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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENTTroy Mills Landfill
Troy, Cheshire County, New Hampshire

EPA ID No. GAD980559413
October 28, 2004

Prepared by:

Bureau of Environmental and Occupational Health
New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services
Under a Cooperative Agreement with
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry




Appendix B:

Tables
Table 1 : Summary of Troy Mills Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Conducted Between 1982 and 2001
Chemical Maximum Concentrations Detected Between May 1982 and November 2001 (ppb) Sample Date Associated With Max. Concentration 2001 Health-based Comparison Value (ppb) Reference
VOCs
Acetone 790* 7/1995 ND 20,000 Int. EMEG
Benzene 15 08/1996 9 0.6 CREG
Ethyl benzene 150 05/1983 89 700 MCL
Cumene (Isopropyl benzene) 59 12/2000 45    
Carbon disulfide 250 07/1995 ND 1,000 Child RMEG
Chloroethane 15.5 12/1987 ND    
Chloromethane 5 05/1988 ND    
Chlorotoluene, 2- 5 12/2000 ND 200 Child RMEG
Dichloroethane, 1,1- 90 12/1987 17    
Dichloroethane, 1,2- 7.9 5/1982 ND 5 MCL
Dichloroethene, 1,2- 190 12/2000 150 0.4 CREG
Trichloroethane 285 05/1983 8    
Trichloroethene 2.4 06/1998 ND 5 MCL
Tetrahydrofuran 430 11/2001 430    
Vinyl chloride 6 07/1984 ND 0.03 CREG
Methylene chloride 94 05/1988 ND 5 MCL
Methyl ethyl ketone 13,000* 7/1995 ND    
Methyl isobutyl ketone 48.5 03/1989 ND    
Toluene 5,050 05/1990 54 200 Int. EMEG
Xylenes 410 07/1995 230 2,000 Int. EMEG
SVOCs 9 11/1996 ND    
Cresol (benzyl alcohol) 2,800 11/1996 ND 500 Child RMEG
Butylbenzyl phthalate 2,800 8/1996 110 2,000 Child RMEG
Di(2-thylhexyl) phthalate 71,000 8/1996 ND 3 CREG
Di-n-octyl phthalate 3,000 6/1997 52 4,000 Int. EMEG
Naphthalene 95 11/2001 20 6,000 Int. EMEG
TOTAL METALS
Arsenic 20 11/2001 20 3 Chronic EMEG Child
Barium 500 11/2001 500 700 Child RMEG
Cadmium 5.6 4/1987 NA 2 Chronic EMEG
Chromium 233 9/1987 NA 100 MCL
Lead 214 9/1987 NA 15 MCL
Iron 262,000 9/1987 NA    
Manganese 17,000 6/1997 NA 500 Child RMEG
Zinc 756 9/1987 NA 3,000 Chronic EMEG


Definitions
ppb parts per billion
VOCs Volatile organic compounds
SVOCs Semivolatile organic compounds
ND Non detect
Int. EMEG Intermediate Environmental Media Evaluation Guide
CREG Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide for 1x10 -6 excess cancer risk
MCL Maximum Contaminant Level for drinking water (EPA)
Child RMEG Child Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guide
Chronic EMEG Chronic Environmental Media Evaluation Guide
Blank No Health-based Comparison Value
Bolded Items Contaminants of concern
* Data is based on Phase I pre-design studies report by GEI Consultants Inc., in October 1995.


Table 2.

Summary of Soil/Source Sample Analytical Results for Troy Mills Landfill December 2001
Chemical Sample Concentration (ppm) Health-based Comparison Value (ppm) Reference
SVOCs
Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate 250,000 0.6 Chronic EMEG
Di-n-octyl phthalate 12,000 4 Int. EMEG
Inorganics
Chromium 4.4 0.1 MCL


Definitions
ppm parts per million
MCL Maximum contaminant level for drinking water (EPA)
SVOCs Semivolatile organic compounds
Int. EMEG Intermediate Environmental Media Evaluation Guide (ATSDR)
Chronic EMEG Chronic Environmental Media Evaluation Guide (ATSDR)
Bolded Items Contaminants of concern
LNAPL Light nonaqueous phase liquid, a product layer that is less dense than water and therefore floats on top of the water table.


Table 3.

Summary of Surface Water Sample Analytical Results for Troy Mills Landfill December 2001
Chemical Maximum Detected Concentration (ppb) Sample Location Health-based Comparison Value (ppb) Reference
VOCs
Cis-1, 2-dichloroethene 200 SW-04 70 MCL
SVOCs
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate 1,600 SW-01 3 CREG
Inorganics
Aluminum 2,320 SW-17 20,000 Int. EMEG
Lead 6.6 SW-16 15 MCL
Manganese 17,000 SW-03 500 Child RMEG


Definitions
 
ppb parts per billion
VOCs Volatile organic compounds
SVOCs Semivolatile organic compounds
Inorganics Inorganics
MCL Maximum Contaminant Level for drinking water (EPA)
CREG Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide for 1x10-6 excess cancer risk
Int. EMEG Intermediate Environmental Media Evaluation Guide (ATSDR)
RMEG Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guide
Bolded Items Contaminants of concern


Table 4.

Summary of Sediment Samples Analytical Results for Troy Mills Landfill December 2001
Chemical Maximum Detected Concentration (ppm) Health-based Comparison Value (ppm) Reference
VOCs
Cis-1,2-dichloroethene 0.2 600 Int. EMEG
Toluene 0.02 10,000 Int. EMEG
SVOCs
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate 1.6 50 CREG
Inorganics
Aluminum 2.3 4,000 Int. EMEG
Manganese 17.1 3,000  
Zinc .55 20,000  


Definitions
ppm Parts per million
VOCs Volatile organic compounds
SVOCs Semivolatile organic compounds
Int. EMEG Intermediate Environmental Media Evaluation Guide (ATSDR)
Chronic EMEG Chronic Environmental Evaluation Guide (ATSDR)
CREG Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide for 1x10-6 excess cancer risk
Bolded Items Contaminants of concern


Table 5.

Summary of Sediment Sample Analytical Results for Sand Dam Pond October 2001
Chemical Maximum Detected Concentration (ppm) Sample Location Health-based Comparison Value (ppm) Reference
Total Metals
chromium 16 DES-SED #3 80,000 Child RMEG
lead 42 DES-SED #3 400 EPA-Soil Guidance


Definitions
ppm Parts per million
Child RMEG Child Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guide
EPA-Soil Guidance EPA revised interim soil lead guidance for CERCLA sites and RCRA corrective action facilities


Appendix C :

ATSDR Plain Language Glossary of Environmental Health Terms
Absorption: How a chemical enters a person's blood after the chemical has been swallowed, has come into contact with the skin, or has been breathed in.
Acute Exposure: Contact with a chemical that happens once or only for a limited period of time. ATSDR defines acute exposures as those that might last up to 14 days.
Additive Effect: A response to a chemical mixture, or combination of substances, that might be expected if the known effects of individual chemicals, seen at specific doses, were added together.
Adverse Health Effect: A change in body function or the structures of cells that can lead to disease or health problems.
Antagonistic Effect: A response to a mixture of chemicals or combination of substances that is less than might be expected if the known effects of individual chemicals, seen at specific doses, were added together.
ATSDR: The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR is a federal health agency in Atlanta, Georgia that deals with hazardous substance and waste site issues. ATSDR gives people information about harmful chemicals in their environment and tells people how to protect themselves from coming into contact with chemicals.
Aquifer: An underground formation of permeable rock or loose material, which can produce useful quantities of water when tapped by a well.
Background Level: An average or expected amount of a chemical in a specific environment. Or, amounts of chemicals that occur naturally in a specific environment.
Biota: Used in public health; things that humans would eat, including animals, fish, and plants.
Cancer: A group of diseases which occur when cells in the body become abnormal and grow, or multiply, out of control
Carcinogen: Any substance shown to cause tumors or cancer in experimental studies.
CERCLA: See Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act.
Chronic Exposure: A contact with a substance or chemical that happens over a long period of time. ATSDR considers exposures of more than one year to be chronic.
Completed Exposure Pathway: See Exposure Pathway.
Comparison Value: (CVs) Concentrations or the amount of substances in air, water, food, and soil that are unlikely, upon exposure, to cause adverse health effects. Comparison values are used by health assessors to select which substances and environmental media (air, water, food and soil) need additional evaluation while health concerns or effects are investigated.
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA): CERCLA was put into place in 1980. It is also known as Superfund. This act concerns releases of hazardous substances into the environment, and the cleanup of these substances and hazardous waste sites. ATSDR was created by this act and is responsible for looking into the health issues related to hazardous waste sites.
Concern: A belief or worry that chemicals in the environment might cause harm to people.
Concentration: How much or the amount of a substance present in a certain amount of soil, water, air, or food.
Contaminant: See Environmental Contaminant.
Delayed Health Effect: A disease or injury that happens as a result of exposures that may have occurred far in the past.
Dose: The amount of a substance to which a person may be exposed, usually on a daily basis. Dose is often explained as "amount of substance(s) per body weight per day."
Dose / Response: The relationship between the amount of exposure (dose) and the change in body function or health that result.
Duration: The amount of time (days, months, years) that a person is exposed to a chemical.
Environmental Contaminant: A substance (chemical) that gets into a system (person, animal, or the environment) in amounts higher than that found in Background Level, or what would be expected.
Environmental Media: Usually refers to the air, water, and soil in which chemicals of interest are found. Sometimes refers to the plants and animals that are eaten by humans. Environmental Media is the second part of an Exposure Pathway.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): The federal agency that develops and enforces environmental laws to protect the environment and the public's health.
Epidemiology: The study of the different factors that determine how often, in how many people, and in which people will disease occur.
Exposure: Coming into contact with a chemical substance.(For the three ways people can come in contact with substances, see Route of Exposure.)
Exposure Assessment: The process of finding the ways people come in contact with chemicals, how often and how long they come in contact with chemicals, and the amounts of chemicals with which they come in contact.
Exposure Pathway: A description of the way that a chemical moves from its source (where it began) to where and how people can come into contact with (or get exposed to) the chemical.

ATSDR defines an exposure pathway as having five parts:
  1. Source of Contamination,
  2. Environmental Media and Transport Mechanism,
  3. Point of Exposure,
  4. Route of Exposure, and
  5. Receptor Population.
When all five parts of an exposure pathway are present, it is called a Completed Exposure Pathway. Each of these five terms is defined in this Glossary.
Frequency: How often a person is exposed to a chemical over time; for example, every day, once a week, twice a month.
Groundwater: Is water that exists in the pore spaces in soil and fractures in rock and sediment beneath the Earth's surface. It originates as rainfall or snow, and then moves through the soil into the groundwater system, where it eventually makes its way back to surface streams, lakes, or ocean.
Hazardous Waste: Substances that have been released or thrown away into the environment and, under certain conditions, could be harmful to people who come into contact with them.
Health Effect: ATSDR deals only with Adverse Health Effects (see definition in this Glossary).
Indeterminate Public Health Hazard: The category is used in Public Health Assessment documents for sites where important information is lacking (missing or has not yet been gathered) about site-related chemical exposures.
Ingestion: Swallowing something, as in eating or drinking. It is a way a chemical can enter your body (See Route of Exposure).
Inhalation: Breathing. It is a way a chemical can enter your body (See Route of Exposure).
LOAEL: Lowest-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level. The lowest dose of a chemical in a study, or group of studies, that has caused harmful health effects in people or animals.
Malignancy: See Cancer.
MRL: Minimal Risk Level. An estimate of daily human exposure-by a specified route and length of time-to a dose of chemical that is likely to be without a measurable risk of adverse, noncancerous effects. An MRL should not be used as a predictor of adverse health effects.
NPL: The National Priorities List. (Which is part of Superfund.) A list kept by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the most serious, uncontrolled or abandoned hazardous waste sites in the country. An NPL site needs to be cleaned up or is being looked at to see if people can be exposed to chemicals from the site.
NOAEL: No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level. The highest dose of a chemical in a study, or group of studies, that did not cause harmful health effects in people or animals.
No Apparent Public Health Hazard: The category is used in ATSDR's Public Health Assessment documents for sites where exposure to site-related chemicals may have occurred in the past or is still occurring but the exposures are not at levels expected to cause adverse health effects.
No Public Health Hazard: The category is used in ATSDR's Public Health Assessment documents for sites where there is evidence of an absence of exposure to site-related chemicals.
PHA: Public Health Assessment. A report or document that looks at chemicals at a hazardous waste site and tells if people could be harmed from coming into contact with those chemicals. The PHA also tells if possible further public health actions are needed.
Plume: A line or column of air or water containing chemicals moving from the source to areas further away. A plume can be a column or clouds of smoke from a chimney or contaminated underground water sources or contaminated surface water (such as lakes, ponds and streams).
Point of Exposure: The place where someone can come into contact with a contaminated environmental medium (air, water, food or soil). For examples: the area of a playground that has contaminated dirt, a contaminated spring used for drinking water, the location where fruits or vegetables are grown in contaminated soil, or the backyard area where someone might breathe contaminated air.
Population: A group of people living in a certain area; or the number of people in a certain area.
PRP: Potentially Responsible Party. A company, government or person that is responsible for causing the pollution at a hazardous waste site. PRPs are expected to help pay for the clean up of a site.
Public Health Assessment(s): See PHA.
Public Health Hazard: The category is used in PHAs for sites that have certain physical features or evidence of chronic, site-related chemical exposure that could result in adverse health effects.

PHA categories given to a site which tell whether people could be harmed by conditions present at the site. Each are defined in the Glossary. The categories are:
  • Urgent Public Health Hazard
  • Public Health Hazard
  • Indeterminate Public Health Hazard
  • No Apparent Public Health Hazard
  • No Public Health Hazard
Receptor Population: People who live or work in the path of one or more chemicals, and who could come into contact with them (See Exposure Pathway).
Reference Dose (RfD): An estimate, with safety factors (see safety factor) built in, of the daily, life-time exposure of human populations to a possible hazard that is not likely to cause harm to the person.
Route of Exposure: The way a chemical can get into a person's body. There are three exposure routes:
  • breathing (also called inhalation),
  • eating or drinking (also called ingestion), and
  • or getting something on the skin (also called dermal contact).
Safety Factor: Also called Uncertainty Factor. When scientists don't have enough information to decide if an exposure will cause harm to people, they use "safety factors" and formulas in place of the information that is not known. These factors and formulas can help determine the amount of a chemical that is not likely to cause harm to people.
Sample Size: The number of people that are needed for a health study.
Sample: A small number of people chosen from a larger population (See Population).
Source (of Contamination): The place where a chemical comes from, such as a landfill, pond, creek, incinerator, tank, or drum. Contaminant source is the first part of an Exposure Pathway.
Special Populations: People who may be more sensitive to chemical exposures because of certain factors such as age, a disease they already have, occupation, sex, or certain behaviors (like cigarette smoking). Children, pregnant women, and older people are often considered special populations.
Statistics: A branch of the math process of collecting, looking at, and summarizing data or information.
Superfund Site: See NPL.
Survey: A way to collect information or data from a group of people (population). Surveys can be done by phone, mail, or in person. ATSDR cannot do surveys of more than nine people without approval from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Synergistic effect: A health effect from an exposure to more than one chemical, where one of the chemicals worsens the effect of another chemical. The combined effect of the chemicals acting together are greater than the effects of the chemicals acting by themselves.
Toxic: Harmful. Any substance or chemical can be toxic at a certain dose (amount). The dose is what determines the potential harm of a chemical and whether it would cause someone to get sick.
Toxicology: The study of the harmful effects of chemicals on humans or animals.
Tumor: Abnormal growth of tissue or cells that have formed a lump or mass.
Uncertainty Factor: See Safety Factor.
Urgent Public Health Hazard: This category is used in ATSDR's Public Health Assessment documents for sites that have certain physical features or evidence of short-term (less than 1 year), site-related chemical exposure that could result in adverse health effects and require quick intervention to stop people from being exposed.
Water Table: The surface below which all openings in the soil and rock are filled with water (the top of the saturated zone) is the water table.


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