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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

/HAC/PHA/reports/kalama_06231993sc/images/kalAMA SPECIALTY
BURTON, BEAUFORT COUNTY, SOUTH CAROLINA


APPENDIX A


Figure 1. General Location Map


Figure 2. Study Area Location Map


Figure 3. Site Map With Topography


Figure 4. Facility Map Showing Soil Sampling Locations, July 1989


Figure 5. March 1990 Second Phase Soil Sampling Locations


Figure 6. Site Map With Monitoring Wells and Sampling Points for Surface Water and Sediment



APPENDIX B

TABLE 2


LIST OF KNOWN CHEMICALS USED IN OR ASSOCIATED WITH
MANUFACTURING PROCESSES FROM 1976-1983
Type
Reaction

Final
Product
Compound Designation Chemical Name
         
Hydrogenation Dihydrosafrole Dihydrosafrole
Safrole
Hydrogen
Nickel
Product
Raw Material
Raw Material
Catalyst
Dihydrosafrole
Oil of Sassafras
Hydrogen
Raney Nickel Hydrogenation Catalyst
         
Hydrogenation 3-Amino
Benzanilide
3-Amino Benzanilide
3-Nitro Benzanilide
Hydrogen
Nickel
Product
Raw Material
Raw Material
Catalyst
3-Amino Benzanilide
3-Nitro Benzanilide
Hydrogen
Raney Nickel Hydrogenation Catalyst
         
Hydrogenation Homomenthol Homomenthol
Isophorone
Hydrogen
Nickel
Product
Raw Material
Raw Material
Catalyst
Homomenthol
3,5,5-Trimethyl-2-cyclohexene-1-one
Hydrogen
Raney Nickel Hydrogenation Catalyst
         
Hydrogenation Benzyl Alcohol

Benzyl Alcohol
Benzaldehyde
Hydrogen
Toluene
Nickel
Product
Raw Material
Raw Material
By Product
Catalyst
Phenyl methanol
Benzoic aldehyde
Hydrogen
Toluene
Raney Nickel Hydrogenation Catalyst
         
Hydrogenation Propionitrile

Propionitrile
Acrylonitrile
Hydrogen
Nickel
Product
Raw Material
Raw Material
Catalyst
Propane nitrile
2-Propene nitrile
Hydrogen
Raney Nickel Hydrogenation Catalyst


TABLE 2 (cont)
Type
Reaction
Final
Product
Compound Designation Chemical Name
         
General Ethoxy
Propionitrile
Ethoxy Propionitrile
Acrylonitrile
Ethyl Alcohol
Product
Raw Material
Raw Material
Ethoxy Propionitrile
Acrylonitrile
Ethyl Alcohol
         
General Krenite Krenite

Xylene
Triethyl Phosphite
Methyl Chloroformate
Ammonia
Ethyl Chloride
Ethyl Alcohol
Methyl Alcohol
Lignosol DXD
Product

Solvent
Raw Material
Raw Material
Raw Material
By Product
By Product
By Product
Color Agent
Ammonium ethyl
carbamoylphosphonate
Xylene
Triethyl phosphite
Methyl Chloroformate
Ammonia
Ethyl Chloride
Ethyl Alcohol
Methyl Alcohol
Sodium Lignosulfonate
         
General Dipropylene Glycol
Dibenzoate
Dipropylene Glycol
Dibenzoate
Dipropylene Glycol
Benzoic Acid
Product

Raw Material
Raw Material
Dipropylene Glycol
Dibenzene
Dipropylene Glycol
Benzoic Acid
         
General Methoxy Propionitrile Methoxy Propionitrile
Acrylonitrile
Methyl Alcohol
Product
Raw Material
Raw Material
Methoxy Propionitrile
Acrylonitrile
Methyl Alcohol
         
General Dinonyl Phenyl
Hydrogen Phosphite
Dinonyl Phenyl
Hydrogen Phosphite
Nonyl Phenol
Phosphorous Trichloride
Product

Raw Material
Raw Material
Dinonyl Phenyl Hydrogen
Phosphite
Nonyl Phenol
Phophorus Trichloride
         
General MA-1 MA-1
Methyl Methacrylate
N,N-Dimethanolamine
Methyl Alcohol
Product
Raw Material
Raw Material
By Product
MA-1
Methyl Methacrylate
N,N-Dimethanolamine
Methyl Alcohol
         
General MA-1Q MA-1Q
MA-1
Dimethyl Sulfate
Product
Raw Material
Raw Material
MA-1Q
MA-1
Dimethyl Sulfate


Table 3.

Ranges of Contaminants of Concern
Soil and Sediment, /HAC/PHA/reports/kalama_06231993sc/images/kalama Site (12)
Contaminants
of Concern
Soil
(mg/kg)
Sediment
(mg/kg)
Comparison Value
(mg/kg)

  O N - S I T E  
Benzene ND-19 ND-1.5 20 CREG
1,2-Dichloroethane ND-1.9 ND-3.1 8 CREG
1,1-Dichloroethylene ND ND-0.96 1 CREG
Ethylbenzene ND-1,800E ND-5.3 200 RMEG
Methylene chloride ND-41 ND-1.1 90 CREG
Vinyl chloride ND ND-2 0.04 EMEG
       
Lead ND-494 8.39-11,394 NONE
Mercury ND-94.68 ND-0.45 NONE
Sodium 0.06-387 38.1-1,096 NONE

  O F F - S I T E  
Benzene   ND 20 CREG
1,2-Dichloroethane   ND 8 CREG
1,1-Dichloroethylene   ND 1 CREG
Ethylbenzene   ND-10 200 RMEG
Methylene chloride   ND-2BJ 90 CREG
Vinyl chloride   ND 0.04 EMEG
       
Lead   3.7-76.6 NONE
Mercury   0.02-0.14 NONE

B-Also detected in associated laboratory blank
E-Estimated value out of detection range
J-Estimated value lower than detection limit
mg/kg-Milligram per kilogram
ND-Not detected


Table 4.

Ranges of Contaminants of Concern
Groundwater & Surface Water, /HAC/PHA/reports/kalama_06231993sc/images/kalama Site (12)
Contaminants
of Concern
Groundwater
(µg/L)
Surface Water
(µg/L)
Comparison Value
(µg/L)

  O N - S I T E  
Benzene ND-1,000 ND-78 1 CREG
1,2-Dichloroethane ND-13,000 ND-640 0.4 CREG
1,1-Dichloroethylene ND-420 ND 0.06 CREG
Ethylbenzene ND-1,300 ND-61 1000 RMEG
Methylene chloride ND-670B ND-170B 5 CREG
Vinyl chloride ND ND 0.2 EMEG
       
Lead ND ND-87.9 15 EPA ACTION LEVEL
Mercury ND-4.7 ND-1.03 2 LTHA
Sodium 4,000-90,300 ND-15,900 NONE

  O F F - S I T E  
Benzene ND ND 1 CREG
1,2-Dichloroethane ND-31 ND 0.4 CREG
1,1-Dichloroethylene ND ND 0.06 CREG
Ethylbenzene ND ND 1000 RMEG
Methylene chloride 0.9BJ-14B ND 5 CREG
Vinyl chloride ND ND 0.2 EMEG
       
Lead ND-5.0 ND-29.9 15 EPA ACTION LEVEL
Mercury ND-0.51 ND 2 LTHA
Sodium 3,100B-106,800 4,100-8,200 NONE

B-Also detected in associated laboratory blank
E-Estimated value out of detection range
J-Estimated value lower than detection limit
µg/L-Microgram per liter
ND-Not detected


Table 5.

Potential Exposure Pathways
Exposure
Pathway
Time Source Media &
Transport
Point of
Exposure
Route of
Exposure
Exposed
Population
Soil Past
Present
Future
/HAC/PHA/reports/kalama_06231993sc/images/kalama
Site
Soil /HAC/PHA/reports/kalama_06231993sc/images/kalama
Site
Ingestion Adults
Children
Workers
Groundwater Present
Future
Private
Well (CW)
Ground-
water
Private
Well
(CW)
Inhalation
Dermal
Contact
Adults
Children
Workers
Sediment Past
Present
Future
Ditch Sediment
in Ditch
Ditch Ingestion
Dermal Contact
Adults
Children
Workers
Surface Water Past
Present
Future
Ditch Surface
Water
Ditch Inhalation
Dermal
Contact
Adults
Children
Workers



APPENDIX C

Response to Comments Received During the Public Comment Period

The /HAC/PHA/reports/kalama_06231993sc/images/kalama Specialty Public Health Assessment (PHA) was completed in May 1992. The PHAis based on the December 1991 Remedial Investigation report. As this report was the latest sourceof data available. A new Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study and Baseline RiskAssessment were available in June and July of 1992. The new data included in these documentsdo not reflect major changes to the findings and conclusions of the PHA. However, our office hasreviewed the newer documents and have incorporated that information into this PHA.

The following responses address technical comments submitted by the public during the publiccomment period of September 24, 1992 to October 26, 1992. Comments received about thereport's format will not be addressed as the document was prepared in accordance with ATSDR'sPublic Health Assessment Guidance Manual, March 1992.

  1. A concern was expressed about the recommendation that off-site ambient air and soil be sampled.

    One of the missions in completing a public health assessment is to evaluate every possible exposure pathway. Because ambient air and off-site soil were never sampled, the recommendation that ambient air and soil be sampled was made to identify a data gap. Following ATSDR protocol, data gaps are identified and included as recommendations in the PHA.

  2. A concern was expressed about the contaminants identified as being of concern for the /HAC/PHA/reports/kalama_06231993sc/images/kalama site's public health assessment.

    In this public health assessment, all the chemicals identified and presented in the Remedial Investigation were evaluated. The chemicals that were detected at levels of human health concern were identified as contaminants of concern. Some of the chemicals identified as being of concern in this document may not be site related; the purpose of the public health assessment is to evaluate possible adverse health effects to humans from exposures to all the contaminants identified.

    Sodium was included as a contaminant of concern because groundwater samples detected sodium at elevated concentrations. While sodium may not be a site-related contaminant, it is discussed in this PHA because of the potential for exposures to result in adverse health effects.

    Some of the contaminants were only detected in one media and may not be site-related; however, additional sampling could determine if the contaminant is site related or a laboratory artifact.

  3. The reviewer was concerned that the PHA does not address the existence of a clay confining layer which "has been demonstrated to inhibit communication of groundwater between the shallow and regional aquifers at the site". The reviewer also referred to a computer modeling's conclusion that on-site monitoring well 46 is not the source of 1,2-DCA contamination found in the lower aquifer.

    During the review of each of the first four RI/FS documents, reviewers from the EPA, the EPA's oversight contractor, SCDHEC, the South Carolina Water Resources Commission and the University of South Carolina repeatedly expressed concerns on the following two major issues and believe that:

    1) A continuous confining layer does not underlie the entire site to prevent the contaminants in the water-table aquifer from migrating into the underlying limestone aquifer.

    2) It has not been fully determined whether or not the 1,2-DCA detected in the concrete plant production wells originated from the /HAC/PHA/reports/kalama_06231993sc/images/kalama site.

    Subsequent to EPA's decision to take the lead on the site from the responsible party, PBS&J revised the RI/FS documents and submitted a fifth version of the RI/FS reports in January 1993.

    The January 1993 RI/FS reports recognizes the limitations of the data collected and analyzed during the RI/FS. The model could not produce reliable results to fully determine whether 1,2-DCA was generated at the site. The reports still contain some inconsistencies and deficiencies that need to be revised. Therefore, the position of this PHA remains the same.



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