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  1. Based on the information reviewed, ATSDR considers this site a public health hazard because humans were probably exposed to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse health effects. Human exposure to VOCs and metals may occur or may be occurring (and probably occurred in the past) via ingestion of drinking water and via dermal absorption and inhalation of contaminants from vapors and aerosols from contaminated groundwater. At present, all drinking water is supplied by municipal sources and current human exposure to contaminated water supplies is not a concern. However, past exposure to contaminated groundwater from municipal and private water supply wells is of public health hazard, as the consumers of these water supplies may have been exposed to a variety of carcinogenic (tetrachloroethylene) and noncarcinogenic (1,2-dichloro-ethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane) VOCs for a number of years.
  2. Soils both on- and off-site have been contaminated with VOCs, PCBs, and heavy metals. Potential exists for exposure by area residents and on-site workers to contaminants present in on- and off-site soils via incidental ingestion, direct contact, and inhalation of fugitive dusts.
  3. Sediment samples have been found to contain low levels of VOCs and elevated levels of heavy metals, PCBs, and PAHs. Potential exists for recreational users of waterways and area residents to be exposed to contaminated sediments by incidental ingestion and direct contact exists.
  4. Surface water samples, mainly from the Hitchiner-Hendrix discharge stream, which flows into the Souhegan River, have shown the presence of VOCs at elevated concentrations. Area residents and recreational users of area waterways could be potentially exposed to contaminants by incidental ingestion, direct contact, and inhalation of vapors from contaminated surface water.


  1. Continued monitoring of groundwater on a regular basis, is recommended both on- and off-site, to determine the extent of contaminant migration from the site. This should include routine sampling of all area drinking water supplies (especially along North River Road) and monitoring wells on and off-site. Additional sampling of residential water supply wells for metals should also be considered. The concentrations of contaminants remaining in area groundwater should eventually be reduced to levels which are protective of human health.
  2. The levels of contaminants in surface soils in and around the site should continue to be monitored. This should include periodic sampling for fugitive dusts in ambient air. If appropriate, speciation of chromium in soil samples for the trivalent and hexavalent forms should also be conducted, as the hexavalent form is a human carcinogen by the inhalation route of exposure. Additional soil sampling for PCBs is also needed in order to verify and characterize the extent of off-site PCB contamination, as only two off-site soil samples were analyzed for PCBs, with a high level being detected in one sample. The removal and proper disposal of soils with high concentrations of contaminants should be conducted if the presence of these soils is determined to pose a threat to human health. Fencing or other restrictive measures should also be considered in such areas to limit access by the public.
  3. Sediment samples in area waterways, both on- and off-site, should continue to be taken periodically, in order to monitor levels of contaminants present in this media.
  4. Area surface waters should continue to be monitored routinely for contaminants which are migrating or being discharged off-site. Process waste waters from the Hitchiner facility, that are discharging into the discharge stream, should be sampled on a regular basis, in accordance with their NPDES permit.
  5. The Savage Municipal Water Supply Site, Milford, NH, has been evaluated by ATSDR's Health Activities Recommendation Panel for appropriate follow-up with respect to health activities. Although there are indications that past exposure to drinking water containing contaminants at levels of public health concern has occurred, this site is not being considered for follow-up health activities at this time. The Panel, however, recommended that a dose reconstruction analysis be performed by ATSDR to better characterize the duration and levels of exposure. Once the dose reconstruction is complete, the site will be reevaluated by HARP for appropriate follow-up health activities.


This interim public health assessment was prepared by the New Hampshire Department of Health and Human Services under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology and procedures existing at the time the public health assessment was initiated.

Gregory V. Ulirsch
Technical Project Officer, SPS, RPB, DHAC

The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation (DHAC), ATSDR, has reviewed this public health assessment and concurs with its findings.

Robert C. Williams, PE, DEE
Director, DHAC, ATSDR


NH Division of Public Health Services

John L. Guty
Environmental Health Specialist

Ellen G. Cavalier, MPH
Supervisor, Risk Assessment Program

Bridget A. Whalen
Word Processor Operator


Louise A. House
Regional Representative
Regional Operations


Gregory V. Ulirsch
Environmental Health Engineer
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation


  1. Draft Remedial Investigation, Savage Well Site, Milford, New Hampshire, Prepared by HMM Associates, Inc., Concord, MA for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - Region I, Boston MA. November 1989.
  2. Preliminary Health Assessment, Savage Municipal Well Site, Milford, New Hampshire, Prepared by New Hampshire Division of Public Health Services, Concord, NH for Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA. January 1990.
  3. Memo from R. Geohlert, Environmental Protection Agency, to T. Bazenas, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. December 13, 1991.
  4. Hydrogeological Investigation of the Savage Well Site, Milford, New Hampshire, Volumes I and II, Prepared by Hydrogeological Investigation Unit-New Hampshire Water Supply and Pollution Control Commission, Concord, NH. June 1985.
  5. Memo from Sharon A. Yergeau, NH Bureau of Hazardous Waste Management, to the Hendrix Wire and Cable file. February 25, 1983.
  6. Memo from James B. Zeppieri, NH Waste Management Division, to John Guty, NH Division of Public Health Services. May 23, 1990.
  7. RCRA Inspection List by Ken Marschner, NH Bureau of Hazardous Waste Management. February 24, 1983.
  8. Letter from William A. Healy, NH Water Supply and Pollution Control Commission, to the Hitchiner Manufacturing Company. June 27, 1980.
  9. Letter from Michael J. Deazy, New England Steel Fabricators, Inc., to Sharon A. Yergeau, NH Bureau of Hazardous Waste Management. September 28, 1983.
  10. Memo from Arthur J. Cunningham, to Lynn A. Woodard, NH Water Supply and Pollution Control Commission. February 17, 1983.
  11. Letter from William A. Healy and Brian C. Strohm, NH Bureau of Hazardous Waste Management, to Thomas Hollis, Jr., OK Tool Company, Inc. June 6, 1983.
  12. Record of Decision, Savage Municipal Water Supply Superfund site, Milford, New Hampshire. Prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency September 27, 1991.
  13. Personal Communication from Dr. Donald Fritz, Veterinarian, Peterborough, NH. January 16, 1991.
  14. Personal Communication from Michael Lynch, Milford Town Health Officer. April 26, 1990.
  15. Draft Baseline Health Risk Assessment Report, Savage Well NPL Site, Milford, New Hampshire, Prepared by Environmental Science & Engineering, Inc., Amherst, NH for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-Region I, Boston, MA. July 1990.
  16. Toxicological Profile for Arsenic, Draft for Public Comment; ATSDR, U.S. Public Health Service, November 1987.
  17. Toxicological Profile for Cadmium; ATSDR, U.S. Public Health Service, March 1989.
  18. Toxicological Profile for Chromium, Draft for Public Comment; ATSDR, U.S. Public Health Service, October 1987.
  19. Toxicological Profile for Selected PCBs, Draft for Public Comment; ATSDR, U.S. Public Health Service, November 1987.
  20. Toxicological Profile for Nickel; ATSDR, U.S. Public Health Service, December 1988.
  21. New Hampshire Vital Statistics - 1988 Annual Report, Prepared by the NH Division of Public Health Services, Bureau of Vital Records and Health Statistics, Concord, NH. April 1990.
  22. Personal Communication from Marie Kiely, NH Division of Public Health Services, Bureau of Disease Control. April 25, 1990.
  23. Toxicological Profile for Lead; ATSDR, U.S. Public Health Service, June 1990.


Appendix 1
Appendix I. Site Map.

Appendix 2
Appendix II. Map With Locations of Significant Site Features.

Appendix 3
Appendix III. Table of On-Site Contaminants of Concern.

Appendix 4
Appendix IV. Table of Off-Site Contaminants of Concern.

Appendix 5
Appendix V. Table of Residential Well Sampling.

Appendix 6
Appendix VI. Groundwater Elevation Map.

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