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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

USMC MARINE CORPS RECRUIT DEPOT
(a/k/a PARRIS ISLAND MARINE CORPS RECRUIT DEPOT)
PARRIS ISLAND, BEAUFORT COUNTY, SOUTH CAROLINA


APPENDIX
ATSDR Assumptions and Methodology

ATSDR reviewed the fish and shellfish data as presented in the Extended Site Inspection ReportCauseway Landfill, August 1993. We calculated a safe seafood consumption rate using thefollowing assumptions. Although the calculations below imply a certain amount of precision, theyare estimates using a range of values that include several safety factors. In other words, whenthere is uncertainty, they over-estimate rather than under-estimate risk by a factor of 10 to 1,000. Thus, the consumption rates we calculated are highly protective of the public's health. Therefore,based on the low level of chemical contamination, we believe that seafood can be consumed atthese rates without any adverse health effects.

  • We used a standard child body weight of 16 kg (35 pounds).
  • We used a standard adult body weight of 70 kg (154 pounds).
  • We used the average concentration levels of contaminants in our calculation which would be representative of what people would actually be consuming over time.
  • We used a 4 ounce ingestion rate for children and adults (0.114 kg) (7).

A. Causeway Landfill Areas

    We evaluated the level of chemical contaminants detected in fish and shellfish at the CausewayLandfill (pond and tidal marsh) and determined that PCBs represented the greatest human healthconcern. However, for recreational consumers, the level of PCBs in fish and shellfish were not ahealth hazard. We used the following methodology.

    • We calculated an average concentration of detected PCBs combined for all species (flounder, mullet, oyster, clam and crab) of 0.044 mg/kg (8). We assumed that people's meals consist of a combination of fish and shellfish rather than meals of just one species.
    • We estimated the likelihood for non-cancerous and cancerous health effects from PCBs. For non-cancerous effects, we used the EPA reference dose of 2 X 10-5 for Aroclor 1254 (the predominant PCB congener detected). For cancerous health effects, we used 4.95 as the cancer slope factor as recommended by USEPA, FDA and Consumer Products Safety Commission as outlined in the Protocol for a Uniform Great Lakes Sport Fish Consumption Advisory, 1993 (11).
    • For cancerous effects, we estimated that exposure duration of recreational harvesters to be 6years (1 year greater than the maximum tour of duty).

The following formulas were used to calculate our maximum recommended consumption frequency.



For Non-cancerous Effects:
ATSDR's
Maximum Recommended
Consumption Frequency
(days/year)
=Body weight (kg) x Reference Dose (mg/kg/day) x 365 (days/year)

Mean Chemical Concentration (mg/kg) x Ingestion Rate (kg/day)

For Cancerous Effects:

We derived dose that gives cancer risk goal.
Dose
(mg/kg/day)
=1 x 10-5

Cancer Slope Factor (mg/kg/day)-1 x Exposure Duration / 70 year lifetime


ATSDR's
Maximum Recommended
Consumption Frequency
(days/year)
=Body weight (kg) x Dose (mg/kg/day) x 365 (days/year)

Mean Chemical Concentration (mg/kg) x Ingestion Rate (kg/day)

RESULTS:

Recreational harvesters (adults, including pregnant women) could eat as much as two - 4 ouncemeals per week as often as 50 weeks per year. [Calculated value = 102 meals per year.] Childrencould eat as much as one - 4 ounce meal once every two weeks per year. [Calculated value = 23meals per year.]

B. Rifle Range Areas

    We evaluated the level of chemical contaminants detected in oysters from Ribbon, Edding, andArchers Creeks and near the impact berm area of the Rifle Range and determined that leadrepresented the greatest human health concern. However, the level of lead in oysters were not ahealth hazard for children, pregnant women or other adults. We used the following methodology.

    • We used 0.046 mg/kg (the detection limit) from the MCRD as the lead concentration. The SCDHEC laboratory detection limit was 1.0 mg/kg which would not be protective of public health (12).
    • We derived a tolerable dose for lead by using FDA's provisional tolerable total intake level of lead and various research studies which relate blood lead levels and dietary lead intake to derive a tolerable dose for lead in children and pregnant women (the people most sensitive to the effects of lead). For children, we used FDA's estimated dietary effect level of 0.0625 mg/day divided by 16 kg to give an estimated dose for a corresponding blood lead level of 10 ug/dL. Then divided by 10 which provides a safety factor.

      For pregnant adults, we used FDA's estimated dietary effect level of 0.250 mg/day divided by 70 kg to give an estimated dose for a corresponding blood lead level of 10 ug/dL. Then divided by 10 which provides a safety factor and also to account for transference of maternal blood lead to the fetus. For other adults, FDA's estimated dietary effect level is 0.750 mg/day (13).

      0.062 mg/day

      16 kg
      -:- 10 = 0.00039 mg/kg/day (Tolerable Dose for lead for children)


        0.250 mg/day

        70 kg
        -:- 10 = 0.00035 mg/kg/day (Tolerable Dose for lead for pregnant adults)



    The following formula was used to calculate our maximum recommended consumption frequency.
    ATSDR's
    Maximum Recommended
    Consumption Frequency
    (days/year)
    =Body weight (kg) x Tolerable Dose (mg/kg/day) x 365 (days/year)

    Chemical Concentration (mg/kg) x Ingestion Rate (kg/day)

    RESULTS:

    Based on chemical contaminant levels, oysters are safe to eat by all consumers. The calculatedvalues are as follows. Children can eat as much as 435 - 4 ounce meals per year. Pregnantwomen, 1,705 - 4 ounce meals per year. Other adults, 5,213 - 4 ounce meals per year.


REFERENCES

  1. Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, Community Relations Profile, 1995.

  2. Navy Energy and Environmental Support Activity, Initial Assessment Study of Marine CorpsRecruit Depot, Parris Island, South Carolina, September 1986.

  3. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Site Visit Notes, June 20, 1995.

  4. Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, ATSDR Site Visit, Site Summary and InformationPackage, Received June 19, 1995.

  5. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Hazard Ranking System II, August 1994.

  6. Department of Navy Environmental Restoration Plan for Fiscal Years 1995-1999.

  7. Rupp EM, Miller FL, and Baes CF. Some Results of Recent Surveys of Fish and ShellfishConsumption by Age and Region of U.S. Residents, Health Physics 39:165-175, 1980.

  8. ABB Environmental Services, Inc. Tallahassee, Florida, Extended Site Inspection ReportCauseway Landfill, August 1993.

  9. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Record of Communication with Jim Clark,Parris Island, February 9, 1996.

  10. Low Country Council of Governments, Marine Recreational Fishing in the South CarolinaLowcountry, Regional Tourism Program, 1991.

  11. Protocol for a Uniform Great Lakes Sport Fish Consumption Advisory, September 1993.

  12. Reclamation Services, Inc., Central City, Kentucky, Marine Corps Recruit Depot, ParrisIsland Sampling Data of Surface Water, Oysters, Mud, and Spartina from Ribbon Creek, ArcherCreek, and Impact Area of Rifle Range, May 1995.

  13. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, GuidanceDocument for Lead in Shellfish. August 1993.

Other Documents Reviewed

  • Dames and Moore, Initial Assessment Study of Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, South Carolina, Naval Energy and Environmental Support Activity, September 1986.
  • A.T. Kearney, Inc., Chicago, Illinois, Interim RCRA Facility Assessment of Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, South Carolina, April 1990.
  • McClelland Consultants Environmental, Inc. Houston, Texas, Remedial Investigation Verification Step, Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, South Carolina, May 1990.
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Proceedings of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Technical Workshop "PCBs in Fish Tissue", May 10-11, 1993. EPA/823-R-93-003.
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Guidance for Assessing Chemical Contaminant Data for Use in Fish Advisories, Volume 1, 1993. EPA/823-R-93-002.
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA 823-R-92-008a, National Study of Chemical Residues in Fish Volume 1, September 1992.
  • Lacey RF, et al. Lead in Water, Infant Diet, and Blood: The Glasgow Duplicate Diet Study. The Science of the Total Environment. Vol. 41 (1985).
  • Marcus AH. Relationship Between Childhood Blood Lead and Lead in Water or Liquid Diet. Report from Battelle Columbus Division to Office of Toxic Substances, USEPA, Contract No. 68-02-4294 (Feb. 14, 1989).
  • Marcus AH. Uptake of Lead from Formula and Food by Infants: Reanalysis of the Ryu et al. Data. Report from Battelle Columbus Division to Office of Toxic Substances, USEPA, Contract No. 68-D8-0115 (June 15, 1990).
  • Moore MR, et al. The Contribution of Drinking Water Lead to Maternal Blood Lead Concentrations. Clinica Chimica Acta 1979;95:129-133.
  • Ryu JE, et al. Dietary Intake of Lead and Blood Lead Concentration in Early Infancy. American Journal Dis. Child. 1983;137:886-891.

PREPARERS OF THE REPORT


    Carole D. Hossom
    Environmental Health Scientist
    Defense Facilities Assessment Section
    Federal Facilities Assessment Branch
    Division of Health Assessment and Consultation

    Lorna Bozeman
    Environmental Health Scientist
    Defense Facilities Assessment Section
    Federal Facilities Assessment Branch
    Division of Health Assessment and Consultation


    Reviewer:

    Diane Jackson
    Chief, Defense Facilities Assessment Section
    Federal Facilities Assessment Branch
    Division of Health Assessment and Consultation




Figure 1
Figure 1. Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, South Carolina

Figure 2
Figure 2. Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, South Carolina

Figure 3
Figure 3. Sampling Locations at Causeway Landfill (Site 3) MCRD, Parris Island



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