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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

GOLDEN STRIP SEPTIC TANK
SIMPSONVILLE, GREENVILLE COUNTY, SOUTH CAROLINA


CONCLUSIONS

The Golden Strip Septic Tank site is classified as an indeterminate public health hazard due to data gaps identified. The available data do not indicate that humans are being or have been exposed to levels of contamination that would be expected to cause adverse health effects. However, groundwater sampling has not adequately characterized the extent of contamination on or near the site. Additional sampling is needed to better characterize the extent of contaminant migration and to evaluate the likelihood and possible extent of exposure.

The community was concerned about the potential for their private water wells to be contaminated and signed a petition requesting that the town of Simpsonville provide them with municipal water. Municipal water is now available to most of the residences in the area. However, no data exist about the numbers of private wells still in use or their status. A private well survey should also be conducted in order to locate all private wells in use within a 1-mile radius of the site. If any private wells remain around the site, sampling data are needed to better characterize or to verify that groundwater contamination has not migrated to these sources. Additional groundwater sampling is needed to locate and characterize the existing groundwater plume.

Contaminants were detected in on-site soil, surface water and sediments in the lagoons, and groundwater. Currently, there are no known past or present human exposures occurring at the GSST site. Therefore, no completed exposure pathways were identified. Potential exposure pathways were identified for on-site soil, groundwater, and lagoon areas. Exposures could occur to anyone who may wander onto the site through ingestion, inhalation, or dermal contact with contaminated soil, lagoon wastes, and/or groundwater. The air pathway is considered unlikely due to the site topography and the vegetative cover on the ground.

The site contamination is predominantly restricted to the lagoon areas. Contaminants identified as being of concern at the GSST site include organic compounds, pesticides, PCBs, and metals.

Data inadequacies include the following:

  1. Environmental data for groundwater does not adequately characterize the extent or amount of site contamination that may exist on and off the site. The 55-acre tract of farm land was sampled and is considered to be off-site sampling throughout the discussions in this public health assessment. However, no sampling data was collected from the adjacent neighborhoods.

    Additionally, although some homes in the vicinity of the site utilize municipal water, no private well survey has been conducted of the areas surrounding the site. If private wells are being utilized, private well sampling should be conducted to better characterize the extent of groundwater contaminant migration from the site. These data will also enable us to evaluate the potential for human exposures to this media.

  2. No off-site soil data (beyond the 55-acre tract of farm land) exists for the vicinity of the GSST site. Therefore, potential exposure pathways cannot be evaluated and possible health effects associated with exposures to this media cannot be determined.

RECOMMENDATIONS

  1. Additional groundwater sampling is needed to locate and characterize the existing groundwater plume. Better characterization of the contaminants of concern should be sought in the supplemental sampling, as per discussions with EPA and RMT. This should include studies of the deep aquifer to ensure that there is no evidence of off-site contaminant migration. A private well survey should also be conducted in order to locate all private wells in use within a 1-mile radius of the site.
  2. Surface soil (0"-3") samples off-site (including outside the farm property) are needed to fully evaluate the potential for exposures to soil contaminates.
  3. Further chromium analysis should determine the speciation of the chromium found.
  4. Remediation of contaminated material from lagoons and adjacent soil should be performed to minimize the likelihood of future migration.
  5. Future development and use of the property should be restricted until contamination no longer poses a threat or potential threat to the public. Periodic sampling should be conducted.
  6. Site security should be maintained; potential access points for trespassers should be monitored and eliminated.

Health Activities Recommendation Panel (HARP) Recommendations

    In accordance with CERCLA, as amended, the data and information contained in the Golden Strip Septic Tank Public Health Assessment have been evaluated by the ATSDR Health Activities Recommendation Panel for appropriate follow-up with respect to health actions. No completed exposure pathways were identified for the GSST site. Potential exposure pathways were identified for nearby residents. In coordination with other agencies, SCDHEC will provide ongoing community education to residents living near the site about possible health effects associated with site-related contaminants. No other follow-up activities are indicated at this time. If information becomes available indicating exposure at levels of concern, ATSDR will evaluate that information to determine what actions, if any, are necessary.


PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIONS

The Public Health Action Plan (PHAP) for the GSST site contains a description of actions to be taken by ATSDR and/or the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) at and in the vicinity of the site subsequent to the completion of this public health assessment. The purpose of the PHAP is to ensure that this public health assessment not only identifies public health hazards, but provides a plan of action designed to mitigate and prevent adverse human health effects resulting from exposure to hazardous substances in the environment. Included, is a commitment of the part of ATSDR and/or SCDHEC to follow-up on this plan to ensure that it is implemented. The public health actions to be implemented by ATSDR and/or SCDHEC are as follows:

  1. SCDHEC will evaluate new sampling data for this site as it becomes available, and modify this public health assessment and public health action plan as needed. Future environmental or health outcome data may determine the need for additional actions at the GSST site.
  2. SCDHEC will remain available to answer any questions that the community may have concerning the GSST site.

In addition, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has committed to the following actions:

  1. EPA will periodically sample on-site and off-site groundwater monitoring wells to ensure that there is no evidence of off-site contaminant migration.
  2. EPA will conduct remediation of contaminated material from the on-site lagoons and the adjacent soil to minimize the likelihood of future contaminant migration.

ATSDR and SCDHEC will follow-up with the EPA and other agencies to confirm implementation of the other recommendations contained in this public health assessment.


PREPARERS OF REPORT

Robert F. Marino, M.D., MPH
Director
SCDHEC, Division of Health Hazard Evaluation

John F. Brown, D.V.M., Ph.D.
SCDHEC, State Toxicologist
Division of Health Hazard Evaluation

Charles C. Lewis, M.P.H., PA-C
Environmental Quality Manager
SCDHEC, Division of Health Hazard Evaluation

Lovyst L. Howell
Project Administrator
SCDHEC, Division of Health Hazard Evaluation

Edward W. Gregory
Program Management Specialist
SCDHEC, Division of Health Hazard Evaluation

Doug Blansit
Research Specialist
SCDHEC, Division of Health Hazard Evaluation


ATSDR Regional Representative:

Chuck Pietrosewicz
Senior Public Health Advisor
Office of the Assistant Administrator


ATSDR Technical Project Officer:

Richard R. Kauffman
Technical Project Officer
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation


CERTIFICATION

This Golden Strip Septic Tank public health assessment was prepared by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology and procedures existing at the time the public health assessment was begun.

Richard R. Kauffman
Technical Project Officer, SPS, RPB, DHAC

The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, ATSDR, has reviewed this public health assessment, and concurs with its findings.

Robert C. Williams
Director, DHAC, ATSDR


REFERENCES

  1. ATSDR, Toxicological Profile for Aldrin and Dieldrin, ATSDR/TP-88/01, May 1989.

  2. ATSDR, Toxicological Profile for Antimony, ATSDR/Draft, October 1990.

  3. ATSDR, Toxicological Profile for Cadmium, ATSDR/TP-88/08, March 1989.

  4. ATSDR, Toxicological Profile for Chloroform, ATSDR/TP-88/09, January 1989.

  5. ATSDR, Toxicological Profile for Chromium, ATSDR/TP-88/10, July 1989.

  6. ATSDR, Toxicological Profile for Copper, ATSDR/TP-90/08, December 1990.

  7. ATSDR, Toxicological Profile for Cyanide, ATSDR/TP-88/12, December 1989.

  8. ATSDR, Toxicological Profile for dichloropropane, ATSDR/TP-89/12, December 1989.

  9. ATSDR, Toxicological Profile for di(ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), ATSDR/TP-88/15, April 1989.

  10. ATSDR, Toxicological Profile for Lead, ATSDR/TP-88/17, June, 1980.

  11. ATSDR, Toxicological Profile for Methylene Chloride, ATSDR/TP-88/18, April 1989.

  12. ATSDR, Toxicological Profile for Manganese, Draft, October 1990.

  13. ATSDR, Toxicological Profile for Nickel, ATSDR/TP-88/19, December 1988.

  14. ATSDR, Toxicological Profile for N-Nitroso-di-n-propylamine, ATSDR/TP-89/18, December 1989.

  15. ATSDR, Toxicological Profile for Polychlorinated Biphenyls, ATSDR/88/21, June 1989.

  16. ATSDR, Toxicological Profile for Zinc, ATSDR/TP-89/25, December 1989.

  17. Blackwell, Melvin T., 1989. Review of plans for field sampling of Golden Strip Septic Tank Site.

  18. Higgins, E. L., 1973. Letter pertaining to hazardous waste disposal by Golden Strip Septic Tank Service (October 31, 1973).

  19. Jarrett, Michael D., Commissioner, SCDHEC, 1987. Letter pertaining to citizen concerns, in response to letter from Sen. Strom Thurmond.

  20. Koch, Neil C. 1986. Groundwater Resources of Greenville County, South Carolina, Bulletin

  21. Kopotic James D., 1986. Report of analytical testing from EPA at Golden Strip Septic Tank Company.

  22. Mo, Yanqing, 1991. Hydrogeological Report for Health Assessment, Golden Strip Septic Tank Site.

  23. National Academy of Sciences, Drinking Water and Health Volume 3, 1980.

  24. Overstreet, W. C., and Bell, H., 1965. The Crystalline Rocks of South Carolina, USGS Bulletin No. 1183, 126 p.

  25. Price, Van, 1973. Report on groundwater contamination potential at the waste disposal system of the Golden Strip Septic Tank Company near Mauldin, S.C.

  26. RMT 1990. Draft Remedial Investigation Report on Golden Strip Septic Tank Site.

  27. Sloan, Fred, 1988. Final Report, Golden Strip Septic Tank Services, Greenville, S.C. ESD Project 88-082.

  28. Stephens, William A. et al., 1989. Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study-Work Plan Golden Strip Septic Tank Service, Simpsonville, S.C.

  29. Superfund Proposed Plan Fact Sheet - Golden Strip Septic Tank Site Greenville County, South Carolina June 1991.

  30. Thurmond, Strom, US Senate, 1987. Letter to Commissioner of Public Health regarding citizen concerns of cancer-related deaths near Golden Strip Septic Tank Site.

  31. Webb, Steve, 1990. Transmittal of analytical results for TCLP and Hexavalent Chromium sampling at Golden Strip Septic Tank Site.

  32. Williams, Debra D., and Brooks, Janice E. 1987. Letter to Commissioner of Health regarding cancer-related deaths in Simpsonville, S.C. (Golden Strip Septic Tank Site).


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