MARION COUNTY LANDFILL
FARMINGTON, MARION COUNTY, WEST VIRGINIA
STATEMENT OF ISSUES
In response to the petition of a resident of the Idamay community, West Virginia Department of Health and Human Resources (WVDHHR) evaluated available Marion County Landfill site information to determine whether exposure to contaminated site media is occurring, has occurred in the past, and whether a health threat is present. The petitioner was concerned about the incidence of multiple sclerosis, aneurisms, and various forms of cancer in the Idamay community
SITE LOCATION AND TOPOGRAPHY
The Marion County (Idamay) Landfill is an inactive sanitary landfill which occupies about 30 acres of a 232-acre plot of land. The facility is located approximately north to northeast of the Idamay community, approximately 0.7 mile south of Farmington, and east of West Virginia Route 218 (Figures 1 and 2). It is geographically situated at latitude 39º30'21" North and longitude -80º14'39" West.
The site is almost completely bordered by undeveloped properties and woodlands, and is located almost wholly within a valley formed by an unnamed tributary to Buffalo Creek (Pigott 1993b). The valley trends northeast to southwest. In general, the property is of sloping and irregular topography.
SITE OWNERSHIP & OPERATIONS HISTORY
Currently, the Marion County Solid Waste Authority (MCSWA) privately owns and maintains the landfill. The Marion County Landfill began operations in 1974 (Furbee et al. 1995). MCSWA received the initial 10-year permit for the landfill on February 2, 1975 for municipal and non-hazardous industrial waste disposal. Operations as a Class 'B' Sanitary Landfill began on June 21, 1976. Average daily tonnage for the original disposal area was 250 tons/day compared to a permitted 9,999 tons/month for the entire landfill.
The land was formerly used by the Bethlehem Mines Corporation (later the Industrial Collieries Corporation), the mining subsidiary of the Bethlehem Steel Corporation, and former mine owners. Bethlehem Mines conducted bituminous coal mining in West Virginia.
Early landfill construction efforts did not require installation of an artificial lining due to the underlying thick clay subsurface layer beneath the site, as well as the non-hazardous nature of incoming municipal and industrial waste.
Operational areas of the landfill (Figures 3 and 4) consisted of a leachate collection, storage system and pretreatment system; and several sediment ponds. The sediment ponds were a part of a storm water management system consisting of sediment ponds A, B, E, F, G, and H and Sedimentation Basin No. 1 (NUS 1985). Ponds A, B, E, and H were used to monitor National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) discharges. Further information on Ponds F and G was not available.
The leachate collection, storage and pretreatment system comprised an under-drain collection system, French drains, and three composite lined leachate storage ponds "C1", "C2" and "D", connected in series. The entire leachate treatment/storage facility is fenced. According to the 2001 West Virginia Division of Environmental Protection (WV DEP) Permit for the Marion County Landfill, the sedimentation basins discharge treated storm water into an unnamed tributary of Buffalo Creek. According to West Virginia Division of Natural Resources (WVDNR) and WVDEP records, the landfill disposed of leachate and storm water runoff by spraying the material back onto unlined areas of the landfill from 1987 until 1992.
Monitoring wells (MW1, MW2, MW3, and MW4) were drilled and installed at the site during the summer of 1994. Up-gradient well 1 (MW1) was later re-drilled (as Well -1R) to a greater depth. Monitoring well elevations ranged from 1106.40 feet (Well 2) to 1365.83 feet (Well 1) (Pigott 1993b). Wells range in total depth of 61 to 377 feet (Moses 1995).
Most of the solid waste was spread on or near unconsolidated rock strata (Pigott 1993a). According to the Site Inspection (SI) Report published by NUS Corporation on March 25, 1985, there were three waste disposal areas at the site (Figure 3).
- The smallest of these areas is a 5-acre, unlined parcel of land (Old Landfill Area) located northeast of the main landfill). It is an inactive, leveled property that supports vegetation and slopes sharply on three sides. This area constitutes the original parcel of land used for waste disposal from 1976 to a period prior to 1979 when reclamation procedures were partially instituted (NUS 1985). Prior to this, Bethlehem mines used the original landfill property as a mine dump. The mine dump contains: refuse from the former Idamay coal mine, loading tipple, as well as coal processing and cleaning materials. Coal combustion waste reportedly burned many times both before and during the operation of the landfill (Straight 1982). Other combustible materials disposed at the site included waste glass bulbs, fluorescent tubes, and headlights (Leon 1981).
- The old active portion is a 10-acre vegetated plot that lies adjacent to and southwest of the main landfill. The SI Report describes this area as a single-lined, wooded hilltop area, consisting of cover materials such as recycled mine refuse, shale, and clay.
- The main portion of the landfill is approximately 15 acres in size, and occupies a steep slope central to the 'inactive' and the 'old active' portions of the site. It slopes steeply southeast toward a relatively level area along the toe of the landfill. The area along the toe is about 100 feet wide and separates the woods from the landfill. A leachate collection trench runs along the toe of the landfill and discharges to a leachate/runoff collection pond at the base of the inactive area. The volume and depth of the landfill wastes are unknown (NUS 1985).
Early maps of the site show that asbestos was disposed of on the northwestern portion of the property. It is unknown whether the disposal of asbestos is associated with landfill operations at the site or previous dumping activities.
Around 1993, plans were underway to expand the facility to include a 37.4-acre composite lined area. The MCSWA was authorized to operate a temporary transfer station and a temporary storage area at the Marion County Landfill during the expansion. Permission to operate these facilities was rescinded effective April 18, 1995, and the landfill was ordered to cease and desist accepting waste for disposal on the single-lined portions of the landfill no later than January 1, 1996 (Robertson 1995, CCMC 1996). The landfill was covered but not capped prior to closing for business on January 1, 1996 (DEP 2001, MCSWA 2001). The decision was later made to permanently cease all activity effective May 17, 1996, and to transfer non-hazardous municipal solid waste to approved disposal facilities both within and out-of-state.
After the May 17th closure, the WV DEP Landfill Closure Assistance Program (LCAP) directed installation of a perforated drain above the base of the final disposal site. LCAP managed the capping and re-vegetation of the final disposal area, which had been cleared in preparation for development of a composite liner disposal site. The site is scheduled for official closure, and is subject to periodic inspections and visits by both WVDEP regulatory inspectors and the MCSWA site manager. Deed restrictions proposed for this property will restrict future land use for residential purposes.
Over its operational history, the Marion County Landfill was authorized to receive several types of waste: municipal, residential, construction/demolition debris, agricultural, commercial, non-hazardous industrial, non-municipal incinerator ash, sludge, waste tires (split, shredded, quartered), and petroleum contaminated soil. Provisions were also in place to receive solid waste disposal products from West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Maryland (DEP 1995).
In the early 1980's, the landfill was one of the few industrial waste facilities in a six-county area (Straight 1984). Waste disposed during this period included: foundry sand, graphite and silica dusts from a battery manufacturer, phosphorus and zirconium getter, coal and oil shale fines, fly ash, settling pond solids from a heavy equipment manufacturer, lead glass melting furnace material, wood, rubber, light bulbs, paper, and gasoline contaminated soils. (Getter is a term used to describe any one of a number of rare earth metals put inside vacuum tubes to absorb stray electrons.) Previous WV DEP inspection reports indicate that spent motor oil and diesel fuel spilled onto site soil.
The landfill had numerous violations of environmental laws and regulations. Some of the violations include leachate discharge to state waters, inadequate daily cover, and inadequate vector control (WVDEP 1994). The area beneath the landfill showed signs of erosion (NUS 1985).
WV DHHR toured the site and nearby businesses with personnel from the WVDEP, local health department officials, and members of the MCSWA on August 15, 2002. WVDHHR District Engineers conducted follow-up site vicinity visits in support of the investigation. Observations made during the physical inspection of the site are detailed below.
Access to the site is controlled by the MCSWA; however, there is no peripheral fencing or onsite security. A locked gate at the paved road leading to the landfill prevents full-size vehicular access. Access on foot is fairly easy along the road leading up to and around the gate.
There is a steep slope just outside of the main site entrance in an old mine dump area. The overlaying soil eroded due to natural weather conditions, but vegetation thrives in surrounding areas. In some areas, erosion is so intense as to result in soil slipping to lower lying areas along the road. A diversion ditch feeds a culvert that runs from the base of the hill beneath the paved surface to the other side of the road. Dried vegetative debris lines the edge of the culvert. This area has an "intermediate covering of recycled mine refuse" (NUS 1985).
Once within the site boundaries, access to solid waste management units and sediment ponds and most leachate ponds is unrestricted. A six-foot chain link fence with a locking gate surrounds Ponds C and D, but the other pond areas are easily accessible by foot. The fences were secure and in good condition at the time of the site visit; however, historical records indicate that there were periods when the gate to the fence was not secure (DEP 2000).
Mixed vegetation covers most portions of the site. No evidence of casual trespassing (e.g., people, litter, or campsites) was observed during a unit visit. However, All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) tracks through wooded areas, up and down hillsides, and across the Old Landfill Area suggested that trespassing for recreational purposes might occur on a more frequent basis and by alternative routes. Intruders accessing the site may negotiate heavily wooded areas, sloping areas, and areas with unstable soil as they traverse the site. No physical hazards, such as old waste disposal equipment and scattered debris, were noted at the site.
The foundation for former office, scale house, and shower facilities are located just above the entrance on the southwestern portion of the site. No employees currently work at the site; all potable water previously used at the site was supplied by public sources.
DEMOGRAPHICS, LAND USE, AND NATURAL RESOURCE USE
According to the 2001 census estimates, Marion County has 56,373 persons (CB 2000). Approximately 590 persons populate the unincorporated town of Idamay, eighty-five percent of whom of Idamay is under the age of sixty-five; 155 are nineteen years old or younger.
Off-Site Land Use
Residential, agricultural, recreational, industrial, and commercial properties comprise the area within 5 miles of the site. There are approximately 114 homes within a 0.5-mile radius of the site.
Two rural roads, Thompson Dairy Road (County Route [CR]15-5) and Mill Fall Run Road (CR54) terminate at the southern edge of the property owned by the MCSWA. The Marion County 4-H Camp, on 4-H Camp Road (CR54-3), is located to the southeast about 0.67 mile from the closest point of the landfill. Small tracts of farmland are also located southeast of the site. There is a small rural community of about 30 homes within 0.5 mile to the west of the landfill along Bessie Ann Hill Road (CR15-11).
There is one commercial building less than 0.25 mile from the entrance of the site. Drulane Company, adjacent to Landfill Access Road, manufactures linen-ware. A former BP station and the current Exxon gas station are located about 0.5 mile (2640 feet) from the landfill at the intersection of WV Route 218 and US Route 250. Other businesses within 0.5 mile of the landfill include Dents Funeral Home, Farmington Waste Water Treatment Plant #3 (discharging), and Farmington Waste Water Treatment Plant #7 (non-discharging).
Surface Water Drainage and Fishing Natural Resources
There are no streams within the boundary of the landfill. Offsite surface drainage from the landfill flows into an intermittent stream which flows through a wooded area in a northeasterly direction (away from Idamay) toward Buffalo Creek. Buffalo Creek flows west to east and joins the Monongahela River near the Fairmont Waste Water Treatment Plant. The nearest public water intake downstream is in an adjoining county in the City of Morgantown, approximately 25-35 river miles downstream of the landfill site. No residents are located in the surface drainage area between the landfill and Buffalo Creek. The site is not in the 100-year or 500-year floodplain.
Numerous springs and seeps exist on the eastern hillsides of Idamay. There is a City Park in the area with a number of springs and seeps. However, it is unknown whether the springs and seeps in the City Park could be hydrogeologically connected to the contaminated groundwater beneath the Marion County Landfill site.
According to the Division of Natural Resources (DNR) (Division #1) office, small-scale recreational fishing in Buffalo Creek is a common practice for children and adult residents in the area. There is no current or historic evidence to suggest that Buffalo Creek has ever been used as a potable or domestic source of water.
REGIONAL GEOLOGY/HYDROGEOLOGY BENEATH THE SITE
The predominant geologic formation beneath the site is the Monongahela Group, which consists of Waynesburg, Pittsburgh and Sewickley Coal seams (USDA 1992). Lithologic layers associated with the Monongahela that are common throughout the Central Allegheny Plateau include shale, limestone, sandstone and coal (Bowders et al. 1993). The geology at and near the site is primarily sandstone (NUS 1985). Pittsburgh Coal (approx. 7.5 ft. thick) underlying the site has been extensively deep mined using the room and pillar method and retreat mining during the late 1940's (Bowders et al. 1993). Based on the Pittsburgh coal seam structure map, coal bed elevations occur approximately 695 feet beneath the landfill and about 675 feet beneath the town. The extent of subsidence of the overlying rock strata above these mines and the amount of vertical fractures is unknown (Bowders et al. 1993). However, fracturing may result in the movement of groundwater to lower cavities, and possibly into abandoned deep mines (Chappell 1986; Martin 1986).
No published hydrogeologic information specific to the site was located. The conclusions regarding hydrogeologic conditions are, therefore, based on advisement of accepted hydrologic and geologic principals and local observations. The flow of ground water is subject to elevation. The surface elevation of the landfill is approximately 1,240 feet compared with about 1,180 feet for the town of Idamay. However, surface water from the Marion County Landfill drains into Buffalo Creek, not towards the town of Idamay.
To determine whether residents in the vicinity of the Marion County Landfill currently own and use private wells, local health officials, WVDHHR Source Water Program, and local public water suppliers were contacted. Records of four wells within a 0.5-mile radius of the site were located. Currently, none of the wells within this area is a source of potable water for human consumption as residents are serviced by municipal sources in the area. Three of the wells were abandoned in the past; one well serves as an agricultural resource and not as a source of drinking water. The depths of these wells ranged from approximately 60-120 feet, and are not deep enough to have penetrated old mines in the area which are about 475 feet deep. A resident at the end of Thompson Dairy Road confirmed use of private well water until 1996. Currently, any available private well water in the Idamay area is used for washing cars and for recreational use in swimming pools.
During the 1985 site investigation, seven (7) aqueous and five (5) solid samples were collected (NUS 1985). The Site Inspection Report recorded elevations of several inorganic compounds in leachate aqueous samples, including antimony, thallium, mercury, lead, and cyanide. Water and sediment samples collected from surface water flows at the Marion County Landfill revealed low level of chlorinated aliphatic compounds, polycyclic and monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, simple phenols, ketones, and a limited number and quantity of other related pollutants (NUS 1985).
Available water quality and fish sampling data were evaluated during the current investigation. Table 1 summarizes maximum detected concentrations, applicable comparison, frequency of detection, and frequency of detection above comparison values for Marion County Landfill site sampling locations. Table 2 contains toxicity values used in determining the potential for health effects.
ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH SCREENING CRITERIA
As a preliminary step in assessing the potential health risks associated with contaminants at this site, we compared contaminant concentrations to health assessment comparison (HAC) values. HAC values are media-specific contaminant concentrations that are used to screen contaminants for further evaluation. Non-cancer HAC values are called environmental media evaluation guides (EMEGs) or reference dose media evaluation guides (RMEGs). These values are respectively based on ATSDR's minimal risk levels (MRLs) or EPA's reference doses (RfDs). Cancer risk evaluation guides (CREGs) are based on EPA's chemical specific cancer slope factors and an estimated excess lifetime cancer risk of one-in-one-million persons exposed for a lifetime. The HAC values are based upon standard exposure assumptions.
In some instances where water was involved, we compared contaminant concentrations in water to EPA's maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). MCLs are chemical-specific maximum concentrations allowed in water delivered to the users of a public water system; they are protective of public health over a lifetime (70 years) of exposure at an ingestion rate of two liters per day. MCLs are based on available technology and economic feasibility. Although MCLs only apply to public water supply systems, we often use them to help assess the public health implications of contaminants found in water from other sources.
While exceeding a HAC value does not necessarily mean that a contaminant represents a public health threat, it does suggest that the contaminant warrants further consideration.
CONTAMINANT SCREENING RESULTS
Inorganic metals found in surface water sampling locations across the Marion County Landfill site included: arsenic, boron, cadmium, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, vanadium, and zinc. The only semi-volatile organic chemicals identified in surface water at the site were bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and chlordane. Volatile organic substances included: chloroethane, chloromethane, trichloroethylene, and BTEX chemicals - benzene, ethylbenzene, and toluene. These chemicals were found in surface water at concentrations that exceeded environmental comparison values.
Surface water sampling locations included upstream and downstream sampling points, sediment ponds, leachate storage ponds, leachate drain, AMD (acid mine drainage) seep, and 8-inch PVC Pipe, as designated in Table 1.
Inorganic metals found in ground water sampling locations across the Marion County Landfill site included: arsenic, barium, boron, cadmium, chromium, iron, lead, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, and vanadium. Cyanide was the only inorganic non-metal found in ground water.
Chloromethane was the only volatile organic chemical identified in ground water at the site. These chemicals were found in ground water at concentrations that exceeded environmental comparison values. Ground water sampling locations included all wells listed in Table 1.
EXPOSURE PATHWAY ANALYSIS
An exposure pathway analysis was conducted to determine the past, present, and future potential for residents of the town of Idamay, or persons living around the site, to be exposed to levels of chemicals in private wells or community supply wells that might produce adverse health effects. Environmental and human components that lead to exposure include the following elements: (1) a source of contamination; (2) transport through an environmental medium (e.g., air, soil, water); (3) a point of human exposure; (4) a route of human exposure, and (5) a receptor population.
Exposure to, or contact with, chemical contaminants drive the ATSDR public health assessment and health consultation processes. The release or disposal of chemical contaminants into the environment does not always result in exposure or contact. Chemicals only have the potential to cause adverse health effects if people actually contact them. People are exposed to chemicals by breathing (inhalation), eating or drinking (ingestion) a substance containing the contaminant, or by skin (dermal) contact. In direct pathways, a person is exposed to the medium to which the chemical was released. In indirect pathways, a person is exposed to a different medium than the one to which the chemical was released.
When people contact chemicals, exposure does not always result in adverse health effects. The type and severity of health effects that may occur in an individual from contact with contaminants depend on the toxicologic properties of the contaminants; how much of the contaminant to which the individual is exposed; how often and/or how long exposure is allowed to occur; the manner in which the contaminant enters or contacts the body (breathing, eating, drinking, or skin/eye contact); and the number of contaminants to which an individual is exposed (combinations of contaminants). The chemical must reach the target organ susceptible to the toxic effects caused by that particular substance at a sufficient dose and for a sufficient exposure time for an adverse health effect to occur. Once exposure occurs, characteristics such as age, sex, nutritional status, genetics, life style, and health status of the exposed individual influence how the individual absorbs, distributes, metabolizes, and excretes the contaminant. These factors and characteristics influence whether exposure to a contaminant could or would result in adverse health effects.
A complete exposure pathway consists of all five of the above elements and indicates that exposure has occurred in the past, is presently occurring, or will occur in the future. Potential pathways exist where exposure might have occurred, may be occurring, or could occur. They lack one or more of the five elements. Incomplete pathways are eliminated from further analysis because one of the five elements is missing and will never be present, or because no contaminants of concern can be identified. No complete or potential exposure pathways were identified for this site.
Eliminated Exposure Pathways
Soil, soil gas, and air pathways were considered but could not be quantitatively evaluated because there was no data available. Although children and adults residing in the neighborhoods nearest to or beyond the Marion County Landfill could access the site for recreational purposes, irregular or infrequent visits to the site are unlikely to result in multiple exposures to affected media. The likelihood of exposure to contaminated soil is further limited by capping and vegetation. Similarly, the vapor management system reduces the potential for exposure to contaminants in soil gas and air. Based on these considerations, these are unlikely to be significant exposure routes at this site and were not considered further.
The possibility that contamination might have migrated into the un-named tributary and ultimately impacted fish in Buffalo Creek was evaluated as part of this Public Health Consultation. Based on a review of the limited historical fish data (1 sampling event in 1984), there is no indication that site contaminants have impacted fish in Buffalo Creek. Furthermore, there is no indication that fishermen regularly fish in Buffalo Creek. Based on these considerations, it is unlikely that this is a pathway of concern at the site.
Ground Water Pathway
Water from onsite ground water monitoring wells is not used for domestic or industrial purposes. These wells were also never used as a source of drinking water for former site workers. Although there are no barriers around onsite monitoring wells, access to water from these wells is not likely for visitors or trespassers to the site. It is further unlikely that onsite monitoring wells would serve as an alternate source of drinking water since local residents are serviced by public water supply systems in the area.
Surface Water Pathway
Incidental ingestion or skin contact with contaminants in surface water was considered for the trespasser scenario. Four types of surface water were evaluated for the site: surface water from leachate storage ponds, AMD seep, leachate drain, and the unnamed stream which is a tributary to Buffalo Creek. Exposure to leachate pond, seep and leachate drain were eliminated due to the low likelihood that trespassers would swim or wade in ponded areas. Moreover, seep waters were less likely to be present in sufficient quantities to facilitate recreational activities. Drainage to the unnamed stream is pre-treated and would likely be further diluted at the point of discharge. The downstream sampling point on the unnamed stream which flows adjacent to the landfill disposal area toward Buffalo Creek is believed to be intermittent in nature. Coupled with the infrequent nature of visits to the site by trespassers and limited discharge of waters from the inactive landfill, there appeared to be no potential for trespassers to swim, or wade in surface waters at the site.
Dermal exposure to chemicals found at this site are not likely to pose significant harm to public health. The uptake of inorganic chemicals through the skin from surface water is primarily limited to compounds dissolved in water. While water-soluble metals are absorbed at higher rates than insoluble ones, the penetration rate of water through the skin is slow. Seep and stream samples primarily contained heavy metals, which are more likely to adsorb to sediments than remain suspended in water.
Although hazardous chemicals were detected at levels above ATSDR comparison values, residential populations near the Marion County Landfill site would theoretically have to sustain daily exposure to the maximum concentration of each of the chemicals of concern found in media at the site for 70 years in order to suffer an increased lifetime risk of cancer. Daily exposure to site contaminants under these conditions is not likely for most residents.
The petitioner cited awareness of cancer cases in the Idamay community diagnosed between 1960 and 1980, about five to ten cases of multiple sclerosis, and other reports of aneurisms. Currently, there is no known connection between aneurisms or multiple sclerosis and hazardous chemical exposure. While mining activities and a local mine dump have predated landfill operations during these periods, there is no evidence to suggest an environmental impact relative to community concerns.
The most recent data from the West Virginia Cancer Registry indicates that 31 cases of cancer were diagnosed in Idamay between 1993 and 2001. Eight of reported cases of cancer in Idamay, WV were breast cancer, 7 were lung cancer, and 4 were colorectal cancers. There was no evidence of a cancer cluster for any type in this area of Marion County for the specified period. In addition, the West Virginia Vital Records show no deaths from multiple sclerosis in Idamay between 1989 to 2001.
Because of their physical vulnerability and small body size, infants and children are often assumed to be more susceptible to potentially toxic effects of chemicals in the environment. Their developing body systems can sustain permanent damage if toxic exposures occur during critical stages of growth and development. Scientific studies support the notion that susceptibility clearly depends on the chemical and on the exposure situation. Although these differences are chemical-specific, infants and children are a unique population and were considered in this health consultation.
- The Marion County Landfill site poses No Public Health Hazard for past, present, or future residential groundwater/surface water use scenarios. There is No Apparent Public Health Hazard for past worker and current intermittent visitor exposure to soil, soil gas, and air. Although no soil, soil gas, or air monitoring data have been collected at the site, there are no indications that migration of VOC vapors from groundwater through soil into the ambient air above the site has occurred. Moreover, the presence of an on-site gas collection system was expected to reduce or eliminate aboveground exposures.
- According to the West Virginia Cancer Registry, cancer incidence in the Idamay Community between 1993 and 2001 appears to be consistent with what would be expected. The cancers observed are of the types usually seen in West Virginia. There does not appear to be an elevation in the rates of the rare types of cancers usually observed in cancer clusters.
- In the past, Idamay Community residents using private wells may have been exposed to levels of contaminants above the standards for drinking water. However, based on the data reviewed, it does not appear likely that local residents were exposed to significant concentrations of chemical agents which would result in adverse health outcomes.
- The WVDHHR recommends no further investigation of ground water impacts and of cancer incidence in the Idamay community at this time.
- The WVDHHR recommends continued restriction of site access by the MCSWA.
- The WVDHHR has conducted a site visit and meeting with local officials, site operators, and the petitioner.
- The WVDHHR will review any additional environmental sampling data for the Marion County Landfill, as it becomes available, at the request of local officials and Idamay community residents.
- The WVDHHR will remain available to answer any questions that the community may have pertaining to the site.
- Bowders JJ, Gabr MA, Hunter T-J, Mooney DT. 1993. Subsidence Impact of Idealized Mine Cavities on Landfill Liner, Future Disposal Area, Marion County Landfill. Report prepared for George E. Pigott & Associates, Inc.
- Chappell GA. 1986. Notes to File: Geologic comments on the Marion County Sanitary Landfill. WV Division of Natural Resources (DNR), February 25.
- Circuit Court of Marion County (CCMC). 1996. Opinion Order: Marion County Solid Waste Authority (Plaintiff), Civil Action No. 94-C-183 versus G. Maxwell Robertson, Chief, Office of Waste Management, Division of Environmental Protection (Defendant), February 5.
- Furbee, Amos, Webb, and Critchfield. 1995. Letter to George Pigott: Marion County Landfill, February 13.
- Harman, Newt. 2000. Memorandum to Sudhir Patel: Groundwater Sampling Inspection, Marion County Landfill, SWF-1002-95 (WV0109231). West Virginia Division of Environmental Protection (WVDEP), May 30.
- Leon, Victor. 1981. Memorandum: Telephone conversation regarding sampling at Marion County Landfill. West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, July 28.
- Marion County Solid Waste Authority (MCSWA). 2001. Letter to Michael Callaghan, West Virginia Division of Environmental Protection, March 15.
- Martin, D. 1986. Inter-Office Memorandum: Questions and comments regarding submitted [permit] application for the Marion County Sanitary Landfill. West Virginia Division of Natural Resources (DNR), January 14.
- Moses, Charles. 1995. Memorandum to Dick Cooke: GSI Compliance Inspection Report, Marion County Landfill, SWF-1002-95/WV0109231, December 4.
- NUS Corporation (Superfund Division). 1985. Site Inspection of Marion County Landfill, R-585-2-4-18. Report prepared for the Hazardous Site Control Division, US Environmental Protection Agency.
- Pigott, George E. (Pigott). 1993a. Letter to Jim Hudson: Marion County Landfill. West Virginia Division of Environmental Protection, Solid Waste Division, November 19.
- Pigott and Associates (Pigott). 1993b. Letter to Skip Spencer: Marion County Landfill Monitoring Wells. West Virginia Department of Commerce, May 5.
- Robertson, G. Maxwell. 1995. Order Number SW-MX-012-95 by the West Virginia Division of Environmental Protection to Allan Babcock, Marion County Solid Waste Authority, April 18.
- Straight, Kevin. 1982. Inspection Report: Marion County Landfill. WV Division of Natural Resources, June 14.
- Straight, Kevin. 1984. Inter-Office Memorandum: Marion County Landfill. WV Division of Natural Resources (DNR), March 9.
- United States Census Bureau (CB), 2000. Census 2000: Quickfacts for Marion County, West Virginia. Web: http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/54/54049.html
- United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). 1982. Soil Survey of Marion and Monongalia Counties, West Virginia. Soil Conservation Service in cooperation with West Virginia University Agricultural Experiment Station, July.
- West Virginia Division of Environmental Protection (WVDEP). 1995. Class B Solid Waste Permit SWF-1002-95/WV0109231, May 26.
- West Virginia Division of Environmental Protection (WVDEP). 2001. Class B Solid Waste Permit SWC-1002/-95 Application.
- United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). 2002. Child-Specific Exposure Factors Handbook (Interim Report). EPA-600-P-00-002B, September.
- Noonan, CW, Kathman, SJ, White, MC, 2002. Prevalence estimates for MS in the United States and evidence of an increasing trend for women. Neurology 58(1): 136-138.
Alrena Lightbourn, REM, MS
Office of Environmental Health Services
West Virginia Department of Health & Human Resources
Barbara Smith, MS
Office of Environmental Health Services
West Virginia Department of Health & Human Resources
Reviewed by Joseph A. Wyatt, RS
Acting Director, Public Health Sanitation Division
Office of Environmental Health Services
West Virginia Department of Health & Human Resources
ATSDR Regional Representative:
ATSDR Region III
c/o US EPA Region III
1650 Arch Street (3HS00)
Philadelphia, PA 19103
ATSDR Technical Project Officer:
LCDR Alan G. Parham, REHS, MPH
Superfund Site Assessment Branch
1600 Clifton Rd. N.E. MS-E32
Atlanta, GA 30333
The West Virginia Department of Health and Human Resources (WVDHHR) prepared this Marion County Landfill Health Consultation (MCLHC) under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology and procedures in existence at the time the health consultation was initiated.
Alan G. Parham
Technical Project Officer, SPS, SSAB, DHAC, ATSDR
The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation of ATSDR has reviewed this Health Consultation, and concurred with its findings.
Section Chief, SPS, DHAC, ATSDR
Click here to view Tables 1 and 2 in PDF format [PDF, 477kb]