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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

LEONARD CHEMICAL COMPANY INC.
CATAWBA, YORK COUNTY, SOUTH CAROLINA


CONCLUSIONS

The Leonard Chemical site is classified as an indeterminate public health hazard. This classification was based on the fact that the available data do not indicate that humans are being or have been exposed to levels of contaminants that could be expected to cause adverse health effects. However, data are not available for all environmental media to which humans may be exposed. Off-site soil data is needed to determine whether on-site contaminants have reached off-site areas, and to provide information needed to assess the possible receptor population and health effects associated with exposures. Additionally, the community was concerned that their private drinking water wells may be contaminated. They expressed concerns about the possible health effects associated with exposures to contaminated groundwater. These private wells were not tested in the area because the RI suggests that contaminants have not migrated toward these wells. However, the extent of the bedrock (deep) aquifer contaminant plume has not been fully determined. Additional groundwater samples are needed to better define the extent of contaminant migration in the bedrock aquifer. This classification may change if additional data should show contaminants of concern have reached the population living in the vicinity of the site.

Contaminants were detected in on-site soil and groundwater and in off-site groundwater, surface water, and sediments. Currently, there are no known past or present human exposures occurring at the LCC site. Therefore, no completed exposure pathways were identified in this public health assessment. On-site workers may have been exposed to contaminants in the past; however, no data are available for evaluation. Potential exposure pathways were identified for on-site soil, groundwater, and air. Exposures could occur to anyone who may wander onto the site or to on-site remedial workers through ingestion, inhalation, and through dermal contact with contaminated soil or groundwater. The air pathway is considered unlikely due to the soil types and the vegetative cover found at the LCC site and the fact that the site topography is not conducive to wind stirring. Potential exposure pathways were also identified for off-site groundwater, surface water, and sediments. Exposures could occur through ingestion, inhalation, or through dermal contact with the contaminated media.

Soil contamination is predominately restricted to the three operational areas. Contaminants detected in these areas include volatile compounds, semi-volatile compounds, metals, PCBs and pesticides. Beyond the limits of these operational areas, little degradation of soils has occurred. In general, the highest concentration of contaminants were detected in the truck turn-around area. Remnants of drums were found buried in this area during the RI, suggesting that disposal of materials had occurred in this area. This area is topographically the lowest area on the site and the depth to groundwater is approximately 10 feet.

Groundwater contamination is associated primarily with VOCs detected in the shallow and deep aquifers. The highest concentrations of VOCs detected in the shallow groundwater aquifer were found in MW-4 and 7. Monitoring wells 9, 10, 11, and 12 showed the presence of VOCs constituents to a lesser degree. The highest concentrations of VOCs detected in the deep aquifer were found in MW-7D, 9D, 10D, and 11D. Groundwater contamination is extensive on the site in both aquifers and has migrated off-site towards Ferry Branch creek.

Data inadequacies included the following:

  1. Air monitoring was conducted at the site during the Remedial Investigation; however, no data were provided for evaluation of locations of the monitoring or for off-site locations. Therefore, the available air data is not adequate for evaluation.
  2. Environmental data for groundwater does not adequately characterize the extent or amount of site contamination that may exists on and off the site. The shallow groundwater plume has been identified. The extent of the bedrock groundwater plume has been determined for the northern, western, and eastern sides. The southern limit of the bedrock aquifer contaminant plume has not been fully determined. The vertical extent of groundwater impact has not been defined to date. Additional sampling is needed to define the groundwater impact on and off the site.

    Furthermore, additional off-site groundwater monitoring wells should be installed and sampled to determine the extent of groundwater contaminant migration.

  3. No off-site soil data exists for the vicinity of the LCC site. No private drinking wells have been tested in the vicinity of the site. Therefore, potential exposure pathways cannot be evaluated and possible health effects associated with exposures to these media cannot be determined.
  4. Environmental data for surface water and sediments do not adequately characterize the extent or amount of site contamination that may exist in the Ferry Branch creek.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Cease/Reduce Exposure Recommendations

  1. EPA identifier signs should be posted on the site property informing the public that the Leonard site is an NPL site and indicating that there is no trespassing on the site. Ensure that the perimeter of the site is secured to prevent trespassing on the site.
  2. EPA should post signs along the site boundary adjacent to Ferry Branch to ensure that local residents do not enter the site through the creek and/or to prevent exposures to contaminated surface water and sediments.

Site Characterization Recommendations

  1. Obtain off-site soil and private well samples to characterize the extent or among of site related contamination that may exist off the LCC site.
  2. Obtain additional data for surface water and sediments samples to better characterize the extent of site-related contaminants that may exist off the site. Additional surface water and sediment locations should be sampled along the site boundary and further to the southeast of the site. In particular, perform the following:
    1. Collect additional surface water and sediment samples from the three existing locations.
    2. Collect surface water and sediment samples from (1) three additional locations along the site boundary, (2) at least two additional locations toward the southeast of the site, following the groundwater flow pattern.
  3. Obtain additional groundwater samples to better characterize and define the groundwater contaminant plume. The RI reflects that groundwater contamination of the deep aquifer has migrated off the site, past Ferry Branch creek.

Health Activities Recommendation Panel (HARP) Recommendations

In accordance with CERCLA, as amended, the data and information contained in the Leonard Chemical Company Public Health Assessment have been evaluated by the ATSDR Health Activities Recommendation Panel for appropriate follow-up with respect to health actions. However, no follow-up activities are indicated at this time. If information becomes available indicating exposure at levels of concern, ATSDR will evaluate that information to determine what actions, if any, are necessary.


PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIONS

The Public Health Action Plan (PHAP) for the LCC site contains a description of actions to be taken by ATSDR and/or the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) at and in the vicinity of the site subsequent to the completion of this public health assessment. The purpose of the PHAP is to ensure that this public health assessment not only identifies public health hazards, but provides a plan of action designed to mitigate and prevent adverse health effects resulting from exposure to hazardous substances in the environment. Included, is a commitment on the part of ATSDR and/or SCDHEC to follow-up on this plan to ensure that it is implemented. The public health actions to be implemented by ATSDR and/or SCDHEC are as follows:

  1. SCDHEC will evaluate new sampling data for this site as it becomes available and will modify this public health assessment and public health action plan as needed. Further environmental or health outcome data may determine the need for additional health-related actions at the LCC site.
  2. SCDHEC will remain available to answer any questions that the community may have pertaining to the site.

ATSDR and SCDHEC will follow-up with the EPA and other agencies to confirm implementation of other recommendations contained in this public health assessment.


PREPARERS OF REPORT

Robert F. Marino, MD, MPH
Director
SCDHEC, Division of Health Hazard Evaluation

John F. Brown, DVM, PhD
State Toxicologist
SCDHEC, Division of Health Hazard Evaluation

Lovyst L. Howell
Project Administrator
SCDHEC, Division of Health Hazard Evaluation

William T. Going, MPH
Environmental Quality Manager
SCDHEC, Division of Health Hazard Evaluation

ATSDR Regional Representative:

Robert Safay
Public Health Advisor
Office of the Assistant Administrator

ATSDR Technical Project Officer:

Richard R. Kauffman, M.S.
Technical Project Officer
Remedial Programs Branch
Division of Health Assessment & Consultation


CERTIFICATION

This Leonard Chemical Company Public Health Assessment was prepared by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology and procedures existing at the time the public health assessment was begun.

Richard R. Kauffman, M.S.
Technical Project Officer
Remedial Programs Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation (DHAC)
ATSDR

The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, ATSDR, has reviewed this public health assessment, and concurs with its findings.

Robert C. Williams, P.E., DEE
Director, DHAC, ATSDR


REFERENCES

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Public health assessment guidance manual. Atlanta: ATSDR, March 1992.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Draft toxicological profile for acetone. Atlanta: ATSDR, October 1992.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for aluminum. Atlanta: ATSDR, July 1992.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Draft toxicological profile for antimony. Atlanta: ATSDR, October 1990.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Draft toxicological profile for arsenic. Atlanta: ATSDR, October 1991.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Draft toxicological profile for beryllium. Atlanta: ATSDR, October 1991.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Draft toxicological profile for cadmium. Atlanta: ATSDR, October 1991.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Draft toxicological profile for chromium. Atlanta: ATSDR, October 1991.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for cobalt. Atlanta: ATSDR, July 1992.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for copper. Atlanta: ATSDR, December 1990.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Draft toxicological profile for 4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'DDD. Atlanta: ATSDR, October 1992.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate. Atlanta: ATSDR, October 1991.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Draft toxicological profile for 1,2-dichloroethane. Atlanta: ATSDR, October 1992.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for 1,1-dichloroethene. Atlanta: ATSDR, October 1992.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for cis-1,2-dichloroethene, trans-1,2-dichloroethene, 1,2-dichloroethene. Atlanta: ATSDR, December 1990.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Draft toxicological profile for isophorone. Atlanta: ATSDR, December 1989.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Draft toxicological profile for lead. Atlanta: ATSDR, October 1991.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for manganese. Atlanta: ATSDR, July 1992.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Draft toxicological profile for mercury. Atlanta: ATSDR, October 1992.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Draft toxicological profile for methylene chloride. Atlanta: ATSDR, October 1991.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Draft toxicological profile for naphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene. Atlanta: ATSDR, December 1990.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Draft toxicological profile for nickel. Atlanta: ATSDR, October 1991.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Draft toxicological profile for selected PCBs(Aroclor -1260, -1254, -1248, -1242, -1232, -1221, and -1016). Atlanta: ATSDR, October 1991.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Draft toxicological profile for tetrachloroethylene. Atlanta: ATSDR, October 1991.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Draft toxicological profile for toluene. Atlanta: ATSDR, October 1992.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for 1,1,2-trichloroethane. Atlanta: ATSDR, December 1989.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for 1,1,1-trichloroethane. Atlanta: ATSDR, December 1990.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Draft toxicological profile for trichloroethylene. Atlanta: ATSDR, October 1991.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for vanadium. Atlanta: ATSDR, October 1992.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Draft toxicological profile for vinyl chloride. Atlanta: ATSDR, October 1991.

Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, and H.C. Hodge. 1984. Clinical toxicology of commercial products. 5th ed. Williams & Wilkins.

OHM Corporation. Final remedial investigation report for Leonard Chemical Company. December, 1992.

Klaassen, C.D., M.O. Amdur, and J. Doull. 1986. Casarett and Doull's toxicology, the basic science of poisons. 3rd ed. MacMillan Publishing Company, Inc.

Patnaik, Pradyot. 1992. A comprehensive guide to the hazardous properties of chemical substances. Von Nostrand Reinhold.

Sirrine Environmental Consultants. Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan for the Leonard Chemical Company Site. June, 1990.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Final Community Relations Plan, Leonard Chemical Company Site. August 13, 1991.


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