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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

HELENA CHEMICAL COMPANY LANDFILL
FAIRFAX, ALLENDALE COUNTY, SOUTH CAROLINA


CONCLUSIONS

The Helena Chemical site is classified as an indeterminate public health hazard. This classification is based on the fact that the available data do not indicate that humans are being exposed to levels of contamination that would be expected to cause adverse health effects. However, adequate data is not available for all the environmental media to which humans may be exposed. In particular, on-site and off-site surface soils samples are needed to evaluate possible adverse health effects associated with this medium. We consider soil samples from 0" to 3" in depth to be representative of the depth of soil at which most people would be exposed. Surface water and sediment samples were collected from one on-site and one off-site location and these are not adequate to enable us to characterize the extent of contamination on the site or the extent of site-related contaminants to migrate off-site. Additional sampling data are needed to enable us to determine the extent of contaminant migration that may exist in Dutch Creek.

The groundwater plume was not defined as part of the RI. While the EPA conducted an aquifer communication test, the duration of the test was not adequate to characterize the groundwater plume beneath the site. The RI indicates that groundwater flow varies seasonally; however, no data are available for the fall and winter months and no identifiable trends were established due to the short duration of pumping. Therefore, additional data are needed to better assess the potential for human exposures and the potential adverse health effects associated with exposures to contaminants found in these media.

Contaminants were identified in on-site soil, groundwater, surface water, and sediments. Pesticide contamination is concentrated in on-site soil; this contamination has leached onto the shallow aquifer beneath the HCC site. Contamination was also detected in off-site media, particularly in the off-site groundwater medium.

Currently, there are no known past or present human exposures occurring at the HCC site. Therefore, no completed exposure pathways were identified in this public health assessment. On-site workers may have been exposed to contaminants in the past; however, no data are available from the past to evaluate the length of exposure, the concentrations of contamination found, or the health effects associated with exposures. Potential exposure pathways were identified for on-site soil, groundwater, surface water, and sediments. On-site workers could be exposed through inhalation, ingestion, or through dermal contact with the contaminated media. Potential exposure pathways were also identified for off-site soil, groundwater, surface water, and sediment. Exposure could occur through ingestion, inhalation, or through dermal contact with the contaminated media. The Record of Decision (ROD) for the HCC site proposes to excavate and treat contaminated soil, and to extract, treat, and discharge contaminated groundwater from the shallow aquifer beneath the site. As the remedial actions are completed, the data will be reevaluated and the site classification may change. Potential exposure pathways were also identified for off-site soil, groundwater, surface water, and sediments. Exposures could occur through ingestion, inhalation, or through dermal contact with the contaminated media.

RECOMMENDATIONS

This PHA recommends a private drinking water well survey of the area to determine whether private wells are still being utilized; that these wells be sampled to determine whether site-related contaminants have impacted the wells; and that an exposure assessment be conducted to determine possible adverse human health effects from this medium.

That surface soil samples (0" to 3" in depth) be collected from on-site and off-site locations to better characterize the extent of surface soil contamination and to assess the potential adverse human health effects associated with exposures to contaminated soil.

We recommend that the aquifer communications test be conducted over a longer period of time to better characterize the migration patterns of the groundwater plume beneath the site. Additional groundwater monitoring data be collected to better characterize groundwater contaminant plume in the deep aquifer.

Groundwater monitoring data from the municipal water supply be collected quarterly to determine whether site-related contaminants have impacted the municipal water supply system.

Additional surface water and sediment samples be collected from the drainage ditch and Dutch Creek to better characterize the extent of site-related contaminants to have migrated off-site.

The data and information contained in the Helena Chemical Company, Inc. Public Health Assessment have been evaluated by the ATSDR Health Activities Recommendation Panel (HARP) for follow-up actions. Potential exposure pathways have been identified for on-site workers and nearby residents. No follow-up health activities are indicated at this time. If additional information or data become available as recommended in this Public Health Assessment indicating that exposure is occurring or was occurred at levels of concern, ATSDR will evaluate that information to determine what actions, if any, are necessary.

PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIONS

To respond to community concerns, and based on the HARP recommendations, ATSDR has developed the following Public Health Action Plan:

  1. SCDHEC will determine whether private drinking water wells are being utilized in the area of contamination.
  1. SCDHEC will evaluate monitoring results as they become available.

  2. SCDHEC will remain available to answer any questions that the community may have pertaining to the site.

  3. EPA will periodically monitor the municipal water supply well located close to the site. If analyses of this drinking water source detect site-related contamination, SCDHEC will notify the affected residents of the sampling results. At that time, SCDHEC and ATSDR will prepare an addendum to this PHA.

  4. EPA should conduct the aquifer communication test for a longer period of time to determine the identifiable trends of groundwater movement.

  5. EPA should collect on-site and off-site surface soil samples from the top 3 inches of soil as this is the depth of soil that most people would likely be exposed to.

  6. EPA will finalize the activities proposed in the ROD, specifically: 1) the excavation and treatment of contaminated surface and subsurface soil with verification sampling; 2) placement of the treated soil into on-site excavations; 3) site re-grading to prevent uncontrolled storm water runoff; and, 4) extraction, treatment, and discharge of contaminated groundwater from the shallow aquifer.

PREPARERS OF REPORT

            Robert F. Marino, MD, MPH
            Director
            SCDHEC, Division of Health Hazard Evaluation

            John F. Brown, DVM, PhD
            State Toxicologist
            SCDHEC, Division of Health Hazard Evaluation

            Lovyst L. Luker
            Project Administrator
            SCDHEC, Division of Health Hazard Evaluation

            William T. Going, MPH
            Environmental Quality Manager
            SCDHEC, Division of Health Hazard Evaluation

            Enayet Ullah
            Environmental Quality Manager
            SCDHEC, Division of Health Hazard Evaluation

            ATSDR Senior Regional Representative:

            Robert Safay
            Public Health Advisor
            Office of the Assistant Administrator

            ATSDR Technical Project Officer:

            Richard R. Kauffman, M.S.
            Technical Project Officer
            Superfund Site Assessment Branch
            Division of Health Assessment & Consultation


CERTIFICATION

This Helena Chemical Company Public Health Assessment was prepared by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology and procedures existing at the time the public health assessment was begun.


Richard R. Kauffman, M.S.
Technical Project Officer
Superfund Site Assessment Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation (DHAC)
ATSDR

The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, ATSDR, has reviewed this public health assessment, and concurs with its findings.

Richard Gillig
for Robert C. Williams, P.E., DEE
Director, DHAC, ATSDR


REFERENCES

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Public Health Assessment Guidance Manual. Atlanta: ATSDR, March 1992.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Aldrin/Dieldrin. Atlanta: ATSDR, April 1993.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Aluminum. Atlanta: ATSDR, July 1992.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Arsenic. Atlanta: ATSDR, April 1993.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Benzene. Atlanta: ATSDR, April 1993.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Beryllium. Atlanta: ATSDR, April 1993.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Cadmium. Atlanta: ATSDR, April 1993.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Cobalt. Atlanta: ATSDR, July 1992.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Carbon Disulfide. Atlanta: ATSDR, September 1992.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Draft Toxicological Profile for chlordane. Atlanta: ATSDR, October 1992.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Chromium. Atlanta: ATSDR, April 1993.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Draft Toxicological Profile for 4,4'-DDT, 4,4'DDT, 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDD. Atlanta: ATSDR, October 1992.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Endosulfan. Atlanta: ATSDR, April 1993.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Endrin/Endrin Aldehyde. Atlanta: ATSDR, December 1990.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Draft Toxicological Profile for alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta-, Hexachlorocyclohexane. Atlanta: ATSDR, October 1992.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Heptachlor/Heptachlor Epoxide. Atlanta: ATSDR, April 1993.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Lead. Atlanta: ATSDR, April 1993.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Manganese. Atlanta: ATSDR, July 1992.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Draft Toxicological Profile for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). Atlanta: ATSDR, October 1993.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Tetrachloroethylene. Atlanta: ATSDR, April 1993.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Toxaphene. Atlanta: ATSDR, December 1990.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Vanadium. Atlanta: ATSDR, July 1992.

South Carolina Department of Health & Environmental Control. Preliminary Health Assessment for Helena Chemical Company Landfill, Fairfax, Allendale County, South Carolina. September 1991.

Ensafe Inc. Final Remedial Investigation Report (Volume I & II) for Helena Chemical Company Fairfax, South Carolina site. December, 1992.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Record of Decision (ROD) for Helena Chemical Company Fairfax, South Carolina site. September 1993.

Klaassen, C.D., M.O. Amdur, J. Doull. 1986. Casarett and Doull's Toxicology, The Basic Science of Poisons. 3rd edition. Macmillan Publishing Company.

Patnaik, Pradyot. 1992. A Comprehensive Guide to the Hazardous properties of Chemical Substances. Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Shineldecker, Chris. 1992. Handbook of Environmental Consultant: A guide for Site Assessment. Lewis Publishers Inc.

Hodgson, E., R.B. Mailman, J.E. Chambers. 1988. Dictionary of Toxicology. Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Division of Water Supply, South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control. Drinking Water: Common Water Quality Problems And Their Treatment. March 1992.


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