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HEALTH CONSULTATION

Chlorinated Solvent Contamination

ELITE DRY CLEANING FACILITY
(a/k/a ELITE LAUNDRY COMPANY)
JAFFREY, CHESHIRE COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE


STATEMENT OF ISSUES

The Elite Laundry and Dry Cleaning facility is located at 27 Laundry Road. It had been in operation since 1937 and ceased operations in 1998. The facility reportedly dumped waste solvents during its operation. As a result, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (DES) sampled soil, groundwater and soil gas. These samples were taken from the property that the Elite building is located on, from an abandoned railroad grade and from surrounding property. All media tested positive for the presence tetrachloroethylene (a.k.a. perchloroethylene or PCE) and degradation products associated with PCE.

The DES asked the New Hampshire Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) to determine whether the present levels of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) found in soil and in groundwater poses a public health hazard. The New Hampshire Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), Office of Community and Public Health, Bureau of Health Risk Assessment, prepared this Health Consultation under its cooperative agreement with the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR).


BACKGROUND

The former Elite Laundry and Dry Cleaning facility (referred to as the 'Elite Facility') is located in the downtown area of Jaffrey, New Hampshire, Cheshire County. The site is located on lots 290, 292,and 293 of the Jaffrey Tax Map No. 238. Its address is listed as 27 Laundry Road, an unpaved cul-de-sac connected to Peterborough Street. The facility is less than one mile from the intersection of Peterborough and Main Street in downtown Jaffrey. Several residences surround the facility. The facility discontinued operation in 1998 after operating as early as 1937. There are anecdotal accounts of dumping of waste solvents on the property around the Elite Laundry facility (Jaffrey Health Officer, personal communication, November 30, 2001).

In Fall 2001, the Elite Laundry facility was severely damaged by fire. The integrity of the building was compromised, and it is not known whether this changed the status of potential chemical hazards, which may have remained in the building. The building material was known to have contained asbestos [1]. The dry cleaning machinery used during Elite's operation is among the remains of the building. It is not known if the chemicals used were properly removed.

On November 30, 2001, DHHS visited the Elite Laundry site. Since the fire, the damaged remains of the building have not been removed. Adjacent to the property is an abandoned railroad grade, which is used as a walkway for local residents. An athletic field is on the other side of the grade, less than fifty yards away from the site. Implements from the dry cleaning operation could be seen amongst the rubble. The building exterior and interior (walls, ceiling, flooring) show signs of extensive fire damage. The building has partially collapsed. The structure is open and there is no way to restrict entry to it. On the south face of the building, an opening in the wall where an outflow pipe connecting a drain from the floor of the facility had been located, was visible. High concentrations of PCE were detected in samples below this outfall. This area was covered with plastic sheeting and clean soil after test pits were installed. There are, however, other areas around the perimeter of the building where PCE-contaminated sludge was found (DES, personal communication, January 15, 2002). These areas were not seen in the site visit because of snow cover. It appeared that all areas of the property, as well as the remains of the building, were accessible to potential trespassers. It was evident that trespassing had occurred in the past since graffiti was on the south wall of the building.


DISCUSSION

Assessment Methodology

To determine whether nearby residents are exposed to contaminants from the site, ATSDR and the DHHS evaluates the environmental and human components that lead to human exposure. This pathways analysis consists of five elements: (1) a source of contamination; (2) transport through an environmental medium; (3) a point of human exposure; (4) route of human exposure; and, (5) a receptor population. ATSDR classifies exposure pathways into three groups: (1) "completed pathways," that is, those in which exposure is reasonably likely to have occurred, to occur, or to occur in the future; (2) "potential pathways,", that is, those in which exposure might have occurred, may be occurring, or may yet occur; and, (3) "eliminated pathways," that is, those that can be eliminated from further analysis because one of the five elements is missing and will never be present, or in which no contaminants of concern can be identified.

After the pathways are designated as completed, potential, or eliminated, ATSDR usually follows a two-step methodology to comment on public health issues related to exposure pathways at hazardous waste sites. First, ATSDR obtains representative environmental monitoring data for the site of concern and compiles a list of site-related contaminants. ATSDR compares this list of contaminants to health-based values (health comparison values or HCVs) to identify those contaminants that do not have a realistic possibility of causing adverse health effects. These comparison values are conservative, because they include ample safety factors that account for most sensitive populations. ATSDR typically uses HCVs as follows: if a contaminant is never found at levels greater than its comparison value, ATSDR concludes the levels of corresponding contamination are not at levels of public health concern. If, however, a contaminant is found at levels greater than its HCV, ATSDR designates the pollutant as a contaminant of concern and examines it further in the assessment. Because HCVs are based on conservative assumptions, the presence of concentrations greater than a HCV does not necessarily suggest that adverse health effects will occur among the exposed population.

Second, for the remaining contaminants, ATSDR evaluates site-specific conditions to determine what exposure scenario is realistic for a given exposure pathway. Given this exposure scenario, ATSDR determines a dose and compares this dose to scientific studies to determine whether the extent of exposure indicates a public health hazard.

Environmental Contamination

Soil and Soil Gas

Several areas around the Elite site were sampled for soil contamination. Samples were taken from soil test pits, at various depths. Soil gas was taken from soil samples at two feet depth. A sludge-like material was observed intermittently in surface soil around the building perimeter; this was sampled for CVOCs as well.

Soil gas analysis indicated the presence of CVOCs in nearly all gas samples around the Elite Laundry site. PCE was present at detectable levels in all soil gas samples (table 1); other CVOC degradation products were present in lower concentrations.

Composite samples from eight test pits around the Elite site were analyzed. Six pits contained PCE. Levels ranged from below reportable levels (TP-5 and TP-6) to 2,800 parts per million (ppm) (TP-2) (table 2). TP-1, sampled at three depths, contained PCE as deep as 10.5 feet, at 2,500 ppm. The majority of the test pits were excavated on the abandoned railroad grade [2].

A sludge-like substance was observed near the perimeter of the facility. Analysis of this sludge-like material detected PCE at 41,000 ppm. The level of PCE in the sludge was above the ATSDR Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guide (RMEG) of 500 ppm and 7,000 ppm for children and adults, respectively. A composite sample (SC-1) was taken at the ground surface area adjacent to the southwestern corner of the Elite Laundry building. PCE was detected at a concentration of 350 ppm in the composite sample [2].

Groundwater

Numerous monitoring wells were established around the Elite Laundry site. Wells, initially sampled in 1998 (tables 3 & 4), indicated the presence of PCE [2], ranging from slightly above detection limits to 7,100 parts per billion (ppb). Three wells also had elevated levels of trichloroethylene (CC-7, CC-8 and JB-3), four had elevated levels of cis- and trans-1,2-dichloroethylene (CC-7, CC-8, JB-2 and JB-3) and one well had elevated levels of vinyl chloride (JB-3). The secondary compounds, TCE, DCE and vinyl chloride are the result of the in situ degradation of PCE.

These wells, and other newly installed wells, were sampled again in 2001 [2]. Six wells contained PCE (tables 3 & 4), as high as 33,000 ppb. Breakdown products remained; five wells had TCE and three wells contained cis-1,2-dichloroethylene.

Additional monitoring wells, from areas not monitored in 1998, also indicate high levels of PCE and related degradation products (table 5). One well (SH-4) had a PCE concentration of 49,000 ppb. All of this data are summarized in the Site Investigation Report [2].

Analysis of Exposure Pathways

Soil Gas

PCE exposure through ingestion of drinking water is not a completed pathway since residences in the town of Jaffrey receive water from a municipal drinking water supply (2). Drinking water is drawn from an area outside of downtown Jaffrey. The direction of flow of contaminated water is away from the municipal source (DES, personal communication, January 15, 2002). Jaffrey's public water supply is also tested and no CVOCs have been detected. Thus, contamination and subsequent exposure to CVOCs through drinking water is not possible; therefore, this pathway will not be further considered in this health consultation.

Several monitoring wells contained PCE above the GW-2 groundwater guideline (3,000 ppm) established by the New Hampshire DES. Groundwater exceeding the GW-2 category is considered to be a potential source of contaminant vapors to indoor air. The guideline recommends that GW-2 violations, occurring within 30 feet of an existing occupied building and when the average groundwater depth is 15 feet or less, should be further evaluated. Although there are no occupied dwellings within 30 feet of monitoring wells where PCE levels exceeded the GW-2 groundwater guideline, DES did conduct indoor air monitoring of several residences in the downtown area in October, 2001. The indoor air sampled in these dwellings did not detect the presence of CVOCs (DES, personal communication, January 15, 2002).

During winter months, a 'stack effect' could occur, creating optimal conditions for the volatilization of gasses from groundwater, through soil and into buildings. 'Stack effect' refers to when soil is cold or frozen, and a basement and a combustion furnace are present, a negative pressure can be created within a building. Given these conditions, along with the shallow water table of the area [2], the possibility may exist for vapor migration into buildings (Massachusetts DEP, personal communication, February 22, 2002). Soil gas levels at the site should continue to be monitored. It may be appropriate to consider additional indoor air testing if changes in contaminant concentrations in soil gas and movement of soil gas indicate that indoor air quality in nearby residences may be affected.

Soils and Sludge

After the site visit, DHHS concluded that it is possible that local residents could be exposed to contaminants at the site. The Jaffrey Health Officer stated that a significant amount of pedestrians utilize the railroad grade (Jaffrey Health Officer, personal communication, November 30, 2001). Test pits and soil gas samples taken from the area of the railroad grade indicate extremely high levels of PCE beneath the surface soil. Sludge, containing high concentrations of PCE, was sampled less than 10 feet from this area. The Site Investigation Report characterized the sludge as intermittent and visible at the soil surface (2), making it possible that children playing on the site may come into contact with significant amounts of PCE. In addition to direct exposure, there is the possibility that this contamination can be transported away from the site via sludge adhering to bicycle tires and shoe bottoms.

As previously indicated, there are five factors that constitute a completed exposure pathway. First, there must be a source of contamination. Second, there must be a transport of contamination. In this case, CVOCs found in surface soil can be transported from the soil media to local residents who may access the site. Next, there must be a point of exposure, which is the soil surface on the site. Fourth, there must be a route of exposure, which is through dermal absorption and oral ingestion. Last, there must be an actual exposed population, which consists of trespassers on the Elite site. Currently, there is no practical means of stopping trespassers from accessing the Elite site; therefore, ATSDR and DHHS consider incidental ingestion and dermal exposure to contaminated sludge material to constitute a completed exposure pathway.

Public Health Implications of Exposure to PCE-Contaminated Sludge

Perchloroethylene is considered a primary contaminant of concern since it was found at levels in the sludge material appreciably higher than health-comparison values. Therefore, the public health implications of exposure to PCE in the contaminated sludge will be evaluated below.

Perchloroethylene is a halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbon commonly used in dry-cleaning operations [3]. Residents could possibly be exposed from incidental contact with PCE, either through ingestion or dermal contact. A significant fraction of PCE can be absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract. Absorption from the skin to the blood is lower than through the oral route, so dermal exposure is a secondary route of exposure [3]. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has not adopted an official position regarding the carcinogenicity of PCE, although the EPA Science Advisory Board has recommended that it possibly be placed under Group B2, probable human carcinogen, based on sufficient evidence from oral and inhalation studies for carcinogenicity in animals. Although there is some scientific debate as to whether PCE is a carcinogen in humans, ATSDR and DHHS will consider PCE to be a carcinogen in this health consultation based on the findings of animal studies.

To evaluate non-carcinogenic health effects, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has developed Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for contaminants commonly found at hazardous waste sites. This health guideline is an estimate of a level of daily human exposure to a contaminant below which non-cancerous adverse health effects are unlikely. MRLs are developed for each route of exposure (e.g., ingestion and inhalation) and for the length of exposure (e.g., acute, less than 14 days; intermediate, 15-364 days; and chronic, 365 days or more). Because ATSDR has no methodology to determine amounts of chemicals absorbed through the skin, the Agency does not have MRLs for skin exposure. ATSDR presents information on MRLs in its series of Toxicological Profiles on hazardous substances. These chemical-specific profiles provide information on health effects, environmental transport, human exposure, and regulatory status. If ATSDR has not developed an MRL for a contaminant, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Reference Dose (RfD) is used (if available). The RfD is an estimate of the daily exposure of the human population to a potential hazard that is likely to be without risk of a non-carcinogenic adverse health effects during a person's lifetime.

Using conservative exposure factors based on the assumption that a child was in contact with PCE found in the surface soil sludge found at the former Elite Laundry and Dry Cleaning facility, an average daily dose (ADD) of 0.00639 mg/kg/day was calculated (Table 6a). When using conservative exposure factors for an adult worker, an ADD of 0.00356 mg/kg/day was calculated (Table 6b). These doses are below both EPA's RfD (based on chronic, long-term exposures) and ATSDR's acute MRL (for short-term exposures of 1-14 days); therefore, adverse non-carcinogenic health effects to those exposed to PCE in the contaminated sludge (either short or long-term) is not likely.

Carcinogenic risk from the ingestion and dermal exposure to contaminated sludge material was calculated using the method and assumptions shown in Tables 6a and 6b. The actual risk of cancer is probably lower than the calculated number. The method used to calculate EPA's Cancer Slope Factor assumes that high dose animal data can be used to estimate the risk for low dose exposures in humans (the actual estimated exposure levels to children and adults were approximately 1/ 60,000 and 1/108,000, respectively, of the actual cancer effect levels from animal studies). The method also assumes that there is no safe level for exposure.

When taking into consideration the cancer effects associated with PCE exposure, DHHS calculated Lifetime Excess Cancer Risks (LECR) of 3.32x10-4 and 1.85x10-4, for children and adult workers, respectively. This takes into consideration all possible pathways of exposure to the contaminated sludge and assumes upper bound estimates for exposure factors listed in Tables 6 a and b. As indicated above, while this calculation may not be an indication of a real-life increase in cancer to those who are exposed to PCE in the sludge material, it is evidence of a potential added risk, suggesting a difference between the cancer incidence under the exposure conditions and the background incidence in the absence of exposure [4]. As stated previously, the actual risk for any one person getting cancer is probably lower than the calculated risk.


ATSDR CHILD HEALTH STATEMENT

The DHHS has prepared this health consultation under a cooperative agreement with ATSDR. DHHS has included the following information in accordance with the ATSDR's Child Health Initiative.

ATSDR's Child Health Initiative recognizes that the unique vulnerabilities of infants and children demand special emphasis in communities faced with contamination of their water, soil, air, or food. Children are at greater risk than adults from certain kinds of exposures to toxic chemical substances released to the environment. They are more likely to be exposed because children spend a significant amount of their time playing outdoors. They are shorter than adults, which means they breathe dust, soil and heavy vapors close to the ground. Children are also smaller, resulting in higher doses of chemical exposure per body weight. The developing body systems of children can sustain permanent damage if toxic exposures occur during critical growth stages. Most importantly, children depend completely on adults for risk identification and management decisions, housing and access to medical care.

Children are much more likely to expose themselves to soil contaminants through activities such as exploration and playing on/near the facility. These contaminants, can cling or adsorb to their outerwear, and potentially expose individuals not directly associated with the site (family members, friends).

Although Average Daily Dose (ADD) and Lifetime Excess Cancer Risk (LECR) was calculated for both adult workers and children who expose themselves to contaminated soil at the Elite Laundry site, DHHS assumes that the majority of those that may be potentially exposed to be children. Children are more likely to trespass on the site, come into contact with, and ingest the contaminated soil. It is from these assumptions that DHHS considers the LECR for children to be the most appropriate prediction for increased risk at the Elite Laundry site.


CONCLUSIONS

DHHS has evaluated sampling data collected in 1998 and 2001, from groundwater and soil samples at the Elite Laundry site. This sampling data was collected for the following matrices: solid soil from test pits, surface soil sludge, soil gas and groundwater. DHHS evaluated exposure to site contaminants in these matrices for juveniles and adults, but assumes that a child trespasser represents the human receptor most likely to be exposed at the site.

  1. Analysis from test pits, soil gas samples and sludge indicate that PCE contamination exists on the Elite Laundry site. It is assumed that the majority of those who come in contact with the contaminated media are children. Specifically, the medium that individuals are most likely to come into contact with is contaminated surface soil (observed in the form of 'sludge') that exists intermittently throughout the southwestern portion of the site. ATSDR and DHHS have evaluated the public health implications of exposure to contaminated sludge material and have determined that it is unlikely that exposures to PCE would result in any non-carcinogenic adverse health effects.

  2. When taking into consideration the cancer effects associated with PCE exposure, DHHS calculated Lifetime Exess Cancer Risks (LECR) of 3.32x10-4 and 1.85x10-4, for children and adult workers, respectively. While this calculation may not be an indication of a real-life increase in cancer to those who are exposed to PCE in the sludge material, it does indicate a potential added risk, suggesting a difference between the cancer incidence under the exposure conditions and the background incidence in the absence of exposure [4]. Exposures to PCE-contaminated sludge constitutes a public health hazard because of the existence of a completed pathway, an unacceptable LECR, and no current means to prevent exposure.

  3. PCE from the Elite Laundry site has contaminated the groundwater beneath the Elite site property. Monitoring wells indicate PCE levels above the GW-2 guideline, which is an indicator of a potential threat to indoor air quality. This contamination represents an indeterminate health hazard, since there is evidence of contamination, but it is undetermined if individuals come in contact with it through inhalation. Indoor air monitoring has not been conducted when conditions for vapor intrusion are most favorable.

RECOMMENDATIONS

  1. Exposure to contaminated surface soil should be prevented.

  2. Access to the site should be restricted.

  3. If exceedences of GW-2 groundwater guidelines for CVOCs occur within 30 feet occupied buildings, further indoor air testing should be conducted (if possible when meteorological conditions create a frozen ground or low temperatures in the vadose zone).

PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION PLAN

The purpose of the Public Health Action Plan is to ensure that this document not only identifies any current or potential human health hazards, but also provides a plan of action to mitigate and prevent injuries or human health effects resulting from exposures to hazardous substances at the site. The first section of the Public Health Action Plan contains a description of completed or ongoing actions to mitigate exposures to environmental contamination. In the second section, there is a list of additional public health actions that will be implemented in the future.

Completed or Ongoing Actions

  • DES has identified and characterized chemical contamination at the site. This activity will continue.

Planned Actions

  • DHHS can evaluate any additional environmental sampling data that becomes available for the site.

  • DHHS will prepare a health consultation that will evaluate physical hazards at the site.

PREPARER OF THE REPORT

Todd C. Hudson, Health Assessor
Bureau of Health Risk Assessment
Office of Community & Public Health


REFERENCES

  1. Jaworski Geotech, Inc. 1998. Environmental Site Assessment, Bussiere Property, Lots 290, 290.01, 292, 293; Jaffrey, New Hampshire. Project No. N98286E.

  2. Sanborn, Head & Associates. 2002. Site Investigation Report: Former Elite Laundry Site.

  3. ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). 1997. Toxicological Profile for Tetrachloroethylene. Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Chamblee, GA.

  4. U.S. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1993. Reference Dose: Description and Use in Health Risk Assessments. Integrated Risk Information System, U.S. EPA, Washington, DC. http://www.epa.gov/iris/index.html

CERTIFICATION

The Health Consultation for Elite Dry Cleaning Facility in Jaffrey, New Hampshire was prepared by the New Hampshire Department of Health and Human Services under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology and procedures existing at the time the health consultation was initiated.

Gregory V. Ulirsch
Technical Project Officer, SPS,SSAB,DHAC


The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation (DHAC), ATSDR, has reviewed this Health Consultation and concurs with its findings.

Richard Gillig
Chief, SSAB,DHAC,ATSDR


TABLES

Table 1.

Soil gas values (µg/m3) from surface soil samples taken from the Elite Laundry site. An ambient air sample is included
  SG-2 SG-5 SG-8 SG-12 SG-13 SG-14 SG-15 SG-16 SG-17 SG-18 SG-20 SG-21 AIRa
Vinyl Chloride 1.3b 1.3b 1.3b 1.3b 1.3b 1.3b 1.3b 1.3b 1.3b 1.3b 1.3b 1.3b 1.3b
1,1-Dichloroethylene 2.0b 2.0b 2.0b 2.0b 12 2.0b 2.0b 2.0b 2.0b 2.0b 2.0b 2.0b 2.0b
trans-1,2-dichloroethylene 2.1b 2.1b 2.1b 2.1b 41 2.1b 2.1b 2.1b 2.1b 34 2.1b 2.1b 2.1b
1,1-Dichloroethane 2.0b 2.0b 2.0b 2.0b 2.0b 2.0b 2.0b 2.0b 2.0b 2.0 2.0b 2.0b 2.0b
cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene 2.0b 2.0b 2.0b 2.0b 180 2.0b 2.0b 2.0b 2.0b 40 2.0b 2.0b 2.0b
1,2-Dichloroethane 2.1b 2.1b 2.1b 2.1b 2.1b 2.1b 2.1b 2.1b 2.1b 2.1b 2.1b 2.1b 2.1b
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 2.8b 2.8b 26 6.4 95 3.6 2.8b 2.8b 8.0 2.8b 2.8b 11 2.8b
Trichloroethylene 1.9b 1.9b 24 99 2400 1.9b 1.9b 1.9b 6.5 140 1.9b 14 1.9b
Tetrachloroethylene 450 1300 150,000c 230,000c 3,000,000c 78,000c 210 210 120,000c 1,500c 420 90,000c 8.2
a Ambient air sample taken at one meter above contaminated soil.
b Undetected at specified reporting limit.
c Value exceeds the upper range of calibration.


Table 2.

PCE levels (ppb) from test pits, a surface soil composite sample (SC-1) and a surface sludge sample, from the Elite Laundry site.
S-1 (2.5 ft)a TP-1

S-2 (5.5 ft)a

S-3 (10.5 ft)a TP-2 TP-3 TP-4 TP-5 TP-6 TP-8 TP-10 SC-1 SLUDGE
450,000 830,000 2,500,000b 2,800,000b 200 3,000 <60c <60c 150 4700 350,000d 41,000,000
a S-1, S-2 and S-3 are subsets of TP-1; they were taken at the same location at varying depths.
b Concentration limit exceeds calibration range.
c Below detection limit.
d SC-1 was a composite of soil was taken from the outfall pipe where it is believed that solvents were dumped.


Table 3.

Data from monitoring wells (ppb), sampled in 1998 and 2001, around the Elite Laundry site
  CC-5 CC-6 CC-7 CC-8 NH
GW-2
Guideline
1998 2001 1998 2001 1998 2001 1998 2001
cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene NDa <2b NDa <2b 1.2 4 200 170 NA
trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene NDa <2b NDa <2b NDa <2b 7.9 7 NA
Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) 1.5 <2b 7,100 33,000c 350 150 130 150 3,000
Trichloroethylene (TCE) NDa <2b 4.3 <2b 7.9 10 160 10 300
a A non-detect, compound was not detected in the sample.
b Indicates that the amount was less than the reporting limit.
c This value is the mean of two separate samples.


Table 4.

Data from additional monitoring wells (ppb), sampled in 1998 and 2001, around the Elite Laundry site
  JB-1 JB-2 JB-3 NH
GW-2
Guideline
1998 2001 1998 2001 1998 2001
cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene <2a <2a 13 <2a 1030 8200 NA
Vinyl Chloride <2a <2a <2a <2a 16 <200b 2
Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) 2 4 27 84 168 100 3,000
Trichloroethylene (TCE) <2a <2a 4 4 438 500 300
a Indicates that the amount detected is less than the reporting limit.
b Reporting limit high since the sample required dilution to quantify PCE.


Table 5.

Data from additional monitoring wells (ppb), sampled 2001, around the Elite site
  SH-1 SH-3 SH-5 SH-4 SH-6 NH GW-2
Guideline
trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene 5 20 <2a <1000b <2a NA
cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene 150 1100 <2a <1000b <2a NA
Chloroform 9 <10 <2a <1000b <2a NA
Trichloroethylene (TCE) 26 90 <2a <1000b <2a 300
Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) 18 80 <2a 49,000 <2a 3,000
a Indicates that the amount detected is less than the reporting limit
b Reporting limit high since the sample required dilution to quantify PCE


Table 6a.

Calculation of cancer risk for a child
Calculation of Cancer Risk Due to Direct Contact with Contaminated Soil (Oral and Dermal Pathways)
Concentration from Soil Sludge Sample
The Former Elite Laundry & Dry Cleaning Site
Jaffrey, Cheshire County, New Hampshire
ADD = EPC * [(IR * EF * ED *RAForal/ AT * BW) + (SA * EF * ED * AF *RAFdermal/ AT * BW)] * CF
where:
ADD = average daily dose (mg/kg/day)
EPC = soil exposure point concentration (mg/kg)1
IR = ingestion rate (mg/day)2,3
SA = skin surface area in contact with soil on days exposed (cm2/day)3,5
RAF = relative absorbtion factor (unitless)3
AF = soil-to-skin-adherance factor (mg/cm2)4
EF = exposure frequency (days/year)3,6
ED = exposure duration (years)3,7
BW = body weight (kg)3,8
AT = averaging time (days)3
CF = conversion factor (kg/mg)
CSF = cancer slope factor (mg/kg/day-1)3
LCR = Lifetime Cancer Risk (unitless)
 
Age EPC IR RAForal SA RAFdermal AF EF ED AT BW CF ADD CSF LCR

7-16 years 41,000 100 1.0 3,432 0.04 0.2 125 10 25,550 40 1.0×10-6 6.39×10-3 5.20×10-2 3.32×10-4

Notes:

(1) EPCs calculated from soil surface sludge sample.
(2) Ingestion rate specific to reasonable exposure scenario for children ages 7-16.
(3) This measurement is specific to the NH DES Recommendations.
(4) This factor represents adherence characteristics of wet soil, based on EPA Exposure Factors Handbook.
(5) Typical percent of skin area exposed for children ages 7-16.
(6) Typical amount of time that children ages 7-16 are in contact with outdoor soil, based on NH-specific climatological data.
(7) Typical exposure duration for children ages 7-16.
(8) Typical body weight for children ages 7-16.


Table 6b.

Calculation of cancer risk for an adult worker
Calculation of Cancer Risk Due to Direct Contact with Contaminated Soil (Oral and Dermal Pathways)
Concentration from Soil Sludge Sample
The Former Elite Laundry & Dry Cleaning Site
Jaffrey, Cheshire County, New Hampshire
ADD = EPC * [(IR * EF * ED *RAForal/ AT * BW) + (SA * EF * ED * AF *RAFdermal/ AT * BW)] * CF
where:
ADD = average daily dose (mg/kg/day)
EPC = soil exposure point concentration (mg/kg)1
IR = ingestion rate (mg/day)2,3
SA = skin surface area in contact with soil on days exposed (cm2/day)3,5
RAF = relative absorbtion factor (unitless)3
AF = soil-to-skin-adherance factor (mg/cm2)4
EF = exposure frequency (days/year)3,6
ED = exposure duration (years)3,7
BW = body weight (kg)3,8
AT = averaging time (days)3
CF = conversion factor (kg/mg)
CSF = cancer slope factor (mg/kg/day-1)3
LCR = Lifetime Cancer Risk (unitless)
 
Age EPC IR RAForal SA RAFdermal AF EF ED AT BW CF ADD CSF LCR

17-31 years 41,000 100 1.0 3,104 0.04 0.2 83 15 25,550 70 1.0×10-6 3.56×10-3 5.20×10-2 1.85×10-4

Notes:

(1) EPCs calculated from soil surface sludge sample.
(2) Ingestion rate specific to reasonable exposure scenario for adults.
(3) This measurement is specific to the NH DES Recommendations.
(4) This factor represents adherence characteristics of wet soil, based on EPA Exposure Factors Handbook.
(5) Typical percent of skin area exposed for adult workers ages 17 and up.
(6) Typical amount of time that an adult worker is in contact with outdoor soil, based on NH-specific climatological data.
(7) Typical exposure duration in adult worker scenarios.
(8) Typical body weight for adults ages 17 and up.



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