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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

GENDRON JUNKYARD
PELHAM, HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, NEW HAMPSHIRE


VI. CONCLUSIONS

The Gendron Junkyard site was a public health hazard in the past, and would be again in the future if the site were redeveloped as a residential property. It is uncertain whether the site is a public health hazard currently because data for several exposure pathways are not available. In this Public Health Assessment, DHHS identified and evaluated nine exposure pathways. Specific conclusions for each pathway and other findings are listed below.

  1. Onsite Worker Pathway: In the past, workers who handled the auto shredder waste were exposed to high concentrations of lead. Based on uptake models, it is likely that these workers had elevated blood lead levels as a result of the exposure. Therefore, this exposure pathway would be classified as a public health hazard.

  2. Trespasser/Neighbor Pathway: In the past, adolescents who trespassed on the site and neighbors who encountered waste on their property were exposed to chemicals in the waste, but are unlikely to experience any adverse health effects. People who currently trespass on the site and contact the remaining contaminated soils are not at risk. Therefore, this exposure pathway would be classified as no apparent public health hazard.

  3. Island Pond Brook Sediments Pathway: Adults and children could have contacted low-level PCB contamination in the sediments of Island Pond Brook. However, the exposures that would result from infrequent contact with the sediments are not expected to cause adverse health effects. Therefore, this exposure pathway would be classified as no apparent public health hazard. The brook may have been more contaminated in the past but there are no data from that period to permit an evaluation.

  4. Private Well Pathways: Private wells near the Gendron Junkyard do not contain site contaminants at levels of health concern. Therefore, this exposure pathway is considered no public health hazard. However, naturally-occurring arsenic has been detected in several wells at concentrations that pose a low theoretical cancer risk.

  5. Future Residential Development Pathway: Use of the site as a residence would put future residents at risk for adverse health effects from lead and PCB exposures. Therefore, because the site is zoned residential (with a variance for non-residential junkyard activities), the remaining contamination is considered a public health hazard. All the remaining soil contamination appears to be on the Gendron property and is surrounded by a fence. However, final conclusions about the presence of off-site soil contamination should only be made after EPA's post-excavation documentation has been reviewed and confirmed.

  6. Fish Consumption Pathway: PCB contamination in Island Pond Brook may bioconcentrate in the tissues of fish. Fish from the brook have not been tested. Therefore, this pathway could not be evaluated and is considered an indeterminate public health hazard.

  7. Surface Water Pathway: All the contaminated groundwater from the site discharges into Island Pond Brook. Yet, the surface water in the brook has only been tested once in 1989. Therefore, exposures to contaminants in surface water could not be evaluated, and are considered an indeterminate public health hazard.

  8. Air Deposition Pathway: There is no evidence that the neighboring properties were affected by contaminated dust blown off the site. Therefore this is considered no public health hazard.

  9. The rates of cancer in the community around the site are not elevated. The rates of 20 of the 23 cancer types in Pelham were within their expected ranges for the period between 1993 and 1997. Colon cancer in males, cervical cancer in females, and cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx in males were found to be statistically elevated for Pelham as whole, but not within the community surrounding the site.

VII. RECOMMENDATIONS

  1. The fence around the site boundary should be maintained to prevent trespassing.

  2. EPA should provide documentation on post-excavation sampling to confirm that all soils with contamination greater than residential standards were removed from the neighboring properties.

  3. Surface and subsurface soils on the site should be tested to identify and characterize any contamination still present after the EPA removal action.

  4. Fish from Island Pond Brook should be tested for PCBs.

  5. Private wells adjacent to the site should be tested periodically for VOCs until the groundwater plume has been controlled and a groundwater management permit has been issued for the site.

  6. Homeowners should test their own wells for naturally-occurring arsenic and other natural contaminants (e.g., radon). If the results are greater than existing or proposed drinking water standards, homeowners should consider installing effective treatment systems to reduce their risks from exposure to these contaminants.

  7. Surface water in Island Pond Brook should be tested for VOCs.

VIII. PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION PLAN

The purpose of the Public Health Action Plan is to ensure that this Public Health Assessment not only identifies any current and potential exposure pathways and related health hazards, but also provides a plan of action to mitigate and prevent adverse human health effects resulting from exposures to hazardous substances in the environment. The first section of the Public Health Action Plan contains a description of completed and ongoing actions taken to mitigate environmental contamination. In the second section there is a list of additional public health actions that are planned for the future.

(A) Completed or Ongoing Actions

  1. Since 1997, DES has been monitoring the groundwater quality in the vicinity of the Gendron Junkyard site. Twenty-five private wells in the area have been tested as part of this monitoring program.

  2. Between September 1998 and March 1999, EPA removed the entire contaminated ASR pile from the site (12,000 tons) [4].

  3. In 1999, EPA removed contaminated soils that were beneath the ASR pile on the neighboring properties.

  4. From August 1999 to October 1999, in response to reports of elevated lead concentrations in private wells near the site, DHHS advised residents against drinking the water and conducted a blood-lead exposure investigation. The exposure investigation in 1999 consisted of testing the blood of participating residents from homes where lead had been detected at concentrations greater than the drinking water standard. All of the participants without an occupational history of lead exposure had blood lead levels below the level of concern set by the CDC. However, by October 2000, DES had determined that the wells were not contaminated with lead from the site. The original reports of elevated lead appeared to be related to lead-alloy fixtures near the sampling locations, and were not representative of the water residents were receiving at the tap after the pipes had been flushed.

  5. In May and June 2000,DHHS staff went door-to-door to distribute an educational needs assessment survey to the residents within one-quarter mile of the Gendron Junkyard site. In October 2000,DHHS held a public availability session at the Pelham Town Offices. The objective of the survey and the availability session was to gather community health concerns and questions regarding the site so that these could be addressed in the Public Health Assessment.

  6. In 2000, EPA removed the top layer of contaminated soils (one-foot thick) from the Gendron property and replaced it with clean fill. Between this effort and the excavation of contaminated soils from the neighboring properties in 1999, EPA has removed a total of 5,600 tons of contaminated soil from the site.

(B) Planned Actions

  1. DHHS will present the recommendations of this document to EPA, DES, and local officials with authority or regulatory jurisdiction over site activities.

  2. DHHS will review any new data collected on onsite soils, fish tissue, private wells, or surface water.

  3. DHHS will review the final post-excavation documentation from EPA, when it is available, to confirm that all contamination greater than residential standards was in fact removed from the neighboring properties.

  4. DHHS will share the findings of this report related to worker exposures with the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).

  5. DES will test private wells adjacent to the site for VOCs two times per year until a groundwater management permit is issued for the site.

  6. DES will test the surface water in Island Pond Brook for VOCs two times per year until a groundwater management permit is issued for the site.

  7. DES, in conjunction with EPA and DHHS, will collect and test fish from Island Pond Brook for PCBs.

  8. DHHS will continue to advise DES and EPA on any new questions of health risk at the site.

IX. PREPARERS OF REPORT

Report Authors

Phil Trowbridge, Environmental Health Risk Analyst
Stephanie Miller, Assistant State Epidemiologist
Kerran Vigroux, Health Promotion Advisor
Dennis Pinski, Supervisor

Bureau of Health Risk Assessment
Office of Community and Public Health
New Hampshire Department of Health and Human Services
6 Hazen Drive
Concord, New Hampshire 03301

ATSDR Technical Project Officer

Greg Ulirsch

Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
1600 Clifton Avenue, Mailstop E-32
Atlanta, Georgia 30333

ATSDR Regional Representatives

William Sweet, Ph.D., DABT, Senior Regional Representative
Susanne Simon, Regional Representative

Office of Regional Operations, Region I
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
One Congress Street, Suite 1100
Boston, Massachusetts 02114-2023


X. REFERENCES

  1. Woodward & Curran Inc. Letter from Anne Tischbein to David Pinsonneault, Regarding Analytical Data, Gendron Property, Pelham, NH. September 29, 1997.

  2. Environmental Protection Agency. Removal Program, Preliminary Assessment/Site Investigation Report for the Gendron Junkyard Site, Pelham, New Hampshire. Emergency Planning and Response Branch, Boston, MA. January 1998.

  3. Environmental Protection Agency. Memo From Scott Clifford to Frank Gardner, Regarding Field Analytical Results - Gendron Junkyard. Office of Environmental Measurement and Evaluation, Lexington MA. May 13, 1999.

  4. Environmental Protection Agency Trip Report for the Gendron Junkyard Site, Pelham, New Hampshire. Office of Site Remediation and Restoration, Boston, MA. June 8, 1999.

  5. Environmental Protection Agency. Memo From Scott Clifford et al. to Frank Gardner, Regarding Field Analytical Results - Gendron Junkyard. Office of Environmental Measurement and Evaluation, Lexington MA. August 25, 1999.

  6. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Health Consultation for Lead Exposure Investigation, Hobbs Road-Balcom Road Area, Pelham, New Hampshire. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, Georgia. September 28, 1999.

  7. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Health Consultation for Lead Exposure Investigation, Hobbs Road-Balcom Road Area, Pelham, New Hampshire. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, Georgia. December 17, 1999.

  8. Sanborn Head and Associates. Site Investigation Report, Gendron Salvage Yard, Pelham, NH. Concord, NH. March 3, 2000.

  9. Sanborn Head and Associates. Addendum to Site Investigation Report - Bedrock Monitoring Wells, Gendron Salvage Yard, Pelham, NH. Concord, NH. April 28, 2000.

  10. Personal communication. Frank Gardner, On-Scene Coordinator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Boston, MA. October 2000.

  11. Haley & Aldrich Inc. Letter of transmittal from Muriel Robinette to Gary Lynn, Regarding Analytical Data for Soil Samples - Metals Pile on Gendron Site. Manchester, NH. November 22, 2000.

  12. Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. Automobile Shredder Residue Report: An evaluation of mercury switches, the heavy metal composition of the components in auto shredder residue, and their potential effect on the environment and human health. Groundwater and Solid Waste Division, St. Paul, MN. June 1995.

  13. New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services. Contaminated Sites Risk Characterization and Management Policy. Concord, NH. January 1998.

  14. Bradley LJN, Magee BH, and Allen SL. Background levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and selected metals in New England urban soils. J. Soil Contam. 3(4): 349-361. 1994.

  15. Peters SC et al. Arsenic occurrence in New Hampshire drinking water. Environ. Sci. Technol. 33:1328-1333. 1999.

  16. U.S. Geological Survey. Relation of arsenic, iron, and manganese in groundwater to aquifer type, bedrock lithogeochemistry, and land use in the New England coastal basins. Water Resources Investigations Report 99-4162, National Water Quality Assessment Program, Pembroke NH. 1999.

  17. American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures. 2000.

  18. New Hampshire Department of Health and Human Services. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance of New Hampshire Adults, 1987-1998 Trends and Comparative Data. Concord, NH. December 1999.

  19. National Cancer Institute. Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer. [http://imsdd.meb.uni-bonn.de/cancernet/202840.html ]. December 2000.

  20. New Hampshire Department of Employment Security. "1998 Profile of New Hampshire's Counties, Cities, Towns, and Unincorporated Places." Economic and Labor Market Information Bureau, Manchester, NH. March 2000.

  21. Brownson R. et al. Chronic Disease Epidemiology and Control Second Edition. American Public Health Association. 1998. pg. 355.

  22. Campbell DE, Stevens MS. Cancer in New Hampshire 1997. New Hampshire State Cancer Registry, Hanover, NH. July 1999.

  23. National Cancer Institute. "What You Need To Know About Cancer of the Cervix". http://cancernet.nci.nih.gov/wyntk_pubs/cervix.htm . 2000.

  24. Lang, NP. Colon Cancer from Etiology to Prevention. American Journal of Surgery. 174(6): 578-582. December 1997.

  25. Ries LAG, et al.. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1973-1997. National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD. 2000.

  26. Rothman, KJ and Greenland S. Modern Epidemiology, Second Edition. Lippincott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia. 1998. Pg.486.

  27. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Draft for Public Comment. Atlanta, Georgia. December 1998.

  28. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Lead. Atlanta, Georgia. July 1999.

  29. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Arsenic. Atlanta, Georgia. September 2000.

  30. National Toxicology Program. Report on Carcinogens, 9th Edition. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC. 2000.

  31. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Preventing Lead Poisoning in Young Children. Atlanta, Georgia. October 1991.

  32. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Objectives. DHHS Publication No. (PHS) 91-50212. Public Health Service, Washington, DC. 1990.

  33. Hu H et al. The relationship of bone and blood lead to hypertension. JAMA, 275(15): 1171-1176. April 17, 1996.

  34. Staessen JA et al. Lead exposure and conventional and ambulatory blood pressure: a prospective population study. JAMA, 275(20): 1563-1570. May 22, 1996.

  35. Muldoon SB et al. Effects of blood lead levels on cognitive function of older women. Neuroepidemiology, 15(2): 62-72. 1996.

  36. Payton M et al. Relations of bone and blood lead to cognitive function: the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 20(1): 19-27. 1998.

  37. Schwartz BS et al. Past adult lead exposure is associated with longitudinal decline in cognitive function. Neurology, 55(8): 1144-1150. October 24, 2000.

  38. Environmental Protection Agency. Adult Lead Model. Available online at http://www.epa.gov/superfund/programs/lead/index.htm . December 2000.

  39. Tange RA et al. The prevalence of allergy in young children with an acquired cholesteatoma. Auris Nasus Larynx, 27(2): 113-116. April 2000.

  40. Gould BE. Pathophysiology for the Health-Related Professions. W.B. Sauders Company, Philadephia, PA. 1997.

  41. Roy F. Weston, Inc. Post-Excavation PCB/Lead Sample Results Location Map, DRAFT, Gendron Junkyard, Pelham, NH. Region I Superfund Technical Assessment and Response Team. December 13, 2000.

CERTIFICATION

The Public Health Assessment for the Gendron Junkyard site in Pelham, New Hampshire was prepared by the New Hampshire Department of Health and Human Services under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology and procedures existing at the time the Public Health Assessment was begun.

Gregory V. Ulirsch, M.S.
Technical Project Officer
Superfund Site Assessment Branch (SSAB)
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation (DHAC)
ATSDR


The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, ATSDR, has reviewed this Public Health Assessment and concurs with its findings.

Richard Gillig
Acting Chief, SSAB, DHAC, ATSDR


APPENDIX A: TABLES

Appendix A was not available in electronic format for conversion to HTML at the time of preparation of this document. To obtain a hard copy of the document, please contact:

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
Attn: Chief, Program Evaluation, Records, and Information Services Branch E-56
1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, Georgia 30333


APPENDIX B: FIGURES

Intro Map
Figure 1. Intro Map


APPENDICES C - H

Appendices C through H were not available in electronic format for conversion to HTML at the time of preparation of this document. To obtain a hard copy of the document, please contact:

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
Attn: Chief, Program Evaluation, Records, and Information Services Branch E-56
1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, Georgia 30333



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