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REFERENCES CITED

ACGIH. see American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.

Aggazzotti, G., G.Fantuzzi, G. Predieri, et al. 1994. Indoor exposure to perchloroethylene (PCE) in individuals living with dry-cleaning workers. Sci Total Environ 156:133-137, as cited in Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry, 1997.

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. 1996. 1996 Threshold limit values for chemical substances and physical agents and biological exposure indices.

ATSDR. 1997. Toxicological Profile for Tetrachloroethylene (Update). Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry. September 1997.

ATSDR. 1996. Public Health Assessment: West Site How Corners/Plymouth, Penobscot County, Maine/CERCLIS No. MED985466168. Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry October 18, 1996.

Bove, F.J., et al. 1995. Public Drinking water contamination and birth outcomes. Am J Epidemiol, 141(9):850-862.

EPA. 1995a. Federal On-Scene Coordinator's Report; Hows Corner (West) Site; Phase II--Alternate Water Supply; Plymouth, Maine. United States Environmental Protection Agency. December 1995.

EPA. 1995b. HRS Documentation Record; West Site/Hows Corners; Region I. United States Environmental Protection Agency. January 26, 1995, including Maine Department of Environmental Protection Environmental Sampling Data citations (1987-1993).

EPA. 1996a. Memorandum - Hows Corner Site, Plymouth, Maine. United States Environmental Protection Agency. July 9, 1996.

EPA. 1996b. Memorandum - Hows Corner Site, Plymouth, Maine. United States Environmental Protection Agency. December 5, 1996.

EPA. 1997a. Draft - Residential and Monitoring Wells Sampling Results.

EPA. 1997b. Meeting with EPA Remedial Project Manager for the West/Hows Corner site. August 3, 1997.

GEOMET. 1982. Energy use, infiltration, and indoor air quality in tight, well insulated residences: Characterization of test site and facilities. Contract RP-2042. Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA.

IRIS. 1997. Integrated Risk Information System. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH. 1997.

Jo, W.K., C.P. Weisel, and P.J. Lioy. 1990. Routes of chloroform exposure and body burden from showering with chlorinated tap water. Risk Analysis. 10 (4): 575-80, December, 1990.

Lagakos, S.W., B.J. Wessen, M. Zelen. 1986. An analysis of contaminated well water and health effects in Woburn, Massachusetts. J. Am. Statistical Association 81:583-596, as cited in Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry ATSDR, 1997.

MDPH. See Massachusetts Department of Public Health.

MEDEP. See Maine Department of Environmental Protection.

Maine Department of Environmental Protection. 1993. Final Expanded Site Inspection for West Site Hows Corners; Plymouth, Maine. December 3, 1993.

Massachusetts Department of Public Health. 1996. Woburn childhood leukemia follow-up study. Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Bureau of Environmental Health Assessment. 1996.

Tichenor, B.A., L.E. Sparks, M.D. Jackson, et al. 1990. Emissions of perchloroethylene from dry cleaned fabrics. Atmospheric Environment. 24A(5):1219-1229, as cited in Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry ATSDR, 1997.

United States Environmental Protection Agency. See EPA.

Weisel C.P. and W.K. Jo. 1996. Ingestion, inhalation, and dermal exposures to chloroform and trichloroethene from tap water. Environ Health Perspect. 104(1):48-51. January 1996.

Weston Geophysical Corporation. 1990. Geotechnical Investigation, Phase II Subsurface Investigations, Plymouth, Maine. Volume 1. March 1990.

DOCUMENTS REVIEWED

Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry. Health Consultation: Evaluation of Soil Samples, Hows Corner Site, Plymouth, Maine. October 22, 1990.

Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry. Memorandum - Addendum to Memo of October 22, 1990, Hows Corner Site, Plymouth, Maine. January 7, 1991.

Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Trichloroethylene (Update). September 1997.

Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry. Record of Activity. October 13, 1995.

Bangor Daily News. EPA, DEP comment on Plymouth water investigation. September 12, 1997.

United States Environmental Protection Agency. Memorandum - Request for Health Assessment, Hows Corner Site, Plymouth, Maine. October 3, 1990.

United States Environmental Protection Agency. Compendium of body burden biomarkers for volatile organic compounds and halogenated hydrocarbons. EPA/600/X-93/082. Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory. Las Vegas, Nevada. 1993.

United States Environmental Protection Agency. Clean Drinking Water Reaches 33 Homes in Plymouth. April 29, 1994.

United States Environmental Protection Agency. EPA Proposes Adding West Site Hows Corner in Plymouth, ME to Superfund National Priorities List. February 13, 1995.

Hazardous Substances database (HSDB) Tetrachloroethylene. National Library of Medicine, National Toxicology Program, Bethesda, MD. November 1997.

Maine Department of Environmental Protection. 1989a. Memorandum - Multi-Site Cooperative Agreement, EPA I.D. No. V001715017; Submission of Preliminary Assessment. June 26, 1989.

Maine Department of Environmental Protection. 1989b. Memorandum - Site Inspection Report, West Site/Hows Corner; Plymouth, Penobscot County, Maine. September 28, 1989.

Plymouth Water Authority. 1994. Record Service Connections.

Portland Press Herald. 1995. Plymouth Site Proposed for Superfund. February 15, 1995.

Weston Geophysical Corporation. 1988. Geotechnical Investigations; Plymouth, Maine; Phase I - Site Assessment. September 1988.

Weston Geophysical Corporation. 1993. Memorandum - Chronology of Events to Contact Residents. April 30, 1993.

TABLES

Table 1.

West/Hows Corner Site, Plymouth, MaineMaximum Contaminant Concentrations in Residential Wells October 1987 to December 1993
Contaminant Range of Detected Concentrations (ppb) ATSDR Comparison Value or MCL (ppb)
Tetrachloroethylene ND to 3,8801 5
Trichloroethylene

ND to 125

5

Source: EPA, 1995b

1In the absence of historical data (1968-1988), ATSDR concluded that the average PCE concentration (760 ppb) measured in the most contaminated well during this sampling period is a reasonable and conservative estimate of conditions for the 1968-1988 time period.

Key: ND = not detected; ppb = parts per billion; MCL = EPA's Maximum Contaminant Level

Table 2.

West/Hows Corner Site, Plymouth, MaineMaximum Contaminant Concentrations in Residential Wells November 1996 to July 1997
Contaminant Range of DetectedConcentrations
(ppb)
Number of Detections/Number of Samples ATSDR Comparison Value or MCL (ppb)
Tetrachloroethylene ND to 3571 10/70 5
Trichloroethylene ND to 112

2/70

5

1,1,1-Trichloroethane

ND to 193

3/70

200

Source: EPA, 1996a, 1996b, and 1997a

1Maximum detection in one well on a vacant lot. Maximum detection of PCE in residential well in use during sampling events was 150 ppb.
2Maximum detection in one well on a vacant lot. No TCE detected in wells being used in 1996 and 1997.
3Detected in a well on a vacant lot.
Key: ND = not detected; ppb = parts per billion; MCL = EPA's Maximum Contaminant Level

Table 3.

West/Hows Corner Site, Plymouth, Maine PCE Exposure Doses and Health Guidelines for Drinking Water.
Ingestion Dose
(mg/kg/day)
ATSDR Health Guidelines
(mg/kg/day)
Short-term (Acute MRL) Long-term
(Chronic RfD)
Does it exceed health guidelines?
Possible Exposures from 1968 to 1988 1
Adult

0.02

0.05

0.01

Yes

Children

0.05

0.05

0.01

Yes

Possible Exposures from 1994 to 1996 2

Adult

0.004

0.05

0.01

No

Children

0.009

0.05

0.01

No

1 Assumes exposure to 760 ppb PCE in drinking water over a 20-year period.
2 Assumes exposure to 150 ppb PCE in drinking water over a 2-year period.

MRL = Minimum Risk Level
RfD = Reference Dose
mg/kg/day = milligrams per kilogram per day

 

Table 4.

West/Hows Corner Site, Plymouth, Maine
Estimated Concentrations and Health Guidelines for Inhalation (1994 to 1996).1
Contaminant Estimated Concentration (ppm) ATSDR Health Guidelines (ppm)
Short-term
(Acute MRL)
Long-term
(Chronic MRL)
Does it exceed health guidelines?
Tetrachloroethylene

0.005

0.2

0.04

No

1 Assumes exposure to 150 ppb PCE in water over a 2-year period.
ppm = parts per million
MRL = Minimum Risk Level

 

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