PRELIMINARY PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT
WILLIAMS PIPE LINE COMPANY
SIOUX FALLS, MINNEHAHA COUNTY, SOUTH DAKOTA
The Williams Pipe Line Disposal Pit NPL site (WPL) is considered a public health hazard basedon the exposure to nitrate in several private drinking water wells south of the site. The maximumconcentrations of nitrates could result in methemoglobinemia in children less than six monthsold. The exposures in September 1986 of students and staff of Hayward Elementary School tobenzene, hexane, and pentane vapors was an urgent public health hazard. However, no long-term health effects should occur.
None of the other contaminants of concern represent a health hazard. None of the contaminantsof concern appear to represent a risk for carcinogenic effects.
There are three completed exposure pathways at the WPL site. They are private drinking waterwells on the northeast and south of the site and ambient air in the Hayward School. The first twoare current and future exposure pathways, while the air exposure pathway no longer exists.
Pit sludge/soil and off-site soil were identified as potential exposure pathways. Surface water,and garden fruits and vegetables were eliminated as exposure pathways.
The extent of contamination in off-site residential soil, groundwater, and air northeast and east ofWPL needs further characterization.
There was insufficient toxicologic data to evaluate the health consequences of exposure todibenzofuran.
Data on learning disabilities (LD) were reviewed. The percent LD for the new Hayward Schoolin 1990 was 10.2 %, which is the second highest percentage in the Sioux Falls School District. This percent LD is not statistically greater than other schools in the northern half of the district,but is greater than the average percent LD for the whole district. Evaluation of data on LD forthe years between 1986 - 1990 and by grade is needed to fully evaluate the possible relationshipbetween the incident in 1986 and LD. Unfortunately, those data are not available.
EPA and SDDWNR, in cooperation with ATSDR, should do the following to better characterizeoff-site groundwater, soil, and air.
- 1. Determine the full extent of contamination by petroleum products, volatile organic chemicals(VOCs), pesticides, and nitrates in the ground water northeast and east of WPL.
2. Continue to monitor those private wells northeast, east, and south of the site, still being usedas a drinking water source, for the presence of petroleum products, volatile organic chemicals(VOCs), pesticides, and nitrates.
3. Determine the need for additional off-site sampling of soil northeast and east of WPL throughan evaluation of all available sampling data and reports.
4. Evaluate the need for air monitoring for vapor phase pollutants both around the burn/disposalpit, and northeast and east of WPL.
ATSDR should consider whether substance-specific research should be conducted to identifytoxicologic data that could be used to evaluate health consequences from exposure todibenzofuran.
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980(CERCLA), as amended, requires ATSDR to perform public health actions needed at hazardouswaste sites. To determine if public health actions are needed, ATSDR's Health ActivitiesRecommendation Panel (HARP) has evaluated the data and information developed in theWilliams Pipe Line Disposal Pit Public Health Assessment. The panel determined that:
- 1. The City of Sioux Falls Health Department has provided general information to residents inthe area on well safety and participated in public meetings on well safety but has not producedany educational materials or programs specifically for the residents in the WPL area. The Stateof South Dakota offers an educational telephone hotline service for pregnant women concernedabout possible exposure to various chemicals or infectious agents. The toll free number for theSouth Dakota Teratogen and Birth Defects Information Project is 1-800-962-1642. No furtherhealth education actions appear necessary at this time, but maybe appropriate in the future.
2. Through drinking of contaminated water, humans are being exposed to nitrates,bromodichloromethane, and chloromethane at one business northeast of WPL, and to nitrates atsix homes south of WPL. The concentrations of nitrates found in the homes south of WPLrepresent a public health hazard only for infants. There are no other exposures documented. Nostudies or public health investigations are indicated at this time.
ATSDR will reevaluate this site for any indicated follow-up, if data become available suggestingthat more individuals have or are being exposed to site-related contaminants at levels of healthconcern.
Public Health Action Plan
ATSDR will work with EPA and SDDWNR to identify the need for additional health-relatedenvironmental sampling.
The Williams Pipe Line Twelfth Street Terminal Public Health Assessment was available forpublic review and comment from March 25, 1992 through April 23, 1992. Thirty-one commentswere received from three organizations. Two of these organizations made a combined response. Comments and responses are summarized in Appendix C.
Robin Ruark Brothers, Ph.D.
Risk Analysis Section
Health and Safety Research Division
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Oak Ridge, Tennessee
John R. Crellin, Ph.D.
Environmental Health Scientist
Remedial Programs Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
ATSDR Regional Representative:
Glen Tucker, Ph.D.
Senior Regional Representative
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