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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

IOWA ARMY AMMUNITION PLANT
MIDDLETOWN, IOWA


CONCLUSIONS

Based on a thorough evaluation of available environmental information, ATSDR concludes that IAAAP should be assigned to the No Apparent Public Health Hazard category for the following reasons:

  1. Exposure to on-site groundwater does not pose a past, present, or future public health hazard. RDX and other contaminants have been detected at levels above ATSDR comparison values in groundwater underlying IAAAP property. No exposures to groundwater contamination have occurred, however, because IAAAP does not use on-site groundwater as its drinking water source. On-site drinking water received from the Burlington Municipal System meets state and federal drinking water standards.
  2. Past exposure to off-site groundwater south of IAAAP poses no apparent public health hazard. There is and will be no present or future exposures, so off-site groundwater does not pose a present or future public health hazard. In off-site areas where people may have ingested RDX-contaminated groundwater at levels above health-based guidelines, no public health hazard exists due to the short exposure durations, the low exposure doses, and/or Army remediation efforts. No quantitative measures of potential exposure to contaminated groundwater exists prior to the investigations beginning in 1985 and no evaluation of that interval is given in this assessment. Present and potential future exposures to RDX-contaminated groundwater above health-based guidelines is unlikely, since residences south of IAAAP have been connected to the rural water supply and all off-site drinking water meets state and federal drinking water standards.6
  3. Past exposure to on- and off-site surface water poses an indeterminate public health hazard. Present and future exposures to on- and off-site surface water pose no apparent public health hazard. IAAAP-contaminated surface water has never been used as a source of drinking water. Public exposure to potentially contaminated surface water is minimal, if it occurs at all, through swimming or wading.
  4. Exposure to soil at IAAAP does not pose a past, present, or future public health hazard. Some IAAAP soil contains contaminants above ATSDR comparison values, but public exposure (past, present, and future) is not likely, largely because access to contaminated sites is limited and contamination occurs primarily in subsurface soils or industrial areas. In the few contaminated areas that the public may potentially access, the Army has or is in the process of remediating surface soil contamination as necessary to reduce contaminant levels.
  5. Exposure to IAAAP crops, venison, and beef does not pose a past, present, or future public health hazard. Due to local conditions and the nature of explosives, RDX does not appear to bioaccumulate in IAAAP crops, deer, or cattle. Therefore, no public health hazard exists from the consumption of local biota.

PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION PLAN

The Public Health Action Plan (PHAP) for IAAAP contains a description of actions taken and those to be taken, as necessary, by ATSDR, the Army, and EPA at IAAAP and in the vicinity of the installation subsequent to the completion of this public health assessment. The purpose of the PHAP is to ensure that the public health assessment not only identifies public health hazards, but provides a plan of action designated to mitigate and prevent adverse human health effects resulting from exposure to hazardous substances in the environment. The public health actions that are completed, being implemented, or planned are as follows:

Completed Groundwater Actions

  • Over the past 20 years, the Army has thoroughly investigated the nature and extent of groundwater contamination (OU #3). When RDX was discovered in several off-site private wells, the Army immediately supplied all potentially-at-risk residents with alternate drinking water sources and paid for residents to be connected to the Rathbun Rural Water System supply.
  • After monitoring and characterizing IAAAP groundwater contamination, the Army concluded that the most effective way to remediate the contamination is to prevent any further movement of contaminants from soil to groundwater.

Completed Surface Water Actions

  • The Army monitored and characterized contaminants in on- and off-site surface waters in the IAAAP vicinity.
  • Contaminated wastewater from IAAAP is treated (primarily with settling tanks, filtration, and carbon adsorption) and discharged in accordance with National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permitted outfalls. See Appendix A for site-specific details.

Completed Soil and Sediment Actions

  • As described in Appendix A, the Army has initiated remediation actions at IAAAP to remove and treat soils that may impact underlying groundwater. All contaminated soils are being carefully handled to prevent exposure to the general public.
  • The northern section of Trench 5 in the Inert Landfill, containing explosive-contaminated wastes, was capped and closed in 1989 in accordance with RCRA Subtitle C guidelines.
  • In the spring of 1995, approximately 150 cubic yards of pesticides-contaminated soils were excavated from the former Pesticide Disposal Pit and disposed of at an approved off-site waste disposal facility.
  • Also in the spring of 1995, explosives-contaminated soils associated with over 50 abandoned wastewater sumps were excavated. These contaminated soils were temporarily stored in a lined stockpile near the Inert Landfill at IAAAP, and were moved to the on-site soil repository for permanent disposal in the spring of 1997.
  • In the fall of 1997, the Army completed construction of a low-permeability cover on the 17-acre Inert Landfill site to prevent infiltration of precipitation in the landfill material and the subsequent transport of contaminants from wastes to groundwater.
  • The Line 1 Impoundment and Line 800 Pinkwater Lagoon subsites are considered to be the greatest sources of explosives contamination at IAAAP. As a part of the NTC removal actions for the Line 1 Impoundment and the Line 800 Pinkwater Lagoon, soils have been sampled, analyzed, and segregated according to the risk or contaminant level detected. Depending on the concentration of explosives in the excavated soils, the soils have been placed in one of three areas: in the designated Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU; also known as Trench 7), in the soil repository, or beneath the cap at the Inert Landfill. Soils with the highest contaminant concentrations were stockpiled in the CAMU for treatment at a later date. Soils with lower levels were disposed of in the soil repository, while soils with the lowest levels were disposed of as random fill beneath the Inert Landfill cap. The excavation and segregation of soils from the Line 1 Impoundment and the Line 800 Lagoon was completed in August 1997.

Ongoing/Planned Groundwater Actions

  • The Army will monitor all regions of groundwater contamination and repair or up-grade interim activities (e.g., supplying bottled water to local residents) as needed.
  • The Army will continue to collect and analyze groundwater data from the Army's monitoring wells, private wells, and municipal wells.
  • ATSDR will review groundwater data as they become available and will reevaluate Public Health Assessment conclusions if and when groundwater quality, use, and/or exposure scenarios change. This review will include potential radionuclide contamination in IAAAP groundwater.

Ongoing/Planned Surface Water Actions

  • The Army will continue to monitor and further characterize on- and off-site surface waters in the vicinity of IAAAP.
  • ATSDR will review potential radionuclide contamination in IAAAP surface waters.

Ongoing/Planned Soil and Sediment Actions

  • The Army is in the process of developing a final remediation action for IAAAP soils (OU #1). The Army plans to treat all contaminated soils stockpiled in the CAMU, including:
    • Approximately 9,000 cubic yards of soil contaminated with explosives.
    • Approximately 600 cubic yards of soil contaminated with explosives plus metals.
    • Approximately 200 cubic yards of soil contaminated with semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs).
    • Approximately 300 cubic yards of soil contaminated with radionuclides.
  • The Army is planning NTC removal actions to address an estimated 1,000 cubic yards of VOC-contaminated soils at the former Fire Training Pit. The Army recently selected on-site low-temperature thermal desorption as the remediation technology to complete this cleanup.
  • ATSDR will review potential radionuclide contamination in IAAAP soils.

PREPARERS OF REPORT

This report was prepared under the direction and supervision of:

W. Mark Weber, Ph.D.
Geologist
Federal Facilities Assessment Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation

Gary Campbell, Ph.D.
Environmental Health Scientist
Federal Facilities Assessment Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation

Assistance in the preparation of this report was provided by:

Kristen Honey
Environmental Scientist
Eastern Research Group


REFERENCES

ACE. 1997a. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Ecological Risk Assessment Addendum. Iowa Army Ammunition Plant (Draft Report). October 1997.

ACE. 1997b. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Groundwater Feasibility Study Report Iowa Army Ammunitions Plant (IAAAP). December 22, 1997.

ACE. 1997c. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Supplemental Groundwater Remedial Investigation Report Iowa Army Ammunitions Plant Volume 1 Report and Appendices A - G. December 1, 1997.

ACE. 1998a. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Ecological Risk Assessment Addendum Iowa Army Ammunitions Plant Volume 1 Draft Final Report. March 1998.

ACE. 1998b. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Soils Feasibility Study Report Iowa Army Ammunitions Plant (IAAAP) Draft. March 16, 1998.

ACE. 1998c. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Soils Feasibility Study Report Iowa Army Ammunitions Plant (Final Draft). May 18, 1998.

AEHA. 1985. U.S. Army Environmental Hygiene Agency. Water Quality Engineering Consultation No. 31-24-0673-85, Investigation of Ground-Water Contamination, Iowa Army Ammunition Plant, Middletown, Iowa, 18-22 March, 1-2 May and 28-30 May 1985. September 1985.

Allison, Rodger. 1999a. Review of Draft Public Health Assessment. Cited an E-mail from RDA (Army 1-23-95) and a August 18, 1993 public meeting transcript, both concerning the connection of local residents to the Rathbun Rural Water System (Rathbun Water Company).

Allison, Rodger. 1999b. Conversation between Rodger Allison of the IAAAP Plant Protection Office and ERG, regarding August 4, 1998 sampling event and data. April 27, 1999.

Allison, Rodger. 1999c. Conversation between Rodger Allison of the IAAAP Plant Protection Office and ERG, regarding ATSDR public comment responses. November 23, 1999

ARDL. 1998. ARDL, Inc., Mt. Vernon, Illinois. Lab Report No: 005124. (Obtained by W. Mark Weber, ATSDR). Report Date: August, 14, 1998.

Army. 1988. Department of the Army, U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency. Review of Draft Endangerment Assessment Iowa Army Ammunitions Plant (IAAAP). November 28, 1988.

ATSDR. 1996. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Health Consultation: Sunflower Army Ammunition Plant (SFAAP) DeSoto, Kansas. February 27, 1996.

ATSDR. 1998. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Site Visit. Iowa Army Ammunition Plant, Middletown, Iowa. May 1998.

CDM. 1996. CDM Federal Programs Corporation. Action Memorandum For the Line 800 Pinkwater Lagoon, Former Line 1 Impoundment at the Iowa Army Ammunition Plant Middletown, Iowa. October 1996.

CDM. 1997. CDM Federal Programs Corporation. Action Memorandum for the Inert Landfill at the Iowa Army Ammunitions Plant. September 1997.

Center for Environmental Restoration Systems. 1995a. Plant Uptake of Explosives from Contaminated Soil by Existing Vegetation at the Iowa Army Ammunition Plant. April 1995.

Center for Environmental Restoration Systems. 1995b. Plant Uptake of Explosives from Contaminated Soil at the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant. April 1995.

Checkai, R.T., and M. Simini, 1996. Phytophysiological Response of Crops to Irrigation Waters Containing Low Concentrations of RDX and TNT: Ecotoxicological Implications. Summary Digest of the 20th Army Science Conference Science and Technology Force XXI. 24-27 June 1998. Norfolk, Virginia.

Dames and Moore. 1989. Endangerment Assessment Iowa Army Ammunitions Plant: Former Line 1 Impoundment and Line 800 Pinkwater Lagoon. U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency.

DOE. 1999. U.S. Department of Energy. Fact Sheet for the U.S. Department of Energy Open House Posters Sessions Dec. 1- 2 on Former Atomic Energy Commission Burlington Plant Operations. City Hall Council Chambers, Burlington, Iowa.

Engineered Efficiency. 1996. Soils Focused Feasibility Study Draft Final. November 1, 1996.

Engineered Efficiency. 1997. Feasibility Study for Operable Unit 1: Contaminated Soils. Draft Final. November 10, 1997.

Environmental Research Group, Inc. 1982. Contamination Survey Iowa Army Ammunition Plant. September 17, 1982.

EPA. 1991. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region VII to Iowa Army Ammunitions Plant Regarding comments on the following reports: Installation Assessment, Contamination Survey, Follow-on Study, and Endangerment Assessment. March 11, 1991.

EPA. 1997. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. IRIS substance File. Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). March 1, 1997.

Hicks, L. 1999. Letter from Linda L. Hicks of American Ordnance LLC to Rodger Allison of Iowa Army Ammunition Plant, regarding a request for information pertaining to on-site drinking water wells. March 30, 1999.

IAAAP. 1999. Iowa Army Ammunition Plant. FY99 Installation Action Plan for Iowa Army Ammunition Plant Located in Middletown Iowa. February 25, 1999.

JAYCOR. 1994. JAYCOR Environmental and ICAIR Life Systems, Inc. Baseline Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment Iowa Army Ammunitions Plant Middletown, Iowa Former Line 1 Impoundment and Pinkwater Lagoon. June 1, 1994.

JAYCOR. 1996. JAYCOR and ICAIR Life Systems, Inc. Remedial Investigation/Risk Assessment Iowa Army Ammunitions Plant Revised Draft Final. 11 Volumes. May 21, 1996.

Marquess, S. 1997. Supplemental Groundwater Remedial Investigation Report Iowa Army Ammunitions Plant, Middletown, Iowa. Draft. 1997.

Mason and Hanger Corporation. 1997. Report of the FY97 First Cycle Monitoring of Installation Restoration Program (IRP) Wells, Iowa Army Ammunitions Plant. August 21, 1997.

McCarley, T. 1998. TNT Byproduct Wastewater: New Process. Hazardous Technical Information Services. September-October 1998.

O&M. 1998. O&M Modification to D.O.#1 1998 Section 1801 Site Operations & Maintenance Plan. June 24, 1998.

OHM Remediation Services Corp. 1996. Draft Final report for Contract No. DACW45-94-d-0005 Rapid Response, Omaha District Iowa Army Ammunition Plant Removal Actions. January 8, 1996.

Plant Protection Office. 1998. Letters from the IAAP Plant Protection Office to local residents, summaries of Analytical Results, and copies of the ARDL, Inc., Lab Reports, all regarding the August 4, 1998 sampling results of private wells.

Public Comment Responses. 1999. Public Comment Responses Received from the Iowa Army Ammunition Plant Public Health Assessment. Public Comment Period ending October 31, 1999. Author's name withheld for confidentiality reasons; complete record of public comments in ATSDR archives.

Shugart, L.R., W.H. Griest, E. Tan, C. Guzman, J.E. Caton, C.H. Ho, and B.A. Tomkins. TNT Metabolites in Animal Tissues, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Final Report. ORNL/M-1336. December, 1990.

USAEC. 1995. U.S. Army Environmental Center. Iowa Army Ammunition Plant: Proposed Soil Remediation. Meeting Handout. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. 21010-5401. June, 1995.

USAEC. 1996. U.S. Army Environmental Center. Plant Uptake of RDX and TNT Utilizing Site Specific Criteria for the Cornhusker Army Ammunition Plant (CHAAP), Nebraska. Final Report. April 10, 1996.

U.S. Census. 1990. 1990 Census of Population and Housing - Des Moines County, Iowa. http://govinfo.library.orst.edu/cgi-bin/buildit?3s-057.iac.

Whaley, J.E. and G. Leach. 1994. Health Risk Assessment for Consumption of Deer Muscle and Liver from Joliet Army Ammunition Plant, Joliet, Illinois. U.S. Army Environmental Hygiene Agency (HSHB-MO-T). 75-51-YF23. June 10, 1994.


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