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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

SHURON INCORPORATED
BARNWELL, BARNWELL COUNTY, SOUTH CAROLINA


APPENDIX A: FIGURES

Site Location
Figure 1. Site Location

Site Location
Figure 2. Site Location

Facility Layout and Location of Discharge Pipes
Figure 3. Facility Layout and Location of Discharge Pipes


APPENDIX B: COMMUNITY CONCERNS

  1. What type of activities occurred at the site?
  2. Response: The facility manufactured single and multi-vision ocular lenses. Lens blanks were ground and shaped using grinding and polishing compounds.

  3. What type of hazardous wastes were found at the site and where?
  4. Response: Information about the hazardous materials found at the site has been summarized in this Public Health Assessment. Detailed information about the hazardous materials at the site can be found in the Remedial Investigation for the site.

  5. Have asbestos, lead, and solvents been found at the site?
  6. Response: Solvents (VOCs) have been found in on-site soil, groundwater, surface water, and sediments. Lead has been found in on-site soil. Asbestos was not found at the site.

  7. Residents are concerned about the site affecting the municipal water.
  8. Response: We have no information at this time that anyone is drinking water contaminated with chemicals from the site. No contaminants were detected in the Barnwell #10 well the last time it was sampled. However, if this well were to become contaminated, people could be exposed to several chemicals above levels of concern. Although groundwater at the site does not flow toward this well, there are no off-site groundwater monitoring wells and we cannot say with certainty that this well will not be affected by contaminants at the site. At a minimum, the well should be sampled more frequently that once every three years.

  9. A resident was concerned about groundwater contamination at the site spreading off-site.
  10. Response: In general, shallow, intermediate, and deep groundwater beneath the site flows from northwest to southeast. However, groundwater beneath the northeastern portion of the site flows eastward and groundwater beneath the southern portion of the site flows south. VOCs and inorganics were a concern in the unconfined, semi-confined, and confined water-bearing units. The extent of contamination is much higher in shallow groundwater than in intermediate and deep groundwater. VOCs, SVOCs, and inorganics present in soil may have leached into groundwater as a result of different physical, chemical, and biological processes. No off-site monitoring wells were installed as part of the RI. Shallow groundwater at the site may discharge to the wetlands and eventually to Turkey Creek.

  11. A resident is concerned about future contamination at the site.
  12. Response: Once the site clean-up is completed, the U.S. EPA will continue to monitor the site. Typically, Superfund sites are re-evaluated every five years after clean-up is completed.

  13. Are there any airborne contaminants at the site? Is there a risk from airborne contaminants during the clean-up process?
  14. Response: The site will be monitored during the clean-up. This must be done for health and safety reasons. At this time there is no reason to believe that there are any airborne contaminants at the site. However, we have no information about the presence of chemicals at the site while the company was in operation.

  15. Will the site's cleanup affect city and/or county taxes?
  16. Response: The responsible party at this site is Textron Inc. Costs not paid for by Textron, Inc. will be covered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

  17. Residents are concerned about the quality of Turkey Creek. (Afraid Turkey Creek gets into water system).
  18. Response: There were no chemicals detected above screening levels in either surface water or sediment from Turkey Creek. A 1983 biological study did not indicate that waste water discharge from the facility had affected the benthic population in Turkey Creek. Even though it does not appear as though the site has adversely affected Turkey Creek, a general water quality survey could provide information about the health of the Creek. This information could be used to determine if further sampling of the Creek is warranted. At this point in time, exposure to Turkey Creek in the area near the site should not result in any adverse health effects.

  19. Residents are concerned about the fish in Turkey Creek.
  20. Response: Since it does not appear that the site has adversely affected Turkey Creek, it is unlikely that the fish have been contaminated.

  21. A resident is concerned about surface water run-off from the site.
  22. Response: Surface water runoff at the site flows to the south and east. Surface water run-off from the southern half of the facility and the areas west of Clinton Street runs into the Southern Drainage Ditch which then flows to the wetlands and Turkey Creek. Surface water runoff from the northern half of the facility runs into the Northern Drainage Ditch. This ditch also empties into the wetlands area and Turkey Creek.

    Although only a few soil samples were collected from residential areas, surface water drainage is toward the wetland area, and run-off from the site is not expected to transport contaminated soils into residential areas.

  23. Residents are concerned about the number of people who have reflux-gastritis in county.
  24. Response: There are a large number of causes of gastrointestinal reflux including medication, smoking, and obesity. Chemicals are not known to cause GE reflux.

  25. Residents are concerned about any long term health effects, including cancer and kidney problems, from the site. Residents are concerned that chemicals stored on-site could cause respiratory problems, asthma, and allergies.
  26. Response: There are no chemicals currently stored at the site. Lead, one of the chemicals of concern at the site, is not associated with cancer, kidney and respiratory problems, asthma, and allergies. Lead exposure has been associated with decreased in intelligence (IQ) scores, slow growth, hearing problems in children and infants. Adults do not absorb lead readily via the digestive tract. The public water well close to the site has not been contaminated by activities at the site. Therefore, even though there are chemicals in groundwater at the site that are associated with some of these health problems, no one has been exposed to contaminated groundwater.

  27. A resident stated that several family members who lived in the area in the 1960's have health concerns.
  28. Response: In order for us to address this concern, we will need additional information about the specific health concerns and where the people lived. If you'd like to speak to someone about your specific health concerns, you may call SCDHEC-HHE, toll-free, at (888) 849-7241.

  29. A resident was concerned that the remedial actions at the site may not be stringent enough.
  30. Response: For information on the specific remedial actions, you may call Ralph Howard (U.S. EPA), toll-free, at (800) 435-9233.

  31. Residents would like to receive more information about the site, possibly in the newspaper.
  32. Response: SCDHEC-HHE will continue to keep you informed of our activities at the site with fact sheets, newspaper articles, and public meetings.

  33. A resident is concerned that contaminated on-site soil could affect the food chain.
  34. Response: Since it does not appear that the site has affected Turkey Creek, it is unlikely that the fish have been affected. There were no chemicals detected above screening levels in either surface water or sediment from Turkey Creek. Since there are no gardens, farm crops or livestock at the site there is no pathway for exposure.

  35. What are the risks involved with not cleaning-up the site? What risks would remain after the site is cleaned up?
  36. Response: If the site was not cleaned-up, it could pose an unacceptable risk to future on-site residents or workers. For detailed information, you may call the U.S. EPA, toll-free, at (800) 435-9233.

  37. What areas of the site were addressed in EPA's investigation? What are the clean-up and disposal plans for the site?
  38. Response: Environmental samples were collected across the entire Shuron Site. Off-site samples were collected from Turkey Creek, a couple of residential properties, the wetlands next to the site, the two drainage ditches, and the City of Barnwell municipal water supply well, across the street from the site. Samples included, soil, groundwater, surface water, and sediments. Questions addressing the clean-up and disposal plans should be send to the U.S.EPA (800) 435-9233.

  39. When is the public health assessment scheduled to be completed?
  40. Response: It should be released for public comment in April 1999.

  41. Former employees have expressed health concerns about working at the site in the past?
  42. Response: Any resident with health problems they feel is attributable to working at the facility should notify their physician. If you have a list of materials you worked with or the type of job you performed while working at the facility, provide this information to you physician. Since solvents were used at the facility it is likely some workers were exposed to them while they worked at the plant. It is very difficult to determine the possible exposures workers may have had from working at the facility. If workers were exposed to trichloroethene for example, it would be difficult to know how much a person were exposed to and it would be very hard to measure for it in the body after at least five years have gone by.


APPENDIX C: DATA TABLES

TABLE 1C.

ON-SITE SOIL (0-1 foot in depth)
Chemicals Concentration Range (mg/kg) Screening Level (mg/kg)
Arsenic 1.6J - 136J 24-2101
Barium 3.9J - 13,700 5,000-50,0001
Chromium 3.7J - 157 400-3,5001
Lead 10 - 14,000 4002
Data Source: ENSR Remedial Investigation (1997)
J=Estimated Value
1=Noncancer Screening Level-Adults and Children-Calculated by SCDHEC
2=U.S.EPA Residential Action Level

TABLE 2C.

ON-SITE SUBSURFACE SOIL
Chemicals Concentration Range (mg/kg) Screening Level (mg/kg)
1,2-Dichloroethene (Total) 0.009J - 460 800-7,0001
Trichloroethene 0.005J - 1,100 800-7,0001
Tetrachloroethene 0.011 - 2,500J 800-7,0001
Xylene (Total) 0.002J - 3,700 160,000-1,400,0001
Barium 6 - 15,400 5,000-50,0001
Lead 3.6 - 17,400 4002
Data Source: ENSR Environmental Consultant Remedial Investigation (1997)
J=Estimated Value
1=Noncancer Screening Level Calculated by SCDHEC
2=U.S. EPA Residential Action Level

TABLE 3C.

ON-SITE SHALLOW GROUNDWATER
Chemicals Concentration Range (µg/L) Screening Level (µg/L)
1,2-Dichloroethene 7J - 47,00070, 1001
Trichloroethene10 - 61,00051
Tetrachloroethene28 - 52,00051
Toluene0.6J - 2,400J1,0001
Ethylbenzene21- 20,0007001
Vinyl Chloride12 - 3,700J2.02
Xylene4J - 93,00010,0001
Arsenic3.1 - 8.3J103
Chromium3.9 - 2021001
Lead3.7 - 124154
Mercury0.57 - 25.5J21
Data Source: ENSR Environmental Consultant Remedial Investigation (1997)
J=Estimated Value
1= U.S.EPA Maximum Contaminant Level
2=Cancer Risk Screening Level Calculated by SCDHEC
3= Noncancer Screening Level Calculatd by SCDHEC
4=U.S.EPA Action Level

TABLE 4C.

ON-SITE SURFACE WATER
Chemicals Concentration Range (µg/L) Screening Level (µg/L)
1,2-Dichloroethene (Total) 1J - 1,400 NA
Trichloroethene 3J - 10J 5
Bis(2-Ethylhexyl)Phthalate 12J - 95J 59.2
Chromium 3.5 - 7.5 100
Lead 3.8J - 343 50
Data Source: ENSR Environmental Consultant Remedial Investigation (1997)
J=Estimated Value
NA=None Available
Screening Level=South Carolina Water Classification and Standards

TABLE 5C.

ON-SITE SEDIMENT
Chemicals Concentration Range (mg/kg) Screening Level (mg/kg)
Bis(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate0.075J - 71None Available
Arsenic1.4 - 57.3JNone Available
Barium81.7 - 6,120None Available
Chromium7 - 109None Available
Lead15 - 7,470None Available
Data Source: ENSR Environmental Consultant Remedial Investigation (1997)
J=Estimated Value




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