure Dose Estimation

To link the site's human exposure potential with health effects that may occur under site-specific conditions, ATSDR estimates human exposure to the site contaminant from ingestion and/or inhalation of different environmental medium (). The following relationship is used to determine the estimated exposure to the site contaminant:

ED = © x IR x EF)/ BW

ED = exposure dose (mg/kg/day)
C  = contaminant concentration
IR = intake rate
EF = exposure factor
BW = body weight

Standard body weights for adults, young children, and toddlers are 70 kg, 16 kg, and 10 kg, respectively. The maximum contaminant concentration detected at a site for specific medium typically is used to determine the estimated exposure. Use of the maximum concentration will result in the most protective evaluation for human health. The standard ingestion rates for water are 2 liters/day for adults and 1 liter/day for school-aged children Incidental ingestion of contaminants from surface soil was assumed to be 21 mg/day for children and 12 mg/day for adults. Some exposures are intermittent or irregularly timed. For those exposures, an exposure factor (EF) is calculated which averages the dose over the exposed period. When unknown, the biological absorption from the environmental media (air, water) is assumed to be 100%.

How Risk Estimates are Made

Non-Cancer Risks

For non-cancer health risks, the contaminant intake was estimated using exposure assumptions for the site conditions. This dose was then compared to a risk reference dose (estimated daily intake of a chemical that is likely to be without an appreciable risk of health effects) developed by ATSDR or EPA.

Non-cancer effects, unlike cancer effects, are believed to have a threshold, that is, a dose below which adverse health effects will not occur. As a result, the current practice is to identify, usually from animal toxicology experiments, a no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL). This is the experimental exposure level in animals at which no adverse toxic effect is observed. The NOAEL is then divided by an uncertainty factor (UF) to yield a risk reference dose. The UF is a number which reflects the degree of uncertainty that exists when experimental animal data are extrapolated to the general human population. The magnitude of the UF takes into consideration various factors such as sensitive subpopulations (for example; children, pregnant women, and the elderly), extrapolation from animals to humans, and the incompleteness of available data. Thus, exposure doses at or below the risk reference dose are not expected to cause adverse health effects because it is selected to be much lower than dosages that do not cause adverse health effects in laboratory animals.

The measure used to describe the potential for non-cancer health effects to occur in an individual is expressed as a ratio of estimated contaminant intake to the risk reference dose. If exposure to the contaminant exceeds the risk reference dose, there is concern for potential non-cancer health effects. As a rule, the greater the ratio of the estimated contaminant intake to the risk reference dose, the greater the level of concern. A ratio equal to or less than one is generally considered an insignificant (minimal) increase in risk.

Cancer Risk

Increased cancer risk were estimated by using site-specific information about exposure levels for the contaminant of concern and interpreting them using cancer potency estimates derived for that contaminant by EPA. An increased excess lifetime cancer risk is not a specific estimate of expected cancers. Rather, it is an estimate of the increase in the probability that a person may develop cancer sometime in his or her lifetime following exposure to that contaminant.

There is insufficient knowledge of cancer mechanisms to decide if there exists a level of exposure to a cancer-causing agent below which there is no risk of getting cancer, namely, a threshold level. Therefore, every exposure, no matter how low, to a cancer-causing compound is assumed to be associated with some increased risk. As the dose of a carcinogen decreases, the chance of developing cancer decreases, but each exposure is accompanied by some increased risk.

There is no general consensus within the scientific or regulatory communities on what level of estimated excess cancer risk is acceptable. Some have recommended the use of the relatively conservative excess lifetime cancer risk level of one in one million because of uncertainties in our scientific knowledge about the mechanism of cancer. Others feel that risks that are lower or higher may be acceptable, depending on scientific, economic, and social factors. An increased lifetime cancer risk of one in one million or less is generally considered an insignificant increase in cancer risk.

Sources of Health Guideline Information

ATSDR has prepared toxicological profiles for many substances found at hazardous waste sites. Those documents present and interpret information on the substances. Health guidelines, such as ATSDR's MRL and EPA's RfD and CSF are included in the toxicological profiles. Those health guidelines are used by ATSDR health professionals in determining the potential for developing adverse non-cancer health effects and/or cancer from exposure to a hazardous substance. Preparers of this public health assessment have reviewed the profiles for the contaminants of concern at the Pownal Tannery National Priorities List site.


APPENDIX E - Comparison of Estimated Exposure Dose to Health Guidelines

Appendix E

Results of Comparison of Estimated Exposure Dose to Health Guidelines for Persons Exposed to On-Site Contaminants in Building Surface Soil at the Pownal Tannery National Priorities List Site, North Pownal, Bennington County, Vermont
Contaminant Health Guideline (mg/kg/day) Cancer Class
Value Source Exceeded by Estimated Exposure Dose
Arsenic 0.0003
0.0003
MRLc
RfD
No A
Barium 0.07 RfD No  
Cadmium 0.0002
0.001
MRLc
RfD
No B1
Iron   Unknown    
Lead   None   B2
Manganese 0.005 RfD Yes - child  
Vanadium 0.003 MRLi No  
2-Methylnaphthalene   Unknown    
2,3,7,8-TCDD 1E-9
2E-8
2E-7
MRLc
MRLi
MRLa
No RAC
4-Nitroaniline   Unknown    
4,4'-DDT 0.0005 MRLi
MRLa
RfD
No B2
Bis(2-Ethylhexyl)phthalate 0.4
1
0.02
MRLi
MRLa
RfD
No B2
Dibenzofuran   Unknown    
Endrin Ketone   Unknown    
carcinogenic PAHs   None   B2
Pentachlorophenol 0.001
0.005
0.03
MRLi
MRLa
RfD
No
No
No
B2


APPENDIX F - ATSDR Plain Language Glossary of Environmental Terms

Revised -15Dec99

Absorption:
How a chemical enters a person's blood after the chemical has been swallowed, has come into contact with the skin, or has been breathed in.


Acute Exposure:
Contact with a chemical that happens once or only for a limited period of time. ATSDR defines acute exposures as those that might last up to 14 days.


Additive Effect:
A response to a chemical mixture, or combination of substances, that might be expected if the known effects of individual chemicals, seen at specific doses, were added together.


Adverse Health Effect:
A change in body function or the structures of cells that can lead to disease or health problems.


Antagonistic Effect:
A response to a mixture of chemicals or combination of substances that is less than might be expected if the known effects of individual chemicals, seen at specific doses, were added together.


ATSDR:
The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR is a federal health agency in Atlanta, Georgia that deals with hazardous substance and waste site issues. ATSDR gives people information about harmful chemicals in their environment and tells people how to protect themselves from coming into contact with chemicals.


Background Level:
An average or expected amount of a chemical in a specific environment. Or, amounts of chemicals that occur naturally in a specific environment.


Biota:
Used in public health, things that humans would eat - including animals, fish and plants.


CAP:
See Community Assistance Panel.


Cancer:
A group of diseases which occur when cells in the body become abnormal and grow, or multiply, out of control


Carcinogen:
Any substance shown to cause tumors or cancer in experimental studies.


CERCLA:
See Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act.


Chronic Exposure:
A contact with a substance or chemical that happens over a long period of time. ATSDR considers exposures of more than one year to be chronic.


Completed Exposure Pathway:
See Exposure Pathway.


Community Assistance Panel (CAP):
A group of people from the community and health and environmental agencies who work together on issues and problems at hazardous waste sites.


Comparison Value (CVs):
Concentrations or the amount of substances in air, water, food, and soil that are unlikely, upon exposure, to cause adverse health effects. Comparison values are used by health assessors to select which substances and environmental media (air, water, food and soil) need additional evaluation while health concerns or effects are investigated.


Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA):
CERCLA was put into place in 1980. It is also known as Superfund. This act concerns releases of hazardous substances into the environment, and the cleanup of these substances and hazardous waste sites. ATSDR was created by this act and is responsible for looking into the health issues related to hazardous waste sites.


Concern:
A belief or worry that chemicals in the environment might cause harm to people.


Concentration:
How much or the amount of a substance present in a certain amount of soil, water, air, or food.


Contaminant:
See Environmental Contaminant.


Delayed Health Effect:
A disease or injury that happens as a result of exposures that may have occurred far in the past.


Dermal Contact:
A chemical getting onto your skin. (see Route of Exposure).


Dose:
The amount of a substance to which a person may be exposed, usually on a daily basis. Dose is often explained as "amount of substance(s) per body weight per day".


Dose / Response:
The relationship between the amount of exposure (dose) and the change in body function or health that result.


Duration:
The amount of time (days, months, years) that a person is exposed to a chemical.


Environmental Contaminant:
A substance (chemical) that gets into a system (person, animal, or the environment) in amounts higher than that found in Background Level, or what would be expected.


Environmental Media:
Usually refers to the air, water, and soil in which chemical of interest are found. Sometimes refers to the plants and animals that are eaten by humans. Environmental Media is the second part of an Exposure Pathway.


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA):
The federal agency that develops and enforces environmental laws to protect the environment and the public's health.


Epidemiology:
The study of the different factors that determine how often, in how many people, and in which people will disease occur.


Exposure:
Coming into contact with a chemical substance.(For the three ways people can come in contact with substances, see Route of Exposure.)


Exposure Assessment:
The process of finding the ways people come in contact with chemicals, how often and how long they come in contact with chemicals, and the amounts of chemicals with which they come in contact.


Exposure Pathway:
A description of the way that a chemical moves from its source (where it began) to where and how people can come into contact with (or get exposed to) the chemical.

ATSDR defines an exposure pathway as having 5 parts:
  1. Source of Contamination,

  2. Environmental Media and Transport Mechanism,

  3. Point of Exposure,

  4. Route of Exposure; and,

  5. Receptor Population.

When all 5 parts of an exposure pathway are present, it is called a Completed Exposure Pathway. Each of these 5 terms is defined in this Glossary.


Frequency:
How often a person is exposed to a chemical over time; for example, every day, once a week, twice a month.


Hazardous Waste:
Substances that have been released or thrown away into the environment and, under certain conditions, could be harmful to people who come into contact with them.


Health Effect:
ATSDR deals only with Adverse Health Effects (see definition in this Glossary).


Indeterminate Public Health Hazard:
The category is used in Public Health Assessment documents for sites where important information is lacking (missing or has not yet been gathered) about site-related chemical exposures.


Ingestion:
Swallowing something, as in eating or drinking. It is a way a chemical can enter your body (See Route of Exposure).


Inhalation:
Breathing. It is a way a chemical can enter your body (See Route of Exposure).


LOAEL:
Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level. The lowest dose of a chemical in a study, or group of studies, that has caused harmful health effects in people or animals.


Malignancy:
See Cancer.


MRL:
Minimal Risk Level. An estimate of daily human exposure - by a specified route and length of time -- to a dose of chemical that is likely to be without a measurable risk of adverse, noncancerous effects. An MRL should not be used as a predictor of adverse health effects.


NPL:
The National Priorities List. (Which is part of Superfund.) A list kept by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the most serious, uncontrolled or abandoned hazardous waste sites in the country. An NPL site needs to be cleaned up or is being looked at to see if people can be exposed to chemicals from the site.


NOAEL:
No Observed Adverse Effect Level. The highest dose of a chemical in a study, or group of studies, that did not cause harmful health effects in people or animals.


No Apparent Public Health Hazard:
The category is used in ATSDR's Public Health Assessment documents for sites where exposure to site-related chemicals may have occurred in the past or is still occurring but the exposures are not at levels expected to cause adverse health effects.


No Public Health Hazard:
The category is used in ATSDR's Public Health Assessment documents for sites where there is evidence of an absence of exposure to site-related chemicals.


PHA:
Public Health Assessment. A report or document that looks at chemicals at a hazardous waste site and tells if people could be harmed from coming into contact with those chemicals. The PHA also tells if possible further public health actions are needed.


Plume:
A line or column of air or water containing chemicals moving from the source to areas further away. A plume can be a column or clouds of smoke from a chimney or contaminated underground water sources or contaminated surface water (such as lakes, ponds and streams).


Point of Exposure:
The place where someone can come into contact with a contaminated environmental medium (air, water, food or soil). For examples:
the area of a playground that has contaminated dirt, a contaminated spring used for drinking water, the location where fruits or vegetables are grown in contaminated soil, or the backyard area where someone might breathe contaminated air.


Population:
A group of people living in a certain area; or the number of people in a certain area.


PRP:
Potentially Responsible Party. A company, government or person that is responsible for causing the pollution at a hazardous waste site. PRP's are expected to help pay for the clean up of a site.


Public Health Assessment(s):
See PHA.


Public Health Hazard:
The category is used in PHAs for sites that have certain physical features or evidence of chronic, site-related chemical exposure that could result in adverse health effects.


Public Health Hazard Criteria:
PHA categories given to a site which tell whether people could be harmed by conditions present at the site. Each are defined in the Glossary. The categories are:
  • Urgent Public Health Hazard

  • Public Health Hazard

  • Indeterminate Public Health Hazard

  • No Apparent Public Health Hazard

  • No Public Health Hazard

Receptor Population:
People who live or work in the path of one or more chemicals, and who could come into contact with them (See Exposure Pathway).


Reference Dose (RfD):
An estimate, with safety factors (see safety factor) built in, of the daily, life-time exposure of human populations to a possible hazard that is not likely to cause harm to the person.


Route of Exposure:
The way a chemical can get into a person's body. There are three exposure routes:
- breathing (also called inhalation),
- eating or drinking (also called ingestion), and
- or getting something on the skin (also called dermal contact).


Safety Factor:
Also called Uncertainty Factor. When scientists don't have enough information to decide if an exposure will cause harm to people, they use "safety factors" and formulas in place of the information that is not known. These factors and formulas can help determine the amount of a chemical that is not likely to cause harm to people.


SARA:
The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act in 1986 amended CERCLA and expanded the health-related responsibilities of ATSDR. CERCLA and SARA direct ATSDR to look into the health effects from chemical exposures at hazardous waste sites.


Sample Size:
The number of people that are needed for a health study.


Sample:
A small number of people chosen from a larger population (See Population).


Source (of Contamination):
The place where a chemical comes from, such as a landfill, pond, creek, incinerator, tank, or drum. Contaminant source is the first part of an Exposure Pathway.


Special Populations:
People who may be more sensitive to chemical exposures because of certain factors such as age, a disease they already have, occupation, sex, or certain behaviors (like cigarette smoking). Children, pregnant women, and older people are often considered special populations.


Statistics:
A branch of the math process of collecting, looking at, and summarizing data or information.


Superfund Site:
See NPL.


Survey:
A way to collect information or data from a group of people (population). Surveys can be done by phone, mail, or in person. ATSDR cannot do surveys of more than nine people without approval from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.


Synergistic effect:
A health effect from an exposure to more than one chemical, where one of the chemicals worsens the effect of another chemical. The combined effect of the chemicals acting together are greater than the effects of the chemicals acting by themselves.


Toxic:
Harmful. Any substance or chemical can be toxic at a certain dose (amount). The dose is what determines the potential harm of a chemical and whether it would cause someone to get sick.


Toxicology:
The study of the harmful effects of chemicals on humans or animals.


Tumor:
Abnormal growth of tissue or cells that have formed a lump or mass.


Uncertainty Factor:
See Safety Factor.


Urgent Public Health Hazard:
This category is used in ATSDR's Public Health Assessment documents for sites that have certain physical features or evidence of short-term (less than 1 year), site-related chemical exposure that could result in adverse health effects and require quick intervention to stop people from being exposed.

APPENDIX G - Public Comments and ATSDR's Responses

ATSDR released the Pownal Tannery Public Health Assessment on September 5th, 2000 for public comment. A letter was sent to local citizens announcing the availability of the document, the comment period, and repositories where the document could be reviewed in early October. The official comment period ended October 16th, 2000, but ATSDR allowed an additional 30 days for comment.

No public comments were received by ATSDR.



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